Production procedure of petroleum coke with low content of sulphur oxides in combustion gases
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the production procedure of petroleum coke with a low content of sulphur oxides in combustion gases, which is based on usage of substances binding sulphur. High-sulphur petroleum coke is saturated with an aqueous dispersion of shale-based substance binding sulphur, stirred up thoroughly to a paste-like state, water is evaporated at a temperature of 120-150°C up to the permanent weight and then cooled down.
EFFECT: reducing the sulphur oxide content in combustion gases.
6 cl, 1 dwg, 4 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to methods of producing coal products, particularly petroleum coke, with a lower content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion through the introduction of additives, connecting sulfur.
The known method (application WO 01/25373 A1, 12.04.2001, C10L 9/10) the coal production with lower sulphur content, which consists in grinding coal into powder form with a particle size of 20÷80 mesh, mixing it with slaked lime, the addition of water so that the humidity was 10-30%. on the total weight of the granules, premises powder, hydrated lime and water in a container and heated to a temperature of 149÷205°C in an open container to reduce the moisture content of less than 10% vol.
There is a method of binding in coal production (in particular, in brown coal) sulfur in solid residues of combustion, based on the use of substances that bind sulfur, mainly CaO or MgO, with crushed and sometimes pre-dried brown coal and the substance that binds the sulfur is mixed to a state in which a substance in a mixture is dispersed in the form of (DE 3319086, C10L 10/04, 06.12.84).
The disadvantage is the inability to achieve an optimal combustion conditions. It should also be noted that suitable inert from the point of view of binding sulfur flammable substances by themselves are not amenable to either very bad p is Dauda briquetting. Even chopping the whole mixture is achieved by means of the mixer, which may be technically difficult.
There is a method of linking parts of sulfur from coal production (coal or mixtures of coal and lignite), in which coal or a mixture of brown and black coal is mixed with a substance that binds sulfur, to a state in which this substance is in the final mixture is present in finely dispersed form (DE 3326826, C10L 10/04, 14.02.85).
The disadvantage is that when a large number of additives, binding the sulfur emissions sulfur oxide is quite high.
This technical solution adopted for the prototype. However, the prototype has the same disadvantages as the analogues, namely, the emission of sulfur dioxide, though a small percentage occurs. The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of the proposed additions, connecting sulfur oxides in the combustion gases.
The objective of the invention is to develop a method of producing petroleum coke with achievement of the following technical result is a decrease in the content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion.
The problem is solved in that in a method of producing petroleum coke with a lower content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion, based on the use of substances that bind sulfur, according to the invention Vysokoe the NISTO petroleum coke impregnated with the aqueous dispersion of the substance, connecting sulfur, carefully mix to a paste-like state, water is evaporated at a temperature of 120-150°C to constant weight and cooled, the substance that binds sulfur, use slate, shale semi-coke or oil shale ash.
The method is performed by the following sequence of actions: high-sulphur petroleum coke and oil shale, shale semicoke or shale ash is pulverized in a ball mill until a particle size of less than 1.3 mm; prepare a water dispersion of shale, shale semicoke or oil shale ash content of the substances to 20% wt. To stabilize the dispersion Pets introduction of stabilizers. Next, perform a mixture of petroleum coke and freshly prepared aqueous dispersion of shale, shale semicoke or oil shale ash for at least 1 h of High-sulphur petroleum coke charge / mass ratio of from 0.5:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 aqueous dispersion of shale, shale semicoke or oil shale ash. The obtained carbon paste is evaporated to dryness at a temperature of 120-150°C to constant weight and cooled.
For more uniform distribution of the additive slate, shale semicoke or oil shale ash in petroleum coke is recommended that the introduction of additives in several successive stages, to the final content of the additive in the sample coke was from 5 to 15% wt.; each placenta is the one stage of introduction of the additive in the sample is accompanied by stirring, evaporation of water and cooling.
The selection of the slate and its products - shale semi-coke and oil shale ash as a basis for impregnating material due to the presence in their composition of active substances (oxides of alkaline earth metals), which are in the process of burning coke to form a stable chemical compound with grey, passing into the slag. Due to the transfer of organic sulfur in sustainable mineral compound, the amount of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion is reduced.
