Production of foam materials and production line to this end
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of foam materials on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyether or polyamide or any other inorganic and organic fibres to be used in aircraft and ship building, machine building, etc. This method comprises the steps that follow. Production of foam bilk from initial mix of fibres and feed of said foam bulk to conveyor belt. Foam bulk is dried in drying chambers at stepwise increase in temperature in successive zones. Foam bulk is annealed in the kiln to foam material and cut reset-size boards. Note here that drying and annealing comprises simultaneous effects of IR radiation and convective heat. Note here that drying stepwise temperature increase occurs at 60°C-170°C. Annealing is performed at 190-280°C. Foam bulk is fed through drying chambers and annealing kiln at the rate of 6-12 m/h. Invention proposes also the conveyor line to this end.
EFFECT: accelerated drying, higher quality of foam material, continuous production.
8 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to the production of foams, for example, on the basis of asbestos, basalt, carbon, polyester or polyamide, and other kinds of inorganic and organic fibers used in the field of aviation and shipbuilding, mechanical engineering and electronic industry.
A method of producing heat and sound insulation proabability plates, including obtaining promessi from the source of raw materials and heat treatment of Promesse by step effortlessly place a call to the rise of temperature promessi in the convective heat input as follows:
- in the first zone at 65±2°C Promass incubated for 120 min to achieve a moisture content 750-800% (from initial moisture 1100-1500%),
- in the second zone at 75±2°C Promass incubated for 120 min to achieve a moisture content 650-750%,
in the third zone at 85±2°C Promass incubated for 90 min to achieve a moisture content 550-650%,
in the fourth zone at 95±2°C Promass incubated for 90 min to achieve a moisture content between 450 and 550%,
- in the fifth zone at 105±2°C Promass incubated for 90 min to achieve a moisture content 350-450%,
in the sixth zone at 120±3°C Promass incubated for 120 min to achieve a moisture content 200-350%,
the seventh zone at 130±3°C Promass stand in accordance with the s 120 min to achieve a residual moisture content of 3-5%.with. The USSR №1661174).
The disadvantage of this method is the long process of heat treatment of promessi average of 12.5 hours, because of the inefficient way of heat.
Closest to the claimed method and adopted for the prototype is a method of foam production, including the production of promessi from the feedstock, convective drying promessi effortlessly place a call by stepwise raising the temperature and roasting promessi to obtain a foam, characterized in that Promass before entering on convective drying of previously dehydrated in vacuum at a pressure of 100-150 mm of hcpa. Art. within 30-120 seconds to achieve a moisture content of promessi 600-700%, convective drying promessi exercise regime: in the first zone at a temperature of 75±2°C until the moisture content of promessi 500-600%, in the second zone at a temperature of 85±2°C until the moisture content of promessi 400-500%, in the third zone at a temperature of 95±2°C until the moisture content of promessi 300-400% in the fourth zone at a temperature of 105±3°C until the moisture content of promessi 200-300%, in the fifth zone at a temperature of 115±3°C until the moisture content of promessi 100-200% in the sixth zone at a temperature of 130±5°C until the moisture content of promessi 1-3%, and the firing of promessi conduct when exposed to infrared radiation at 230-250°C in ECENA 10-30 minutes
As a source of raw materials use of magnesium hydrosilicate fibrous structure, the fibers of basalt, polyester or polyamide, wetting agent, surfactant, and water (patent RF №2098392).
The disadvantage of this method is the length of the drying process (11 hours) and the heterogeneity of the structure of the obtained foam thickness on the bottom and top surfaces of the crust is formed, which strongly affects the electronic and mechanical parameters of the final product.
Known conveyor line for the production of foams containing a foam generator, a continuous grid resting on the rollers and carrying the substrate, the drying unit and the actuator, in which the generator is made of several consecutive chambers increasing in volume from the previous to the subsequent, and the drying unit is made in the form of magneto electric furnace whose walls are made of materials with different electrical and physical properties, and the windings of the inductors are made sectional sofas with different number of turns in the sections and between the sections of the windings in the walls of the chambers are made of the slotted holes with steam venting pipes.
To avoid spreading promessi outside the grid before it is installed formulating equipped with supporting rollers with ribs to give the substrate to ritabrata form (and.with. The USSR №1139720).
