Plant and method for isomerisation of hydrocarbon flow

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isomerisation of hydrocarbon flow rich in C4 and/or at least one of C5 and C6. Proposed plant comprises: first and second dehydrator adapted for intake of fluid including at least one reagent. Note here that said first dehydrator can operate in one reagent-fluid drying first mode. Second dehydrator can operate in second mode for recovery with the help of regenerating agent. Reaction zone is communicated with first dehydrator to receive fluid containing at least one reagent and with second dehydrator to receive regenerating agent. Note also that regenerating agent flows through fluid restrictor for adjustment of regenerating fluid flow rate to reaction zone. First pipeline feeds fluid bearing fluid rich on C4 and/or one of C5 and C6 from first dehydrator into reaction zone. Second pipeline communicates second dehydrator with reaction zone. Note here that said fluid restrictor comprises orifice or control valve connected with at least first or second pipeline. Besides, this invention relates to dehydrator recovery.

EFFECT: invention decreases undesirable effect of the gas dehydrator recovery that helps to keep the devices work properly.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The present invention relates to an apparatus and method of isomerization of the flow of hydrocarbons.

The level of technology

Isomerization of light paraffins in many cases provide for increasing the octane number of gasoline. Typically, such methods isomerization is performed with a separate light fractions of hydrocarbons. For example, the isomerization of butane or pentane and/or hexane (hereinafter may be called for short the isomerization of pentane-hexane) is conducted with the aim of improving the quality of gasoline in a separate device for isomerization. Typically, the isomerization of butane and pentane-hexane is carried out in a process of liquid/steam or steam phase in a fixed bed of catalyst. In the reactor can do the feedstock of light paraffins, mixed with gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen.

When isomerization of butane or pentane-hexane water is a harmful substance, which can reduce the service life of the catalyst in the reactor. Therefore, it is desirable to remove the water before rich hydrogen gas and/or paraffin feedstock will be available in the reactor. Therefore, usually as a source of raw materials, and the specified gas to remove water is passed through a separate drying apparatus (dehumidifiers).

In many cases, use two dry the La by placing them in series or parallel and alternating operations regeneration regardless of whether the processed fluid medium gas, rich in hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon containing butane or pentane and butane. Accordingly, one dehumidifier can operate in the mode of drying, while the other desiccant may be in terms of regeneration. At the final stage of regeneration of the desiccant may be a gaseous regenerating agent, if the desiccant is a desiccant gas or liquid regenerating agent, if the desiccant is a desiccant hydrocarbons. Depending on the hydrocarbon fraction, which is subjected to isomerization, regenerating agent may include, mainly, the isomerized product, such as isobutane, or at least one product from isopentane and isohexane (which hereinafter may be called the isopentane-isohexane); or regenerating agent may include a mixture of one or more compounds with branched-chain, compounds are of normal structure and cyclic compounds. In another example, as a rule, regenerating agent blow away (wash away) from the dryer before the regenerated desiccant actuate, or as you enter the desiccant in action. Regenerating agent is normally sent to the reactor.

Regenerating agent, gaseous or liquid, may cause irregularities in the RA is displaced downstream devices. In particular, gaseous regenerating agent can cause a drop in temperature of the reaction as this regenerating agent replaces the hydrogen used in the reactor, and violates the molar ratio of hydrogen: hydrocarbon in the reactor. In addition, the liquid regenerating agent can cause a drop in temperature in the reactor during the replacement of at least one reagent, namely raw materials containing paraffin hydrocarbons. In addition, normally gaseous regenerating agent has a greater molecular weight than the gas rich in hydrogen. As a result, the replacement of gas rich in hydrogen, can disrupt the regulation of gas flow, namely the flow rate of feed (hydrogen) gas, and upset the regulation of the pressure in a distillation column, which is usually used below in the direction of flow from the reactor. Thus there is a need to mitigate the above undesirable effects the regeneration of the desiccant gas in order to prevent disruption placed downstream technological devices.

The invention

One example embodiment may be setup for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6. Installation can contain the first of Uchitel and second desiccant, adapted to receive a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and a reaction zone, a chamber connected with the first desiccant for receiving a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and a built also with the second desiccant for receiving a regenerating agent. Usually the first dehumidifier operates in the first mode for drying (dehydration) of a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and the second dehumidifier operates in the second mode in the conditions of regeneration using a regenerating agent. Regenerating agent can pass through the constriction device for the fluid that is designed to regulate the flow of regenerating agent supplied to the reaction zone.

Another example embodiment of the invention may be a method for regenerating at least one desiccant installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6. The method may include: regeneration, at least one desiccant with a fluid medium containing regenerating agent; and dilution used regenerating agent below along the flow path from the at least one dehumidifier for a period of time using dehydrated fluid, steriade the reagent, to minimize disturbances during technological operations below along the flow path.

Another example embodiment of the invention may be a method for regenerating at least one zone of the drying installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons. The method may include the dilution used regenerating agent, rich in C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, upstream from the at least one drying zone for some period of time using the drained fluid containing a reagent, in order to minimize violations when conducting one or more transactions below along the flow path.

Thus, disclosed herein embodiments can minimize violations in the operations below in the direction of flow from the drying fluid through dilution used regenerating agent is implemented downstream from the drying zone. Used regenerating agent can be passed through a narrowing device for the fluid in order to provide dilution used regenerating agent dehydrated fluid medium.