Impregnation sour coke aqueous dispersion of shale, shale semi-coke and ash can reduce the sulfur content in the combustion gases, and the described method allows to obtain eco-friendly energy fuel.
Examples of implementation of the method
Example 1. 4 porcelain crucible with a glass rod for each) weigh the sample of petroleum coke NovoKuibyshev refinery, previously crushed in a ball mill and sieved through a sieve with a particle size of less than 1.3 mm, the sulfur content of 5.8 wt.%, the release of volatile substances 8% wt.; later in the crucibles impose a 10% aqueous dispersion of the Baltic shale deposits whose characteristics are presented in table 1; mix thoroughly with a glass rod until a paste-like state for at least 10 minutes; water is evaporated when the tempo is the atur 120-150°C to constant weight; then the crucible is cooled and transferred to a desiccator; after stabilization of the mass of the crucible is weighed.
The introduction of additives, following the sequence of operations described above is carried out before until the gain introduced supplements to the original sample will be not less than: for Cup No. 1 - 2% wt.; for crucible No. 2 - 4% wt.; for crucible No. 3 - 6% wt.; for crucible No. 4 - 8% wt. The results for the reduction of sulfur in the flue gases of combustion are presented in table 3.
Example 2. The described method of obtaining coal products with a reduced content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion are conducted in accordance with all the conditions of example 1, except that as substances that bind sulfur, the use of oil shale semi-coke prepared by the carbonization of oil shale at a temperature of 520°C. the Results for the reduction of sulfur in the flue gases of combustion are presented in table 3.
Example 3. The described method of obtaining coal products with a reduced content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion are conducted in accordance with all the conditions of example 1, except that as substances that bind sulfur, use the shale ash obtained by burning oil shale at a temperature of 850°C until complete digestion, the characteristics of fly ash are presented in table 2. The results for the reduction of sulfur in the flue gases of combustion are presented in table 3.>
The figure shows the change of the output of sulfur from combustion products in terms of the mass of coke with different concentrations of additives in the coke.
Data show that impregnation sour coke considered additives can reduce the sulfur content in the combustion gases, and is most effective with the use of supplements based on oil shale. When his involvement in raw materials in the amount of 8.6% wt. the sulfur content in the combustion gases is reduced from 5.8% wt. to 0.8 wt.%. in terms of the mass of coke In the case of the introduction in Cox supplements based on shale semicoke is the residual product of processing oil shale in the amount of 9 wt.%. the sulphur emissions are reduced to 2.2 wt.%. in terms of the mass of coke. Add oil shale ash in the amount of 9.5% wt. reduces the sulfur content in the combustion gases is to 2.9 wt.%. in terms of the mass of coke. The sulfur content in the combustion gases of the original coke NovoKuibyshev refinery without additives was 5.8% wt.
The emission reduction efficiency of sulfur oxides from gases of combustion of coke with various additives shown in table 4.
As can be seen from table 4 presents the data, the maximum reduction in emissions of sulfur oxides from the combustion gases is achieved by the inclusion of the additive on the basis of slate: at 5% wt. efficiency is 32.8% Rel., with 9 wt.%. - 86,0% Rel. In the impregnation sour coke water di is the Persia shale semi-coke and ash oil shale in an amount of 5 wt.%. efficiency is 22.4% Rel. 17.2% Rel. accordingly, when 9% wt. accordingly, a 58.6% Rel. and 46.6% of Rel.
The efficiency of oil shale semi-coke and ash slate can be explained by the reduction of the effect of transport of the active compounds of the alkaline earth metal to the burning surface, which carry out allocated hydrocarbons slate, as well as content in the composition of the char and ash mineral sulfur - sulfate and, as a consequence, a lower content of the active substance.
In the process of burning coke can happen phenomena contributing to the strengthening of active actions of the components in the composition of the slate, which lead to better communication of the investigated coke with the active substance and reduction of sulfur compounds in the gases of combustion.