The disadvantage of this invention is the complex structure of the foam generator, not providing a regulated supply promessi on the conveyor, and unreliable work of formulates that do not provide guaranteed trough-like shape of the substrate in the process of the spill on her promessi. In the finished products in the form of sheets (mats) does not have the required geometrical dimensions, which degrades the quality of the material and increases the amount of waste.
It is also known a device for heat treatment of heat and sound insulation proabability plates containing a closed conveyor in the form of a grid, a device for supplying promessi on the conveyor, sectional drying chamber, the ventilation system supply, suction and delivery ducts, in which the walls of the drying chamber made in the form of distribution boxes with holes located in the inner wall in two rows on each side, the total area of which is the cross-sectional area of the drying chamber, while mesh conveyor is installed with a clearance from the inner wall, and suction ducts previous sections of the drying chamber connected to the inlet ducts of the subsequent sections and located in a sound-proof casing to the ceiling part of the drying chamber.with. The USSR №1661174).
what dostatkom this device is the ventilation system supply and construction of the drying chamber designed for continuous drying process is 12.5 hours. Low conveying capacity and high energy consumption significantly increase the cost of the foam.
Closest to the technical essence and the achieved result is a conveyor line for the production of foams based on inorganic and organic fibers containing a foam generator, a conveyor mounted on the frame with a continuous mesh belt supported on rollers, a substrate located on the surface of the continuous mesh belt feeder substrate in continuous mesh belt, the drying chamber of the kiln and the actuator, characterized in that it further provided with a device for creating a vacuum, which is located under the conveyor before drying chambers and connected with a reservoir for collecting the water removed from promessi, and with the foam generator
Conveyor line prototype includes 6 drying chambers in which the temperature is maintained at from 75°C to 130°C with an interval of 10°C. the Drying is carried out due to the convective heat and kiln temperature is maintained 230-250°C by exposure to infrared radiation (RF patent No. 2098728).
The disadvantage of this conveyor line is that it is not rednaznachena for continuous operation, has a low productivity - drying process takes around 11 hours.
The dehydrator of promessi comprising a vacuum device, a negative impact on the geometry of the manufactured material and respectively.
The technical challenge is to develop a method of foam production, allowing to reduce the duration of the drying process promessi, to improve the quality of the produced foam and conveyor line, designed for continuous operation with high performance.
To solve this problem is proposed a method of foam production, including the production of promessi from the source mixture based fibers, promessi on conveyor conveyor line, drying Promesse by passing it through a drying chamber effortlessly place a call with speed rise temperature, calcination promessi in the furnace to obtain the foam and cutting it on a plate of a given size, wherein the drying and firing of promessi carried out by simultaneous exposure to infrared and convective heat source, effortlessly place a call stepwise rise of temperature of drying is carried out with a 60°C to 170°C, and roasting promessi carried out at a temperature from 190°C to 280°C, and the passage of promessi through the drying chamber and kiln carry out with what korostil 6-12 m/hour.
Impact on Promass infrared heat source provide the top and convection from below.
The use of combination schemes of heating by simultaneous exposure to Promass infrared and convective heat allows for speed promessi 6-12 m/hour to provide optimal drying, i.e. maintaining the drying temperature from 60°C to 170°C with an accuracy of ±2°C and high intensity drying.
Low initial drying temperature 60°C excludes the formation of a crust on the surface of the foam, so it has high mechanical and electronic properties.
The speed promessi on the conveyor is 6-12 m/h, which can significantly reduce the drying time and consequently increase the volume of production in comparison with the prototype for the same period of time.
This method enables the manufacture of a foam-based fibers (asbestos, basalt, carbon fiber, polyester and polyamide, and others), with heat and sound insulation and stealth properties.
The original components for the manufacture of promessi are fibers, wetting agent, water-repelling liquid and water.
The proposed method of manufacture is as follows.
Given the formulation of the original components of the raw mix of loaded and in the foam generator: first fiber, then the water, wetting SW and repellent silicone. The mixing was carried out before the preparation of the volume promessi equal to the volume of the foam generator. Then Promass portions served on a conveyor conveyor line with a continuous mesh tape, where she speeds of 6-12 m/h is passed through the drying chambers 12 with a stepped effortlessly place a call by raising the temperature from 60°C to 170°C with a step of 10°C and through the kiln, where he maintained a temperature of from 190°C to 280°C depending on the composition of the initial mixture, the desired thickness and mechanical properties of the produced foam.