Definition

Used in the present description, the term "stream" can mean a stream containing molecules of various hydrocarbons such to the to alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes and alkynes with normal unbranched chain, branched chain or cyclic, and at the discretion of other substances, such as gases, for example hydrogen, or impurities, such as heavy metals, and compounds of sulfur or nitrogen. The specified stream may also contain aromatic or nonaromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, the hydrocarbon molecules can be abbreviated designated as C1, C2, C3..., JV, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule. In addition, the term "hydrocarbon SP-SP+1", for example hydrocarbons, C5-C6" may mean at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6.

Used herein, the term "area" can refer to a certain area containing one or more units and/or one or more subbands. Equipment may constitute one or more reactors or reactor, heaters, separators, heat exchangers, piping, pumps, compressors and controllers. In addition, equipment such as the reactor, a desiccant or tank may also contain one or more zones or subzones. It should be understood that each zone can contain a greater amount of equipment and/or containers than shown in the figures.

Used in this description, the term "narrowing device for a fluid with the food" usually means the device which, at least, directly or indirectly regulates the flow or reduces the pressure of the fluid. Usually narrowing device for the fluid reduces the flow of fluid, for example, in one pipeline, unlike the case of absence of the orifice and may be due to the decrease of the cross section to regulate the flow of fluid, and not to interrupt the flow of fluid. An example of such orifice for the fluid can serve as a restrictive orifice or controller, such as controller with indication of the differential pressure regulator with pressure indicator, regulator with display of flow rate, flow indicator or pressure gauge, usually acting in concert with one or more other devices, such as control valve or restrictive orifice. Examples of the implementation of contractions for the fluid may include a combination of two or more elements, such as restrictive orifice, flow indicator, regulator with display differential pressure, and control valve; or acting jointly regulator with flow indication and control valve. Narrowing device for a fluid medium may be installed on one or more pipelines to change the flow rate of fluid or pressure reduction./p>

Used herein, the term "device for moving fluid" generally means a device for transporting a fluid medium. Such devices are pumps that are used, usually for liquids, and compressors, usually for gas.

Used herein, the term "rich" can generally mean the content in the stream, at least 50% and preferably 70% (molar content) connection or connection type.

Used herein, the term "mainly" can generally mean at least 90%, preferably 95%, and optimally 99% (molar content) connection or connection type in the stream.

Used herein, the term "absorption" can refer to the ability to retain the material in the layer containing the absorbent and/or adsorbent, due to chemical or physical interactions between matter such as water, and a layer, and includes, but is not limited to, absorption and/or adsorption. Removal of substances from the adsorbent can be referred to here as "desorption".

Used herein, the term "used regenerating agent" can refer to a regenerating agent, which has already been used for drying or deformirovaniya or which has been passed through one or more devices or pieces of equipment, such as a dehumidifier. Used regeneron is the tender agent may contain or may not contain desormiere substance, such as water, but it is possible that the used regenerating agent is still in process equipment once placed inside the unit work item, for example a molecular sieve, was regenerated.

Used herein, the term "coupled" may mean that two elements are directly or indirectly articulated, bonded, connected, joined or formed together as a single unit by means of chemical or physical means using technological processes, such as stamping, casting or welding. In addition, two elements can be connected with the third element, such as a fastening element, such as a screw, pin, clip or rivet; or by using an adhesive or solder.

Brief description of drawings

Fig.1 is a schematic diagram of an example installation for the isomerization of fluid.

Fig.2 is a schematic diagram of an example of the first device for dewatering fluid.

Fig.3 is a schematic diagram of an example of the second device for dewatering fluid.

Detailed description

In Fig.1 shows the installation of 100 for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons. Generally in the installation 100 may receive fluid medium containing at least one reagent 110, passing through the pipeline 210 or pipeline 410. Normally fluid medium 10 can be a liquid stream of hydrocarbons in the pipeline 210 or rich in hydrogen gas in the pipeline 410. Liquid flow of hydrocarbons can be stream rich in C4 hydrocarbons, such as butane, if the installation 100 is suitable for the isomerization of C4 hydrocarbons. Alternatively, the liquid flow of hydrocarbons can be rich in hydrocarbons, C5-C6, such as pentane-hexane, if the installation 100 is a unit for isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. Typical installation of both types are disclosed, for example, in source: Nelson A. Cusher, UOP Butamer Process and UOP Penex Process of the Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes, Third Edition, Robert A. Meyers, Editor, 2004, pp.9.7-9.27. However, in some examples of embodiment of the installation 100 can also be used for the simultaneous isomerization of flow of one or more of butane, one or more of pentane and one or more hexanol. It should be noted that isomerization reactions include those in which the quality of raw materials used mainly normal paraffins and isomerization product - branched paraffins, and also such that as the source of raw materials, mainly used branched paraffins, and as a product of isomerization of normal paraffins. In other words, the liquid flow of the hydrocarbon may be a stream rich in isobutane or branched hydrocarbons C5-C6. Other isomerization reactions carried out with the participation of C4 hydrocarbons and the and C5-C6, are also within the scope of the present invention.