Conducted a study on the combustion (oxidation) of the original high-sulfur coke and coke saturated aqueous dispersion of oil shale and shale semicoke, showed higher reactivity to oxygen and a higher burning rate. This fact will allow us to judge that under the same conditions in the furnace part of the energy furnaces burning impregnated coke samples with the addition of slate and shale semicoke is more complete than the original coke, which will increase the overall efficiency of the furnace.
|Characterization of oil shale in the Baltic deposits|
|The moisture content W, % wt.||Ash A, % wt.||Sulfur S,% wt.||The coking Fisher yield on the dry shale, % wt.||Fractional composition of oil, wt.%|
|Paragenetically water||Resin||The char||gas||NC - 200°C||200-360°C||>360°C|
|The chemical composition of the ash oil shale|
|Reducing the sulphur content of the gases of combustion of high-sulfur coke with various additives|
|View Supplement||The mass of coke, g||Weight of the additive, g||The content of the additive, wt.%||The release of sulfur from the gases of combustion, % wt. coke|
|Slate (example 1)||7,16||0,21||2,95||4,94|
|Shale semi-coke (example 2)||6,99||0,16||2,36||5,52|
|Oil shale ash (example 3)||7,15||0,19||2,68||the ceiling of 5.60|
|The emission reduction efficiency of sulfur oxides from the combustion gases, % Rel.|
|View Supplement||at 5% wt. supplements||with 9 wt.%. supplements|
|Slate (example 1)||32,8||86,0|
|Shale semi-coke (example 2)||22,4||58,6|
|Oil shale ash (example 3)||17,2||46,6|
1. The method of obtaining petroleum coke with a lower content of sulfur oxides in flue gases of combustion, based on the use of substances that bind sulfur, characterized in that the high-sulphur petroleum coke impregnated with water is Oh dispersion of the substance, linking the sulfur-based slate, carefully mix to a paste-like state, water is evaporated at a temperature of 120-150°C to constant weight and cooled.
2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as substances that bind sulfur, use the slate.
3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as substances that bind sulfur, use of oil shale semi-coke.
4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as substances that bind sulfur, use of oil shale ash.
5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that use high-sulfur petroleum coke with a particle size of less than 1.3 mm
6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the high-sulphur petroleum coke charge / mass ratio of from 0.5:1.0 to 1.0:1.0 aqueous dispersion of the substance that binds the sulfur-based slate.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a salt of iron and an organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms and sulphonic acids to reduce carbon content in fly ash obtained when burning coal. Described is coal treated with said salt of iron and an organic acid. The invention also describes methods of treating and burning coal by adding a salt of iron and an organic acid before or during combustion of coal in a furnace.
EFFECT: reduced content of carbon in fly ash obtained when burning coal in a furnace.
18 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning, in particular, wood, natural gas, coal, mazut and other hydrocarbons in power boilers, in closed or open chambers, characterised by the fact that said modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt % of water, from 20 to 80 wt % of at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt % of carbamide or its derivatives, selected from alkyl urea of type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2, where R1, R2 are similar or different and represent C1-C6 alkyl groups, and from 5 to 15 wt % of monoacetylferrocene. Object of invention also includes method of modifying process of burning said types of fuel and application of fuel burning modifier. Modifier can also be applied as catalyst in power boilers, for afterburning of soot, furnace gases and other admixtures, present in combustion chamber.
EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to increase output of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning.
10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing a carbon suspension in aqueous copper acetate solution in weight ratio C : H2O : Cu(CHCOO)2-H2O = 1 : 10…15 : 0.25…0.30, heating to 90...100°C, adding aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to the carbon suspension with weight ratio of copper acetate to sodium hydroxide Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O : NaOH = 1 : 1.05…1.2 for 20…30 minutes, adding aqueous solution of a surfactant - octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene oxide to carbon of 0.005…0.02 : 1. The mixture is then held while stirring for 10…15 minutes and then cooled to 25…30°C, followed by filtration, washing with water and drying at temperature of 90…100°C to constant weight.