In kilns and furnaces due to the presence in the upper part of the tubular infrared heaters, and in the lower part of tubular heaters convection type promessa was subjected to intense heat from the integrated effect of the two sources of heat, resulting in the process of drying and firing when the length of the conveyor line 36 m and the feed speed of promessi, for example, 10 m/h was realized in the period of 3.6 hours instead of 11 hours, as the prototype.
Next was carried out by cutting made of foam plates of a given size.
To solve the technical problem is also offered conveyor line for the production of foams containing a device for the manufacture and supply Promesse, the conveyor, the plant on the frame with a continuous mesh tape a substrate located on the surface of the continuous mesh belt feeder substrate in continuous mesh belt, drying and kiln, a reservoir for collecting removed from promessi moisture, coupled with a device for the manufacture of promessi, and the actuator, characterized in that the device for the manufacture and supply conveyor promessi includes at least two of the foam generator with a screw mixers and placed them under a pressurized tank dispenser with sliding shutter with electric, continuous mesh belt relies on cross holders of the conveyor, the upper part of each of the drying chamber and furnaces are installed tubular infrared heaters, and at the bottom posted by tubular heaters convection type.
Tubular heaters convection type, placed under continuous mesh belt conveyor, equipped with personal protective screens, the ingress removed from promessi moisture in heaters.
A reservoir for collecting removed from promessi moisture is located beneath the conveyor from area of spill promessi to zone kiln.
Drying and kiln contain devices to maintain and control the temperature at a given level.
Device for podderjana and temperature control include control devices and thermocouples, individual for tubular electric heaters, convective type and tubular infrared heaters.
The presence of the proposed conveyor line at least two of the foam and pressurized tank dispenser for periodic and dosed feed promessi on the conveyor ensures continuous operation of the pipeline.
The placement of multiple tubular infrared heaters and tubular heaters convection type respectively in the upper and lower parts of each of the drying chamber and kiln can significantly increase the drying speed and thus reduce the time of manufacture of the foam almost in 2 times.
Depending on the thickness and composition of the produced material is calculated speed of the conveyor line and the required number of kilns and heaters.
Personal protective screens on tubular heaters convection type needed to exclude periodic stops of the conveyor due to obstruction of the heaters located under the conveyor.
The tank, located under the conveyor, allows you to collect and through the heat recovery device to reuse almost all of the removed liquid part of promessi.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, to the verge presents:
In Fig.1 - General view of the conveyor line for foam production.
In Fig.2 is a top view.
In Fig.3 - drying chamber (a) cross section; b) longitudinal section.
Conveyor line for foam production contains two foam generator 1, which is placed under a pressurized tank dispenser with 2 slide gate 3, the conveyor 4, mounted on the frame 5 with a continuous mesh belt 6, based on cross holders 7 of the conveyor 4, the substrate 8, fence 9, the leading drum 10, a driven drum 11, an actuator 12, the feeder substrate (of glass) 13, the drying chamber 14, kiln 15, a reservoir for collecting the removed moisture 16 and device for the recovery of the removed moisture 17 which is connected to the generator 1. Device for cutting custom foam contains a receiving table 18, the longitudinal and transverse to the blade 19 with electric buffet removing finished plates 20, the ventilation system 21, the control device and maintain the temperature of 22.
Conveyor line includes twelve drying chambers 14, each of which is coated with a layer of insulation 23 and comprises nine infrared tube heaters 24 above promessas, and nine tubular heaters 25 convective type located under the mesh conveyor belt and Conn is the R top individual screens 26.
Conveyor line works as follows.
The dispersion of the foam containing, for example, asbestos fiber, carburized fiber, water repellent and water is supplied to the foam generator 1, which is the formation of the source promessi. Through the gate at the bottom of the foam generator 1 promessa results in a pressure tank-hopper 2, from which through the sliding gate 3 with the drive Promass portions served on a substrate 8, which by means of the feeder 13 pre-stack on a continuous mesh belt conveyor 6 4. Continuous operation of the conveyor line is provided by loading promessi of two foam generators 1.
The required thickness of promessi height adjustable restrictive strap 9, the side walls of promessi are formed in the substrate 8, which is supported by uprights cross holders 7 of the conveyor 4.