To simplify the following disclosure of the invention, the term "liquid hydrocarbon" and "regenerating agent" may refer to a generalized and need to understand that they are applicable, for example, to install for the isomerization of C4 hydrocarbon or installation for the isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. As an example, the flow of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon, may be subjected to isomerization reactor for isomerization of C4 hydrocarbons and a product containing isomerized hydrocarbons C4, can be used as a regenerating agent in the isomerization of C4. In this way the flow of hydrocarbons, rich in hydrocarbons, C5-C6, can be Samaritan in the reactor for isomerization of hydrocarbons, C5-C6, and a product containing samaritane hydrocarbons, C5-C6, can be used as a regenerating agent in the isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. However, within the scope of the present invention remains the flow of regenerating agent, abstracted from one or more different locations of the implementation of the isomerization process, for example from the area of fractional separation of dehumidifiers or possibly even at the location external to the isomerization process. As a regenerating agent which can be used, for example, nitrogen from a source external to the isomerization process.

Installation 100 may contain one or more zones 150 drying, for example an area of 250 drying (dehydration) of the liquid and an area of 450 gas drying and one or more locations of the technological operations 160, downstream, such as the reaction zone 170 and area 180 fractionation. Area 250 dehydration of liquid can be formed in the first device 200 for draining the fluid, and the area 450 for drying gas may be formed in the second device 400 for draining the fluid. Device 200 and 400 discussed below in more detail. Area 250 dehydration fluid can be liquid flow of hydrocarbons from the pipeline 210 and area 450 dehydration can take a gas rich in hydrogen from the pipeline 410. Although it is not shown, but you must understand that for the transportation of liquid flow of hydrocarbons and gas, rich in hydrogen may be used in equipment for handling a fluid medium, such as pumps and compressors, respectively. Alternatively, other fluid medium may have sufficient pressure and therefore the use of such equipment is not required. After passing zones 250 and 450 drying the liquid flow of hydrocarbons and gas, rich in hydrogen can be combined lower course flows, the flow from areas 250 and 450 drying, for example, in the reaction zone 170.

One or more technological devices 160, placed downstream, can be separated with the formation of the reaction zone 170, which may contain the first reactor 172 and the second reactor 174 placed in series with the first reactor 172, and zone 180 fractionation, which can be placed one or more distillation columns 192. Although the figure shows only the first reactor 172 and the second reactor 174, it should be understood that the reaction zone 170 may also contain other equipment or containers, as, for example, one or more heaters, compressor recycle gas separation capacity and additional reactors. Alternatively, the reactor 172 and 174 may be included in one operation. The stream resulting from the reaction zone 170 may flow through the pipe 176 to the zone 180 fractionation.

Area 180 fractionation may contain one or more distillation columns 192. Although in Fig.1 shows one distillation column 192, installation can be used two or more distillation columns arranged in series and/or parallel. Distillation column 192 can produce one or more products 182 division, as, for example, first the th product consisting of one or more gaseous products sent, for example, combustible gas by pipeline 184, and a second or isomerized product transported by pipeline 186. Part of the second product can be designated by a pipe 188 and used as a regenerating agent. Used regenerating agent can be returned back to the isomerized product flowing in the pipe 190, as will be describe below. The combined stream may be directed into the storage tank isomerizing product in a distillation column or other technological device.

In Fig.2 presents the first device 200 for draining the fluid. Specified, the first device 200 for draining the fluid medium may contain at least one desiccant 254, one or more valves 260, convergent device 290 for the fluid and the heater 310.

Preferably, at least one drier 254 includes a first desiccant 256 fluid and the second desiccant 258 fluid. These dehumidifiers 256 and 258 can be located in an area of 250 dehydration fluid, as shown in Fig.1. In addition, each drier 256 and 258 may contain molecular sieve, in which the adsorption and/or absorption of water and other undesirable compounds, such as dio is led carbon and hydrogen, and includes appropriate internal zone or subzone of dehydration. In General, each drier 256 and 258 operates in the first mode to dry the flow of hydrocarbons passing through the drier, and in the second mode to regenerate the desiccant. Typically, these dehumidifiers 256 and 258 may be placed in series and their regeneration alternately produce when operating in the drying mode in another dehumidifier.

One or more valves 260 may include a valve 262, the valve 264, the valve 266, the valve 268, the valve 270, the valve 272, the valve 274, the valve 276, the valve 278, valve 280, the valve 282 and valve 284. Various combinations of valve 260 can be opened and closed in order to direct the process flow for implementing the first and second modes of operation of the dryers and the serial connection of both dryers.

In this example embodiment of the convergent device 290 for the fluid may include an indicator 292 flow restrictive orifice 294, the controller 296 with indication of the differential pressure regulating valve 298. In particular, the controller 296 with indication of differential pressure can be connected to the regulating valve 298, the controller 296 and control valve 298 is installed on a line 224. In addition, the second pipe 230 can be at the established indicator 292 consumption and restrictive hole 294. Narrowing device 290 for the fluid can regulate the flow of a regenerating agent for diluting regenerating agent dehydrated liquid hydrocarbon downstream from the drying zone.

In addition, the heater 310 may include a steam heater 314 and superheater 318 to heat regenerating agent in order to ensure the functioning of the desiccant in the second mode to the regeneration mode. In particular, a steam heater 314 can be used for evaporation of the regenerating agent before the superheater 318 increases the temperature of the regenerating agent to a temperature sufficient to deformirovaniya water from the molecular sieve dehydrators 256 and 258.