EFFECT: invention enables to modify the surface of carbon with copper oxide with maximum output.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: average size of particles of fuel improving agent is within range of 1-100 mcm. Invention is related to method of pozzolana production by heating of the target fossil fuels in furnace of fuel improving agent.
EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency and decreasing carbon content in ash and in consequence in result of combustion useful material is obtained instead of waste.
16 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for reduction of hazardous emissions from burners with flame combustion that includes supply of absorbent to burner and collection of used absorbent; the method is distinguished by absorbent delivery into flue gases formed in the post-flame area in quantity of 5-7% of fuel consumption.
EFFECT: reduction of hazardous emissions into atmosphere, in particular sulphur oxides, and improvement of operating economy and reliability of a boiler unit.
1 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.
EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.
4 cl, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for obtaining briquetted solid fuel, which can reduce the cost of briquetting at maintaining the strength of briquetted product. Mixed oil that contains heavy oil and oil-solvent, and porous coal having moisture content of 30 to 70 wt %, is mixed so that a suspension is obtained. Suspension is dehydrated by heating so that dehydrated suspension is obtained. Oil-solvent is extracted from dehydrated suspension so that the residue is obtained. The residue is heated, and oil-solvent is extracted in addition from the residue so that modified coal is obtained. Moisture is introduced to modified coal so that wet modified coal with moisture content of 3-10 wt % is obtained. At the stage of moisture introduction, crushed porous coal with moisture content of 30 to 70 wt % is mixed with modified coal. Then, wet modified coal is briquetted under pressure.
EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.
SUBSTANCE: method of intensifying fuel oxidation in combustion systems involves increasing the rate of oxidation, raising oxidation temperature and/or increasing the rate of increase of oxidation temperature. The method involves adding a catalytic additive to an oxidant and/or fuel before or during the fuel oxidation process, where the catalytic additive is a solid substance, its solution or suspension, or a liquid substance or its emulsion, in form of a separate catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances. The catalytic substance or at least one of the substances in the catalytic mixture contains at least one functional carbonyl group and has in the infrared spectrum at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1. Said catalytic substance or at least one substance in the catalytic mixture is selected from: monocarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; carboxylic acid salts; dicarboxylic acid salts; carboxylic acid amides; dicarboxylic acid amides; carboxylic acid anilides; dicarboxylic acid anilides; carboxylic acid esters; dicarboxylic acid monoesters or diesters; carboxylic acid imides; dicarboxylic acid imides; carbonic acid diamide; acyclic and cyclic carbonic acid esters; urethanes; aminocarboxylic acids whose molecules contain amino groups (NH2 groups) and carboxyl groups (COOH group); peptides and proteins whose molecules are built from a-amino acid residues linked by peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH. The catalytic additive is added in amount of 0.0000001-01 wt %. The fuel used is solid, gaseous or liquid fuel selected from AI-92 petrol, diesel or masout.
EFFECT: faster fuel oxidation, high oxidation temperature, higher rate of increase of oxidation temperature, higher enthalpy of combustion products, more complete fuel combustion, fewer solid deposits on engine parts, reduced harmful emissions with exhaust gases, reduced fuel combustion.
5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: mixed fuel includes lignin and hydrogen in the weight ratio of lignin to hydrogen of 9:1 to 1:9, mainly of 2:1 to 1:3.
EFFECT: more complete combustion of lignin; reduction of ash content of fuel.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of removing sediments from Diesel engine, including burning in engine fuel composition, which contains additive for engine purification, representing quaternary ammonium salt, where additive for engine purification is product of Mannich reaction, which takes place between: (a) aldehyde; (b) ammonia, hydrazine or amine; and (c) phenol, which can be substituted; and average molecular weight of single or each substituent of phenol component (c) constitutes less than 400, and where additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt is obtained in reaction of nitrogen-containing substance, which includes at least one tertiary aminogroup, and quatrerning agent. Invention also relates to fuel composition, which contains combination of additive for engine purification and additive, which represents quaternary ammonium salt. Described is application of combination of quaternary ammonium salt and additive for engine purification for removing sediments from Diesel engine.