Promessa moves on the conveyor with the speed of 6-12 m/h through twelve drying chambers 14, where promessi moisture is completely removed. Then promessa enters the kiln 15, which ends the process of the formation of foam. After firing the foam served in a device for cutting into slabs of a given size.
Thus, the proposed invention allows to provide a continuous process for the production of foams in the core is ve inorganic and organic fibers, to reduce the drying time of 1.8-3 times, to improve the quality of the foam and the volume of production per unit time.
1. The method of foam production, including the production of promessi from the source mixture based fibers, promessi on conveyor conveyor line, drying Promesse by passing it through a drying chamber effortlessly place a call with speed rise temperature, calcination promessi in the furnace to obtain the foam and cutting it on a plate of a given size, wherein the drying and firing of promessi carried out by simultaneous exposure to infrared and convective heat source, effortlessly place a call stepwise rise of temperature of drying is carried out with a 60°C to 170°C and calcination promessi carried out at a temperature from 190°C to 280°C, the passage of promessi through the drying chamber and kiln carried out with a speed of 6 to 12 m/h.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the impact on Promass infrared heat source provide the top and convection from below.
3. Conveyor line for the production of foams containing a device for the manufacture and supply Promesse, a conveyor mounted on the frame with a continuous mesh tape, a substrate located on the surface of the continuous mesh belt feeder substrate on continuous netcatalena, drying and kiln, a reservoir for collecting removed from promessi moisture, coupled with a device for the manufacture of promessi, and the actuator, characterized in that the device for the manufacture and supply conveyor promessi includes at least two of the foam generator with a screw mixers and placed them under a pressurized tank dispenser with sliding shutter with electric, continuous mesh belt relies on cross holders of the conveyor, the upper part of each of the drying chamber and furnaces are installed tubular infrared heaters, and at the bottom posted by tubular heaters convection type.
4. Conveyor line under item 3, characterized in that the tubular heaters convection type, placed under continuous mesh belt conveyor, equipped with personal protective screens.
5. Conveyor line under item 3, characterized in that the collecting tank removed from promessi moisture is located beneath the conveyor from area of spill promessi to zone kiln.
6. Conveyor line under item 3, characterized in that the drying chamber and the kiln contain devices to maintain and control the temperature at a given level.
7. Conveyor line under item 3, characterized in that the conveyor speed is 6-12 m/h
8. To kvaerna line p. 6, wherein the device for maintaining and controlling the temperature at a given level include control devices and thermocouples for individual tubular electric heaters, convective type and tubular infrared heaters.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparation of construction mixtures, primarily fine-grained concrete mixtures and mortars which harden in natural conditions or under steam curing. Disclosed is a two-step method of preparing a construction mixture using mineral filler, a plasticising additive, sand and binder. The first step comprises mixing the binder - portland cement M500 D20, mineral filler - silicon carbonate gaize, 55-65% sand and 60-70% hardening water to obtain a homogeneous mixture, and the second step comprises adding to the obtained mixture the remaining sand, plasticising additive - superplasticiser SP-1 and the remaining water, and finally mixing to obtain a homogeneous mixture of given workability.
EFFECT: reducing consumption of expensive materials without reducing strength of the obtained material.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises electrochemical treatment of mains water in three-chamber electrolysis unit with ion-selective membranes by alternating asymmetric current. Meanwhile the electrolysis unit anode is made from shungite. During the electrochemical treatment of water in the anode and in the anode chamber the ultrasonic oscillations are exited, the frequency of which exceeds the cavitation threshold frequency within a range from 20 kHz up to 100 kHz, and the intensity of the named ultrasonics is in the field of stable cavitation from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2,5 W/cm2. Water treatment is stopped at achieving of density of particles of hydrated fullerene 10-3-10-4%.
EFFECT: improvement of frost resistance of concrete mix, increase of cement hydratation level and strength of cement stone in early periods of curing.
SUBSTANCE: method of activation of concrete mixing water by its modifying with carbon fulleroid nano-particles with its consecutive ultrasonic processing comprises the placement of shungite into a vessel with water, the mass of shungite amount no less than 1% of water mass, and ultrasonic oscillations are excited in water with the frequency in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz, from 1.5 W/cm2 up to 2.5 W / cm2, and 10-3-10-5% and water and shungite are subjected to named ultrasonic oscillations within 5-10 minutes until achieving of density of fullerene, emanated from shungite into activated water, then the activated water is passed through the filter and is used as a concrete mixing liquid, and the shungite bottoms are left in the vessel, which is filled with the next portion of water and the procedure of concrete mixing liquid activation is repeated.