In one example of the operation of the regeneration fluid stream of hydrocarbons may be sent by pipeline 210, at least one drier 254. Typically, the liquid flow of hydrocarbons is fed into one of the dryers 256 and 258, for example in the drying 258, removal from water passing through the valves 278 and 280. Then dehydrated liquid flow of hydrocarbons through the valves 272, 268, 298 and line 224 can be carried out in a reaction zone 170, as shown in Fig.1. Typically, the liquid flow of hydrocarbons dehydrate in a dehydrator 258 with closed valves 266,270, 274 and 276, while the valves 268, 272, 278,280 and 298 are open.

All this is another drier 256 gas may be in the regeneration mode. Typically, the regeneration is a multi-stage process that uses liquid regenerating agent coming from the pipe 188, shown in Fig.1, which can be routed to the heater 310. In the process of regeneration regenerating agent may be gradually heated, first through a steam heater 314, and then use as a steam heater 314, and superheater 318, the heating is carried out until until regenerating agent will not be heated to a temperature sufficient to deformirovaniya water from the molecular sieve. Usually regenerating agent flows through the steam heater 314, superheater 318 and then by pipeline 288 and through the valve 282 is fed up of the drier 256. Regenerating agent may sequentially pass through the drier 256, pipeline valve 284 and 284 before it is cooled using, for example, cooling water heat exchanger and then regenerating agent is returned to the pipeline 190 to samaritana product, as shown in Fig.1. Typically, the valves 262, 266, 274 and 276 are closed.

Then regenerating agent is slowly cooled by pre-shutdown superheater 318 and then steam heater 314, but at the same time, there is a continuous passage of the regenerating agent through the drier 256. Therefore clicks the zoom, drier 256 and associated equipment can be gradually cooled to provide a slow temperature decrease. At the end of the regeneration process in the drier 256 is typically liquid regenerating agent.

When using liquid stream of hydrocarbons used regenerating agent can be directed from the drier 256 up to the pipeline 230 through the open valves 262 and 264 and prior to entering the pipeline 224 specified liquid regenerating agent can pass through the indicator 292 consumption and restrictive hole 294. Meanwhile, the controller 296 with indication of differential pressure connected to the valve 298 flow control may indirectly regulate the pressure at the inlet to the dehumidifier 258. With open valves 274, 276, 262 and 264, the controller 296 with indication of differential pressure can create backpressure in cases where the liquid hydrocarbon in the pipeline 210 may also flow through the drier 256 and to displace used regenerant agent through the valves 262 and 264 and through the indicator 292 consumption and restrictive hole 294. Generally restrictive orifice 294 reduces the pressure and flow rate used regenerating agent so that it can flow into the pipe 224 and dilute with dehydrated liquid hydrocarbon, also flowing through specified the pipe 224. The restrictive orifice 294 can be calibrated to regulate the flow rate of the stream used regenerating agent. This flow rate can be calculated based on the desired period of time to ensure proper dilution of the regenerating agent without excessive tightening of technological operations. Usually the calculated flow rate is a parameter adjustable by the system of regulation in order to ensure the required operating conditions. This combined stream is then delivered into the reaction zone 170, without disrupting the operation of the reaction apparatus or other operations taking place in this area. In addition, the diluted stream minimizes disturbance below along the flow path area 180 fractionation. After ousting regenerating agent from the drier 256 valve 264 may be closed as well as the valves 268, 272, 278 and 280, and the flow can pass through the regenerated desiccant 256 through valve 262, 266 and 298 and conduits 222 and 224 in the reaction zone 170. When this dehumidifier 258 can be regenerated in the same manner as the drier 256.

Although it deals with the processes of drying and regeneration in the relevant dehumidifiers 258 and 256, should be taken into account that can be used for additional pipeline if the AI and/or valves for to ensure that the dehumidifier 256 and 258 in both modes - modes dehydration and regeneration and their functioning in the serial connection. As an example, dehumidifiers 258 and 256 after regeneration can be returned back in the sequential mode of operation, for example, so that the drier 256 functioned with a time lag relative to the desiccant 258,

In Fig.3 presents a second device 400 for draining the fluid. The specified second device 400 for draining the fluid medium can be used for drying a gas stream, for example a gas stream rich in hydrogen. Usually the second device 400 for draining the fluid contains at least one desiccant 454, one or more valves 460, convergent device 490 for the fluid and the heater 510.

Usually, at least one drier 454 includes a first desiccant 456 gas and the second desiccant 458 gas. These dehumidifiers 456 and 458 can be part of the zone 450 gas drying, shown in Fig.1. In addition, each drier 456 and 458 may contain molecular sieve, which is the absorption of water, and includes an appropriate internal zone or sub-zone drying. Typically, each drier 456 and 458 operates in the first mode for drying gas, rich in hydrogen, passing che is ez dryer, and in the second mode to regenerate the desiccant. These dehumidifiers 456 and 458 can be placed sequentially and regenerated alternately when operating in the drying mode other desiccant.

One or more valves 460 may include a valve 462, valve 464, valve 466, valve 468, valve 470, valve 472, valve 474, valve 476 valve 478, valve 480, valve 482 and the valve 484. Various combinations of valves 460 can be opened and closed in order to direct the process flow for implementing the first and second modes of operation of the dryers.

In this example embodiment of the narrowing device 490 for the fluid may contain at least one indicator 492 consumption. In particular, the indicator 492 consumption can be connected with valve 494 flow control, the indicator 492 flow and valve 494 flow control can be installed in the first pipe 420. In addition, the indicator 496 consumption and restrictive orifice 498 can be installed on a second pipeline 430. The heater 510 may contain steam heater 514 and superheater 518.