EFFECT: in application of claimed fuel composition in Diesel engine removal of sediments, in particular from sprayers, occurs, which leads to increase of sprayer service term duration without repair or substitution.
16 cl, 10 dwg, 7 ex, 6 tbl
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method of reduction of cohesive properties of slag and/or its adhesion ability to surface of a furnace chamber and thus reducing degree of contamination. The above method involves combustion of slag-forming coal in combustion zone; coal with increased iron content exceeding approximately 15% is used considering weight of ash and expressed as Fe2O3 and/or calcium content exceeding 5% considering weight of ash and expressed as CaO, at total excess oxygen; removal of gaseous combustion products through heat-exchange equipment under conditions providing cooling of the slag formed at fuel combustion; and introduction to combustion zone of the furnace chamber till contact with the above heat-exchange equipment, to gaseous combustion products of aqueous aluminium trihydroxide in the amount, with drop size and in the concentration forming nanoparticles with the size of less than 200 nm in hot gaseous combustion products, which are optimum to reduce contamination degree and to improve friable properties of the obtained slag. The invention also refers to a method for removal of slag deposits from a furnace chamber and a furnace chamber cleaning and maintenance method.
EFFECT: effective slag control; higher operating efficiency of a furnace chamber.
8 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for control of by-products or pollutants produced from fuel combustion, which include combustion of fuel containing a dispersion, which includes a mixture of at least two or at least three metal-containing compounds, in which every metal has medium extent of oxidation +2 or higher, at least one surfactant and at least one organic medium, in which metal-containing compounds are evenly dispersed. The ratio of components in dispersions is as follows, in wt %: mixture of metal-containing compounds - 40-65, at least one surfactant - 5-25, at least one organic medium - balance. The invention also relates to a fuel composition including fuel and the specified dispersion, containing a mixture of at least two metal-containing compounds, and to the fuel dispersion containing at least three metal-containing compounds, at least one surfactant and at least one organic medium in the specified ratios.
EFFECT: usage of dispersions makes it possible to reduce amount of many pollutants released during fuel combustion.
19 cl, 1 tbl, 21 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a stabilising synergistic mixture containing 10-99 wt % of at least one compound with at least one structural element of formula (I):
, wherein available bonds of the oxygen atom and the nitrogen atom can be closed to form a five-, six- or seven-member ring, and the benzene ring in one or more free positions can contain substitutes, and 1-90 wt % of at least one sulphur-containing organic compound, having antioxidant activity, wherein the sum of components (A) and (B) is equal to 100 wt %. The present invention also relates to use of the stabilising synergistic mixture as a stabiliser for stabilising oil products, fuel and turbine fuel and as a stabiliser for improving stability of lubricant compositions.
EFFECT: obtaining an agent which improves protection from the harmful effect of light, oxygen and heat.
3 cl, 4 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a multifunctional additive, including acetamide and quaternary ammonium salt, differing by the fact that it additionally contains butanol or ethanol at the following ratio of the specified components relative to the weight of hydrocarbon fuel (wt %): quaternary ammonium salt 0.01-0.12; acetamide 0.32-3.6; butanol or ethanol 5.0-19.0.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of a used hydrocarbon fuel, improved fuel properties.
1 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: fuel additive based on aqueous ammonia solution additionally contains acetamide or acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol, with the following ratio of components in wt %: acetamide or acetic acid 0.05-25, isoamyl alcohol 0.1-10, aqueous ammonia solution - the balance.
EFFECT: low fuel consumption, improved anticorrosion properties of the fuel.
4 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a composition for a hydrocarbon mixture having low sulphur content. Described is a lubricating, anticorrosion and antistatic composition for hydrocarbon fuel and/or lubricant, containing: a) at least one compound A of formula (I) where R1 and R2 cannot simultaneously denote hydrogen, R3 and R4 cannot simultaneously denote an OH group; b) at least one compound B corresponding to a fatty acid with 16-24 carbon atoms, which is saturated or unsaturated, optionally in a mixture with a carboxylic acid containing at least one aromatic and/or olefin ring or a polycyclic ring and/or derivatives thereof in form of esters, amides or a salt with the corresponding amine, used separately or in a mixture. Hydrocarbon fuel and lubricant are also described.