EFFECT: improvement of physic-mechanical characteristics of concrete, decrease of water consumption or cement consumption without affecting the concrete strength.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of activating hardening water of cement-based composites. The method of activating hardening water of cement-based composites includes treating tap water in a plasmatron with low-temperature nonequilibrium plasma in a period of time ranging from 1·10-2 s to 5·10-2 s.
EFFECT: high efficiency and degree of activation of water in order to speed up hydration and strength gain in the early stage of concrete hardening.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of inorganic heat-resistant rustproof composites in production of plastics, antirust and lubing materials for construction, electrical engineering, etc. Proposed method comprises mixing of inorganic natural material, liquid glass, dolomite powder and additive, mix forming and thermal treatment. Used is liquid sodium glass, its density making 1.28-1.42 kg/m3, as inorganic natural material, that is, montmorillonite modified by organic substance. Said additive represents a hydrated cellulose fibre shaped to 5.0-20.0 mm long staple impregnated with 30%-aqueous solution of iron, zinc, copper and aluminium sulphates taken in the ratio of 1.0:0.5:0.5:1.0 in flushing bath for 70-80 minutes. Then, said fibre is squeezed to moisture content of 60-65% and dried at 120-140°C to remove 95-98% of residual moisture. Components are mixed by mechanical activation for 8-10 minutes, mix being formed and annealed at temperature increase from 140°C to 1300°C for 30-40 minutes. Note here that montmorillonite is modified by the product of interaction between caprolactam or its oligomers with butyl stearate. Mix contains components in the following ratio in wt %: modified montmorillonite - 20-60, liquid glass - 20-30, dolomite - 10-35, cellulose fibre - 10-15. This invention is developed in dependent clauses.
EFFECT: higher fire resistance, lower heat conductivity factor, antirust properties.
3 cl, 3 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of producing a composite material consists in the fact that a cavity of a casing construction is filled with very rigid concrete, produced by mechanic activation of a cement composition. The cement composition includes 30% of cement of grade PC-500DO-N, 7.5% of microsilica, 1.8% of an expanding additive EA-H, 20% of river washed sand with the fineness modulus Mf 5, 40% of basalt gravel with a size up to 30 mm, 0.7% of an ethylene glycol-based superplasticiser. Mechanic activation is carried out in blade mixers of a forced type with a frequency of blade rotation not less than 60 rpm for not less than 20 min. Highly-strong concrete is poured into the cavity of the casing construction, and is simultaneously consolidated by vibration processing. Then, to exclude steam discharge from it, the cavity of pouring is closed. Autoclave solidification of concrete, consisting in the fact that the entire construction is evenly heated to a temperature of nearly 200°C to solidify it, is realised. The construction is exposed to the said temperature for 12 hours. After that, it is gradually cooled to room temperature and kept at the said temperature until complete hydration of cement takes place. And, finally, mechanical processing of basic surfaces is realised.
EFFECT: simplification of technology of the material production.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a powdered composition of a construction material, preferably dry mortar for industrial production, and especially to tile adhesives, joint filler, putty, waterproofing slurry, repair mortar, levelling mortar, reinforcing adhesives, adhesives for heat-insulation composite systems, mineral plaster, fine putty and seamless floor systems, which contains an ester of A) 2-ethylhexanoic acid and B) an alcohol with a boiling point of at least 160°C. Further, the invention discloses the production of said products, as well as use of esters according to the invention in powdered compositions of construction materials for reducing dust formation. The invention is developed in subclaims.
EFFECT: reducing dust formation, reducing the degree of release of organic compounds during storage and use of construction materials.