In one example of operation of the regeneration gas, for example gas, rich in hydrogen, as a rule, is injected through the pipe 410. In this example, the desiccant 458 operates in the first mode, draining the fluid,while the drier 456 is in the second mode - in terms of regeneration. Accordingly, gas may enter the pipeline 410 and pass through the valve 478 and 480 in the first desiccant 458, with the valves 474 and 476 may be closed. Typically, the valve 466 and 470 are also closed in the process gas drying in the dehydrator 458. After that, the dried gas through the valves 472 and 468 and through the first pipe 420 may pass into the reaction zone 170, shown in Fig.1.

All this time the second drier 456 gas may be in the regeneration mode. Typically, the regeneration is a multi-stage process that uses liquid regenerating agent that comes from a pipe 188, shown in Fig.1, and may be directed to the heater 510. In the process of regeneration regenerating agent may be gradually heated, first through a steam heater 514 and then use as a steam heater 514 and superheater 518 up until this regenerating agent will not be heated to a temperature sufficient to deformirovaniya water from the molecular sieve. Usually regenerating agent flows through the steam heater 514, superheater 518 and then by pipeline 488 passing through the valve 482 comes up drier 456 gas. Then regenerating agent may sequentially pass through the drier 456, valve 484 and pipeline 508 before it is cooled with SIP is utilized, for example, the cooling water heat exchanger. Then regenerating agent can be returned to the pipeline 190, shown in Fig.1. In this case, as a rule, valves 462, 474 and 476 are closed.

Then regenerating agent may be slowly cooled by pre-shutdown superheater 518, but at the same time, there is a continuous passage of the regenerating agent through the drier 456. Thus, the drier 456 and associated process equipment can be cooled to provide a slow temperature decrease. At the end of the regeneration process in the drier 456 usually is regenerating agent in the form of a gas.

When using a gas rich in hydrogen, is used regenerating agent can be directed from the drier 456 to 486 pipeline through the open valves 462 and 464 through line 430. In particular, the controller 492 with consumption display can regulate the flow of dry gas flowing from the drier 456 in the reaction zone 170. This can lead to the creation of back pressure and by opening valves 474, 476, 462 and 464 some gas rich in hydrogen may pass through the drier 456 to displace used regenerant agent through line 430 in the direction of the indicator 496 consumption and restrictive apertures 498. Ogranichitelem the e hole 498 can reduce the pressure and flow of a regenerating agent in the pipeline 430 so, he is at low pressure, sufficient to mix with the dried gas leaving the dryer 458. The specified mixing can provide dilution used regenerating agent in order to reduce adverse impacts on technological operations downstream, in particular in the reaction zone 170 and the area of 180 fractionation. The restrictive orifice 498 can be calibrated to regulate the flow rate used regenerating agent. This flow rate can be calculated from the desired period of time to ensure proper dilution of the used regenerating agent without undue delay time of the process operations. After a predetermined period of time used regenerating agent can pass from the second desiccant 458 in the reaction zone 170. At this time can be carried out switching operations by closing valves 464, 468, 472, 478 and 480 and opening the valve 466 to the drier 456 produced and dehydration. At this stage, the desiccant 458 is in the regeneration mode.

Although it deals with the processes of drying and regeneration for the relevant dehumidifiers 458 and 456, should take into account that additional piping and/or valves may b shall be used to ensure the functioning of each of the dehumidifiers 456 and 458 in the drying mode, and in the regeneration mode and for both dryers with serial connection. As an example, dehumidifiers 456 and 458 after regeneration can be returned back in the sequential mode of operation, for example, so that the drier 456 operated with a time lag relative to the desiccant 458.

Without further careful study is that the specialist in the art can, using the preceding description, utilize the present invention in its entirety. Disclosed above preferred specific embodiment thus should be interpreted only as illustrative and in no way limiting the rest of the description.

In the above description, all of the temperature is given in degrees Celsius and all proportions and percentages are expressed in Mols unless otherwise noted.

From the above description, the specialist in the art can easily set the essential features of the invention without going beyond the scope and essence of the invention to make various changes and modifications of the invention in order to adapt it to different contexts and use cases.

1. Installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, containing:
the PE the first desiccant and the second desiccant, adapted to receive a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, with the first desiccant is configured to operate in the first mode for drying a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and the second desiccant configured to operate in the second mode in the conditions of regeneration through regenerating agent; and
reaction zone chamber connected with the first desiccant for receiving a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and the second desiccant for receiving a regenerating agent, thus regenerating agent passes through a narrowing device for the fluid to control the flow of regenerating agent supplied to the reaction zone;
the first pipe for supplying the fluid containing liquid, rich in C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, from the first desiccant into the reaction zone; and
a second pipeline for messages of the second desiccant from the reaction zone, thus narrowing device for a fluid medium contains a restrictive orifice or control valve connected to at least one of the first and second pipelines.

2. Installation under item 1, in which the mentioned controller with indication of the differential pressure regulating valve ustanovleniya the first pipeline.

3. Installation under item 2, in which the specified bounding the hole is installed on the second line.

4. Installation under item 1, additionally containing
the fractionation zone containing, in turn, at least one or more distillation columns, receiving stream resulting from the reaction zone, and producing one or more separated products; and
directing at least a portion of one of the separated products, at least one of the first and second dehumidifiers as the regenerating agent.