EFFECT: improving lubricant and antistatic and anticorrosion properties of hydrocarbon fuel, reduced corrosion action on metal parts and high electroconductivity.
28 cl, 8 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sulphur-containing fuel additives and can be used in thermal power for desulphuration of liquid and solid fuel, mainly solid ash-bearing fuel during combustion. The composition of sulphur-containing fuel additives for desulphuration of said fuel during combustion contains the following, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 19-29; alkali metal carbonate 26-37; alkali metal chloride 29-50; alkali metal hydrocarbonate 1-2; cryolite 3-4; alkali metal chromate 0.0001-0.0003.
EFFECT: additive is mainly meant for solid ash-bearing fuel, lowers temperature for deformation, melting and molten state of sludge, which prevents formation of refractory slag and solves the problem of outlet of slag and cleaning heat-generating equipment from deposits, thus increasing efficiency and service life of the equipment, as well as improving degree of neutralisation of sulphur compounds.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to prevention of chlorine deposit on boiler heat exchange surfaces, especially on a superheater, in which the boiler is burnt using chlorine-containing fuel such as biomass or fuel from wastes, and in which a sulphate-containing compound is fed into the steam boiler, preferably in the zone of the superheater, where the said compound forms a special reagent for binding alkaline compounds and the said compound is iron (III) sulphate, Fe2(SO4)3 and/or aluminium (III) sulphate, Al2(SO4)3 and the said compound is sprayed near and on the front side of the superheater or some other thermal surface which must be protected in form of an aqueous solution with droplet size of 1-100 mcm, preferably 10-20 mcm.
EFFECT: more efficient and suitable method for preventing chlorine deposit, especially in a superheater.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composition of fatty acids, which has lubricating ability and is characterised by containing: (1) more than 10% C18;3 of fatty acids, (2) more than 30% C18;2 of fatty acids, (3) less than 35% C18;1 of fatty acids, (4) less than 3% of saturated fatty acids, and (5) more than 90% of unsaturated fatty acids; fatty acids give the composition higher low-temperature stability, temperature of cloudiness of fatty acid composition is lower than -4°C. Invention also relates to application of composition of fatty acids for obtaining complex ether of monoalcohol or polyalcohol, and as fuel additive; to improved method of obtaining composition of fatty acids, which includes stage of distilling of untreated tall oil, which contains fatty acids of such type and in such concentration that they can ensure low-temperature stability of the target composition of fatty acids with obtaining composition of fatty acids, containing effective amount of tall oil fatty acids, ensuring low-temperature stability. Also is fuel additive revealed. It contains composition of fatty acids, and fuel, containing fatty-acid additive. Composition of fatty acids contains fatty acids of such type and in such concentrations that are able to ensure low-temperature stability.
EFFECT: obtaining composition of fatty acids, which has lubricating ability and ensures low-temperature stability.
31 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining cetane-increasing additives to Diesel fuel, including nitration of secondary alcohols, where as the alcohols used is a fraction of secondary C6-C9 alcohols, obtained by a method of a liquid phase oxidation of a fraction of n- C6-C9 alkanes with a water solution of hydrogen peroxide in a methanol medium on a heterogenous catalyst DP-2, and further hydration of the reaction mass on a rigid cellular catalyst P1/ A2O3, nitration is carried out with a 5-10-fold molar excess of nitric acid with the concentration of 50-80% in the presence of 1-5 wt % of nitric acid of a heterogenous superacidic catalyst based on sulphated zirconium oxide - ZrO2/SO4 2- /γ-Al2O3 in the interval of temperatures from 0° to 10°C. To prevent oxidation of the fraction of C6-C9 alcohols with nitric acid the process is carried out in the presence of carbamide in an amount of 0.5-5%. With an addition of 0.5 wt % of an additive obtained in accordance with the claimed method a gain of cetane number in a quantity of 7-11 units is observed.
EFFECT: reduction of expenditures on raw material, reduction of an amount of sewage waters, reduction of the quantity of the process stages.
2 cl, 4 ex