14 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of preparing the concrete mixture, consisting in mixing of cement, aggregates, water, and aqueous suspension of complex modifier of the following composition, wt %: silica fume 40-70; chemical additives 2-10; water - the rest, which is dried prior to mixing in the air stream to obtain powder consisting of granules, according to the invention, the aqueous suspension of complex modifier before mixing is subject to drying under the influence of continuous electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 400-1000 MHz from microwave oscillators and heated air stream of microwave oscillator cooling to obtain powder with grains of size up to 500 microns and moisture of 9-12%; then the dried powdered complex modifier and cement are subjected to dispersion and disaggregation via exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 1000-3000 MHz lasting 1-1.5 seconds, till the obtention of ultrafine powder of complex modifier with size of 60-100 nm, moisture of 1-8% and cement of size 0.1-5 microns, after that they are mixed, ground together and activated, form the disaggregated and activated mixture of cement and complex modifier, which is mixed with filler and water, concrete mixture is obtained; this mixture is subjected to the influence of powerful pulsed electromagnetic field of ultra-high frequency of 400-1000 MHz with duration of 1100÷nanoseconds.
EFFECT: increase of strength of concrete mixture.
SUBSTANCE: method of tempering moulding mixtures includes mixing dry components and preparing tempering water by passing said water between electrodes while applying an alternating or constant potential difference with rate or strength of current which provides charge saturation density of water that has passed between the electrodes of not less than 825 kC/m3, saturating the tempering water during electrolysis with Fe3+ ions of the electrode until saturation of the water with iron ions reaches 30-35%. Ascorbic solution is first added to said water in amount of 0.1 g/l.
EFFECT: increasing mobility of moulding mixtures without increasing the total amount of tempering water, thereby considerably improving operational characteristics of the finished articles and saving binding materials.
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare an ash-concrete mix, including mixing of ash, portland cement, sand, crushed stone and water, where ash of hydraulic removal is enriched, then the produced ash jointly with portland cement, gypsum and plasticising additive LTSM-2 is ground in a ball mill to the specific surface of 4500-5000 cm2/g, the produced mix is introduced, 2/3 part of the estimated hardening water quantity, sand and quick lime into a dispersing hydrator and exposed to activation for 1-2 min at speed of blades rotation 100-200 rpm, in the concrete mixer they mix crushed limestone and the remaining part of the hardening water for 1-2 min, then the activated mixture from the dispersing hydrator is charged into a concrete mixer, and by final mixing they produce a concrete mix of homogeneous consistence.
EFFECT: cheapening of a mix, faster process of setting and hardening of an ash concrete mix, increased strength and stability of ash concrete properties, expanded area of recycling of anthropogenic origin wastes.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: filler for concrete is made in the form of grain of round shape, having a cavity 3, formed by means of adhesion of two parts 1 and 2, made from clayey raw materials by moulding with subsequent baking, with a porous body 4 placed in the cavity 3, produced in process of baking of adhered parts 1 and 2 by foaming of foam glass charge including the following components, wt %: ground silicate glass 93-97 and gasifier - chalk or marble or coke 3-7, besides, at least one of parts is perforated 5.
EFFECT: production of a light strong filler having heat insulation properties, simplified technology of its manufacturing.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method to produce construction products from foam concrete includes separate preparation of foam and mortar mixture, their mixing or single-stage preparation of foam mass with subsequent laying into moulds, soaking, removal of formwork, steaming and removal of the product mould. At the same time after laying the foam concrete mass onto full volume into a stiff perforated mould it is closed with a cover, creating a closed volume, and connect to the AC network via plate electrodes arranged on two opposite sides of the mould. The mass is exposed to electric heating with current of industrial frequency 50 Hz with voltage of 50-80 V for 15-20 min. After electric treatment the product is maintained for 40-60 min to remove temperature stress and gain structural strength. Then formwork is removed. After this the product heated to 60°C on the tray arrives for further thermal treatment.
EFFECT: reduced technological process of production with parallel increase of strength and thermal properties of an item.
2 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of articles from foam concrete for construction. Proposed method comprises preparing raw stock mix by mixing Portland cement, mineral filler, water and foam prepared separately, pouring foam concrete mix in molds, curing to strength suitable for cutting, and cutting into articles. Article surface is processed by silicic acid sol with concentration of (0.9-1.1)·10-4%.
EFFECT: higher quality, decreased shrinkage in drying.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of articles from foam concrete for construction. Proposed method comprises preparing raw stock mix by mixing Portland cement, mineral filler, water and foam prepared separately, pouring foam concrete mix in moulds, curing to strength suitable for cutting, and cutting into articles. Article surface is processed by aluminium hydroxide sol with concentration of (0.39-0.41)·10-4.