5. The regeneration method, at least one drier installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, including:
the regeneration of at least one desiccant, with at least one drier is used regenerating agent; and
the dilution used regenerating agent below along the flow path, at least one drier for a period of time with the help of drained fluid, which is a gas rich in hydrogen, to minimize irregularities in the operations below in the direction of flow.

6. The method according to p. 5, in which the specified dehydrated fluid contains Jew who ity, rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or liquid, rich, at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of isomerisation of light gasoline fractions, which consists of the preparation of straight-run and secondary gasoline fractions for isomerisation, with the further separation of raw isopentane in the first rectification column - deisopentaniser, after that, its supply to isomerisation in an isomerisation reactor with further release of gases and reflux in the second rectification column - debutaniser, from the bottom of which a stable isomerisate is supplied successively for the separation into the third rectification column for the separate extraction of isopentane and pentane and to the fourth rectification column for the separate extraction of isohexanes and hexane, side runs of the third and fourth rectification columns, containing respectively, pentane and hexane are recirculated for isomerisation into the isomerisation reactor. As a raw material used are straight-run and secondary gasoline fractions 40÷75…85°C, preparation and supply to isomerisation of the straight-run gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C is carried out separately from the gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C of the secondary processes of oil refining, with the gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C of the secondary processes being supplied into the second or third rectification column.

EFFECT: application of the claimed method makes it possible to increase resources of the isomerisation process raw material due to the involvement into the process of the gasoline fraction of the secondary processes, output of target isohexanes, octane number of the isomerisate and isopentane fraction mixture and resources of high-octane semiproducts for compounding commercial gasoline.

5 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device contains the first drier and the second drier, adapted for the reception of a gaseous flowing medium, containing, at least, one reagent. The first drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the first mode of drying the flowing medium, which contains, at last, one reagent, and the second drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the second mode, under conditions of carrying out regeneration by means of a regenerating agent. it also contains a reaction zone, connected by means of the first pipeline to the first drier for the reception of the gaseous flowing medium, which contains, at least, one reagent; and a system of replacement of a regenerating agent in the direction from top to bottom, adapted for the supply and regulation of consumption or reduction of pressure of a part of the said gaseous flowing medium into the second drier, removal of the replaced regenerating agent from the second drier and technological operations, which are performed downstream, to minimise disturbances in the implementation of the said operations.

EFFECT: application of the claimed invention makes it possible to minimise disturbances in carrying out operations downstream.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of separating an isopentane-pentane-hexane fraction during an isomerisation process, consisting of a first fractionation column for preparing material, from which the ballast product contained in the material is separated with the distillate. The residue from the bottom of the fractionation column is taken for conversion of pentanes and hexanes into isomers in an isomerisation reactor. Isomerisation products are fed into a second fractionation column for debutanisation, from where butane is removed from the top of the column and the isomerisation product is removed from the bottom of the column, said product containing reaction isomers obtained during the reaction, which are fed for separation into a third fractionation column for depentanisation, from which isopentane, recycled pentane and a hexane fraction are successively removed from the top. The recycled pentane is returned into the isomerisation reactor. The method is characterised by that the starting material used is a 75-85°C fraction of straight-run gasoline, and the ballast product removed from the top of the first fractionation column is isopentane contained in the material; reaction isopentane is removed from the top of the third fractionation column for depentanisation as a distillate or with the first side cut. Excess butane is removed as the distillate. Pentane is removed with the second side cut of the depentanisation column and fed into the isomerisation reactor as a recycle stream. A mixture of isohexane and normal hexane is removed from the bottom of the depentanisation column and then fed as material into an additional fourth fractionation column for deisohexanisation, from which the isohexane fraction is removed with the distillate and recycled hexane is removed with the side cut and then fed for re-conversion into the isomerisation reactor, and higher-boiling components are removed with the residue.

EFFECT: use of the present method enables to cut the amount of energy spent in the isomerisation process on producing isoparaffins, widens the range of products and provides flexibility of the process and purity of the end products.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing alkylbenzine via alkylation of isobutane with olefins in a catalytic reactor at high temperature and pressure, where isobutane is fed into the top section of the reactor then successively passed through all sections with a catalyst, and olefin-containing material is distributed into several streams, the number of which is equal to the number of catalyst sections and then simultaneously fed into the section containing catalyst in parallel streams in order to conduct an alkylation reaction. A hydrocarbon stream containing unreacted isobutane and reaction products is divided into two streams: a vapour stream obtained by evaporating isobutane, which is then condensed and taken for recycling, and a liquid stream which is the reaction product coming from the reaction system or partially taken for recycling. Temperature and pressure in each reactor section is kept so as to ensure an equilibrium vapour-liquid state of the mixed hydrocarbon stream passing through the reactor. The olefins used in the method are C2-C4 olefins. The number of sections ranges from 2 to 10. Before entering the section containing catalyst, the olefin-containing stream is mixed with isobutane in ratio of 1:(250÷1000), and 50-99.9 wt % vapour stream from the overall stream coming out of the last reactor section is taken for recycling.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the cycle length of the catalyst and reduce power consumption.

4 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: at the first step, raw material containing at least one fatty acid, having 8-26 carbon atoms, is esterified with at least one fatty alcohol having 8-26 carbon atoms to obtain esters, at the second step, the obtained esters are hydrogenated to fatty alcohols, at the third step, the obtained fatty alcohols are dehydrogenated to alpha-olefins, at the fourth step, the alpha-olefins are oligomerised to oligomers which are then hydrogenated at the fifth step. The invention also relates to polyolefin base oil or a base oil component obtained using the described method.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain branched saturated hydrocarbons from renewable sources.

15 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a mixture of isoalkanes as oil bodies for cosmetic or pharmaceutical agencies, whose 1H-NMR-spectrum in the region of a chemical shift δ of from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm relative tetramethylsilane, has a surface integral of from 25 to 70% of the total integral surface. The mixture, which has density from 0.7 to 0.82 g/cm3, contains not less than 70 wt % alkanes with 8-20 carbon atoms, and the fraction of side chains with alkyl groups which have 2 or more carbon atoms is less than 20% of the total number of branching sites and is free from squalane. The invention also relates to a method of preparing said mixture, as well as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical agent based on said mixture and a hair cosmetic agent also based on said mixture.

EFFECT: improved method.

24 cl, 2 tbl, 809 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing mixtures of aliphatic alcohols containing glycerin in amount of 27-86 wt % via a cross-condensation reaction at temperature 300-350°C, inert gas pressure 1-5 MPa, specific speed of feeding the mixture of aliphatic alcohols per catalyst 0.4-0.8 dm3/h dm3 cat, where the catalyst used is tungsten oxide, rhenium oxide, deposited on γ-aluminium oxide, with the following ratio of components, wt %: tungsten oxide 1.2-6.7, rhenium oxide 0.9-1.3, γ-aluminium oxide - the rest.

EFFECT: use of present method increases output of alkane hydrocarbons and lowers output of gaseous products.

4 cl, 5 tbl, 12 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalytic conversion of organic compounds, specifically to catalytic conversion of a mixture of aliphatic alcohols to a mixture of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons, particularly C5-C8 hydrocarbons. Described is catalyst for synthesis of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons based on γ-aluminium oxide, distinguished by that, the catalyst contains tungsten oxide and rhenium oxide with the following ratio of components, in wt %: tungsten oxide 1.2-6.7; rhenium oxide 0-1.3; γ-aluminium oxide - the rest. Described also is a method for synthesis of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons with an even or combined even and odd number of carbon atoms through cross-coupling reaction of ethanol or its mixture with aliphatic alcohols in the presence of the said catalyst.

EFFECT: described catalyst enables to increase output of C5-C8 olefin-alkane fractions to 45% and reduce output of gaseous C1-C2 products to 30-35% with 85-95% conversion of initial alcohols.

5 cl, 5 tbl, 3 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing products of fermentation of plant biomass to alkane hydrocarbons of the C4-C10 fraction through cross-condensation in the presence of a Fe2O3-MgO/Al2O3 and a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst in ratio Fe:Mg:Pt=13:2:1, at temperature 320-370°C, argon pressure 1-5 MPa and specific feed rate of starting material onto the catalyst equal to 0.4-0.8 dm3/h·dm3 catalyst.

EFFECT: use of the method reduces gas formation and increases output of saturated hydrocarbons.

1 cl, 9 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a mixture of C4-C16 isoalkanes by bringing aliphatic alcohol - ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol in an inert gas medium at 300-420°C, pressure 30-80 atm, bulk speed 0.2-0.8 h-1, into contact with a catalyst composition, which contains a hydride phase of an iron-titanium intermetallic compound, modified with group IV-VII metals, aluminium-platinum catalyst and a transition metal oxide, characterised by that, the transition metal oxide used is magnesium oxide in mass ratio 10:1:(0.8-1.2).

EFFECT: catalyst used in the method is highly active for a long period of time and the given method also widens the raw material base of aliphatic alcohols used.

1 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device contains the first drier and the second drier, adapted for the reception of a gaseous flowing medium, containing, at least, one reagent. The first drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the first mode of drying the flowing medium, which contains, at last, one reagent, and the second drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the second mode, under conditions of carrying out regeneration by means of a regenerating agent. it also contains a reaction zone, connected by means of the first pipeline to the first drier for the reception of the gaseous flowing medium, which contains, at least, one reagent; and a system of replacement of a regenerating agent in the direction from top to bottom, adapted for the supply and regulation of consumption or reduction of pressure of a part of the said gaseous flowing medium into the second drier, removal of the replaced regenerating agent from the second drier and technological operations, which are performed downstream, to minimise disturbances in the implementation of the said operations.

EFFECT: application of the claimed invention makes it possible to minimise disturbances in carrying out operations downstream.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of isomerising normal butane containing initial material, containing at least 50 wt % normal butane to an isomerate which contains isobutane, involving: (a) isomerisation of the initial material under isomerisation conditions, involving presence of isomerisation catalyst, until an output isomerisation stream is obtained, containing normal butane, but with less concentration than in the initial isomerisation material; (b) distillation of at least part of the output isomerisation stream until a low-boiling fraction is obtained, containing isobutane and light paraffins, where at least 80 wt % of the low-boiling fraction is isobutane, and a high-boiling fraction, containing normal butane and at least 10 wt % isobutane; (c) bringing at least part of the fraction containing normal butane from stage (b) into contact with medium at the retentate side of a permeation-selective membrane, with efficiency index of flow of C4 permeate equal to at least 0.01 and pressure difference between media on both sides of the membrane, which allows for obtaining a retentate fraction containing at least 80 wt % isobutane, and for obtaining a permeate fraction at the permeate side, after passage through the membrane, with high concentration of normal butane; and (d) tapping off retentate fraction from stage (c).