EFFECT: higher quality and frost resistance.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of articles from foam concrete for construction. Proposed method comprises preparing raw stock mix by mixing Portland cement, mineral filler, water and foam prepared separately, pouring foam concrete mix in moulds, curing to strength suitable for cutting, and cutting into articles. Article surface is processed by iron hydroxide sol with concentration of (0.19-0.21)·10-4%.
EFFECT: higher hardness and quality.
1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to method of fabricating composite construction articles. Proposed method comprises mixing concrete mix components with water and gas-forming additive, laying produced mix in mould to make structural layer of article, placing polystyrene pellets thereon to make heat-insulation layer, closing said mould by cover, placing moulded article in preheated curing room, curing at increased temperature, decreasing temperature and cooling of article. Moulded article is place in curing room preheated to 80-85°C to increase temperature therein to 95-100°C. Curing is carried out at increased temperature in two steps. At first step, curing is performed at 95-100°C for 0.5-0.7 h and, thereafter, temperature is decreased. At second step, curing is performed at 70-75°C for 4-5 h.
EFFECT: higher adhesion between structural and heat-insulation layers.
4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition for making unautoclaved gas concrete contains, wt %: Portland cement 30.7-40.9, ash of thermal power plants 21.5-32.3, calcium oxide 1.62-2.16, aluminium powder 0.098-0.110, used textile cord 0.64-0.97, alkaline and alkali-earth metal chlorides chosen from NaCl, CaCl2, KCl, LiCl 0.15-0.41, naphthalensulfonic acid and formaldehyde condensation product 0.23-0.41, water - the rest. The method for making unautoclaved gas concrete involves preparation of said yielding raw mix with combined pre-grinding of dry components of said mix, except for Portland cement, during 30-40 min, expansion of the raw mix, concretion in steaming or in normal conditions. After combined grinding of dry components, Portland cement is added to the raw mix.
EFFECT: improved handling behaviour of gas concrete and simultaneous simplification of making thereof.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction items production. Method of cellular materials, items and structures production includes mixing initial components of materials and metal beads, additional mechanical mixing of moulding compound and injecting compressed air into the above compound. Later, the compound is supplied to a screw extruder, where adobe beam is extruded from die channel. Finally beads are extruded. At the same time beam is cut to separate elements, vacuumed and thermally treated. Beads are extruded by pulse magnetic fields when adobe beam is moved at frequency of 100 Hz or more while beads are retained on electric magnets under permanent magnet field. In carrying out this method, related device is used comprising mixer with hopper to receive initial components and metal beads, which is connected to high-speed mixing machine. The said machine includes tank provided with nozzle to release compressed air. The above tank is also connected with perforated mixing machine bottom to inlet air. The high-speed mixing machine is linked with screw extruder reservoir containing die to extrude adobe beam with metal beads on the belt of ribbed transporter. Parallel endless belts with electromagnet links, electric pulse generator and cutoff knife are installed perpendicular to the transporter at a given altitude.
EFFECT: increased cellular content in items and reduced weight of items.
5 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: filler for concrete in the form of round-shaped grain comprises tight cavity. Cavity is created by means of adhesion of two parts made of clayey raw materials by plastic moulding with further annealing. Porous body is installed in cavity. Perlite is used for creation of porous body. Perlite takes from 1/15 to 1/3 of cavity volume.
EFFECT: simplified production of filler.
FIELD: construction materials, particularly for production or reinforced or unreinforced aerated concrete articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mixing solid components, gas generation agent and water; pouring the ready mix in mold. Water to be poured in mold has temperature of 0-20°C. Then mold is filled with gas generation agent and with solid components added during mixing operation performing. Before mix pouring the mold is heated up to 30-50°C. Solid components are supplied in the following order: filler, cement and then lime. Mix is stirred for not more than 15 min after cement addition in mix.
EFFECT: increased strength and aerated concrete quality.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of construction, namely, to structures for electric heating of a concrete mix in construction conditions. The electric heating hopper of cyclic action is made as installed with the angle of inclination 70…75° to the bottom by steel plate electrodes having horizontal strip cuts with height of 8…10 mm, arranged along the height of the electrode via 5…6 cm.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to provide for increased evenness of heating of a concrete mix, to reduce duration of heating of a concrete mix, to reduce power consumption.