EFFECT: simplification of method.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to obtaining branched alkanes with general formula CnH2n+2, where n = 4-10. CCI4 is gradually added to a mixture of hexane, triethylaluminium - Et3Al and a catalyst - PdCl2, in an argon atmosphere at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 10-60°C for a period of 0.5-2 hours. The molar ratio of hexane: Et3Al : CCl4 : PdCl2 is 75:10:20:0.1.

EFFECT: obtaining of a mixture of branched alkanes with high output.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of isomerisation of light gasoline fractions, which consists of the preparation of straight-run and secondary gasoline fractions for isomerisation, with the further separation of raw isopentane in the first rectification column - deisopentaniser, after that, its supply to isomerisation in an isomerisation reactor with further release of gases and reflux in the second rectification column - debutaniser, from the bottom of which a stable isomerisate is supplied successively for the separation into the third rectification column for the separate extraction of isopentane and pentane and to the fourth rectification column for the separate extraction of isohexanes and hexane, side runs of the third and fourth rectification columns, containing respectively, pentane and hexane are recirculated for isomerisation into the isomerisation reactor. As a raw material used are straight-run and secondary gasoline fractions 40÷75…85°C, preparation and supply to isomerisation of the straight-run gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C is carried out separately from the gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C of the secondary processes of oil refining, with the gasoline fraction 40÷75…85°C of the secondary processes being supplied into the second or third rectification column.

EFFECT: application of the claimed method makes it possible to increase resources of the isomerisation process raw material due to the involvement into the process of the gasoline fraction of the secondary processes, output of target isohexanes, octane number of the isomerisate and isopentane fraction mixture and resources of high-octane semiproducts for compounding commercial gasoline.

5 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: device contains the first drier and the second drier, adapted for the reception of a gaseous flowing medium, containing, at least, one reagent. The first drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the first mode of drying the flowing medium, which contains, at last, one reagent, and the second drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the second mode, under conditions of carrying out regeneration by means of a regenerating agent. it also contains a reaction zone, connected by means of the first pipeline to the first drier for the reception of the gaseous flowing medium, which contains, at least, one reagent; and a system of replacement of a regenerating agent in the direction from top to bottom, adapted for the supply and regulation of consumption or reduction of pressure of a part of the said gaseous flowing medium into the second drier, removal of the replaced regenerating agent from the second drier and technological operations, which are performed downstream, to minimise disturbances in the implementation of the said operations.

EFFECT: application of the claimed invention makes it possible to minimise disturbances in carrying out operations downstream.

10 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a family of aluminosilicate zeolites, a method of producing zeolites and a method of converting hydrocarbons. Described is a novel family of microporous crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites, having a space frame of at least tetrahedral AlO2 and SiO2 units, wherein the empirical composition of the zeolite in anhydrous state is expressed by the following formula: Mm+Rr+Al1xExSiyOz, where M is sodium or a combination of potassium and sodium cations capable of exchange, m is the molar ratio of M to (Al+E) and varies from 0.05 to 2, R denotes a single-charge propyl trimethylammonium cation, r is the molar ratio of R to (Al+E) and varies from 0.25 to 3.0, and E is an element selected from a group consisting of gallium, iron, boron and mixtures thereof, x is the molar fraction or H and varies from 0 to 1.0, y is the molar ratio of Si to (Al+E) and varies from more than 8 to 40, and z is the molar ratio of O to (Al+E) and has a value defined by the equation: z=(m+r+3+4y)/2.

EFFECT: said zeolites are characterised by a unique X-ray diffraction pattern and composition, and have catalytic activity for carrying out various hydrocarbon conversion processes.

10 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing base oil which involves bringing C10+ hydrocarbon material into contact with a catalyst and hydrogen in isomerisation conditions to obtain base oil. The catalyst contains a molecular sieve, having the topology of a MTT structure and crystallite diameter from 200 to 400 Å in the longest direction, at least one metal selected from a group consisting of Ca, Cr, Mg, La, Na, Pr, Sr, K and Nd, and at least one group VIII metal. The invention also relates to versions of a method for deparaffination of hydrocarbon material, using a similar catalyst.

EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to obtain a product with improved viscosity index at lower flow temperatures.

30 cl, 6 ex, 3 tbl, 11 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isomerisation catalysts. Described is a catalyst for isomerisation of light gasoline fractions, which contains tungsten-coated zirconium dioxide with platinum and aluminium oxide additives, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ZrQ2=65.1-76.3; WO42-=23.4-32.1; Al2O3=0.1-2.6; Pt=0.2, production of which involves precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from zirconyl chloride solution with ammonia solution, separating and washing the precipitate from chloride ions, drying, depositing tungstate anions, drying and calcining, followed by saturation with chloroplatinic acid solution, drying and calcining the catalyst.

EFFECT: catalyst having high catalytic activity is obtained.

5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cobalt complex with a modified phthalocyanine ligand which is covalently bonded with silica gel and has the following general formula: , where: R=Cl, NHAlk, NAlk2, n = 5-7, M = Co. Also disclosed is a method for valence isomerisation of quadricyclane in norbornadiene in the presence of the complex.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a cobalt complex with a modified phthalocyanine ligand, which can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst having high activity and high stability.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 29 ex

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