Wet gas or gas condensate well recovery method and its drowning prevention during its further operation

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: according to the method the well is killed, the sand plug is washed and hydraulic fracturing of the formation is made with its simultaneous setting within the whole perforation interval. Volume of the well bottomhole zone within the perforation interval is divided into two production facilities by injecting and flushing of waterproofing compound to the formation depth radially thus forming water shutoff screen. Time is withheld for hardening of the waterproofing compound. The well volume at the water shutoff screen level is divided into two production zones by setting a packer run in with the tubing string. The tubing string is equipped with a gas lift valve in the upper part of the upper facility perforation interval. The string shoe is set at the level of 1.5-2m below the lower openings in the lower facility perforation interval and water extraction is made by intrawell gaslift from the lower production facility due to gas energy from the upper production facility.

EFFECT: improved productivity of wells due to recovery of wet gas or gas condensate wells, prevention of their further drowning and self-killing, increased life between overhauls.

3 cl, 1 ex

 

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry and can be used to restore the flooded gas or gas-condensate wells and prevent flooding and samozatachivanie in further exploitation. The method can also be used for joint production of hydrocarbons and formation of industrial water.

There is a method of hydraulic fracturing and mounting formations composed of loose nestsementirovannyh rocks, to allow hydraulic fracturing (HF) with the help of fracturing fluid containing an aqueous solution srednekamennogo liquid glass composition, wt.%: sodium silicate 17-20, water 80-83, and acetone-alcohol solution consisting of anhydrous acetone and methyl alcohol in a volume ratio of 0.4:1 and proppant in the amount of 100-150 kg per 1 m3liquids with simultaneous fastening of reservoir rocks with a water-alcohol solution of calcium chloride composition, wt.%: calcium chloride 17,0-19,0, ethyl alcohol 25,0-45,0, water the rest. (Patent RU 2416025 C1 from 13.04.2010 class. EW 43/267, publication date 10.04.2011). The method restores the productivity of bottom-hole formation zone.

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to prevent irrigation wells during subsequent operation.

There is a method of recovery of flooded oil and gas well is s under conditions of abnormally low formation pressure, according to which the well jammed, washed sand tube, perforined the production casing below the current gas-contact (DDC) at 2-3 m above the current GVK 1-2 m formed Through the perforations under the waterproofing download waterproofing composition, push it into the depth of the reservoir along the radius and doubleplay interval water shut-off cement mortar. Then razvarivat cement bridge, run into the wellbore liner, cement it, leaving cement and glass in the inner cavity height of 0.2-0.5 m, are perforation of the shank and the production string above the water shut-off interval of 1.5-3.0 m to the roof of the reservoir, provide the call flow from the reservoir and enter the well into operation. (Patent RU 2410529 from 16.06.2009 class. EW 43/00, publication date 27.01.2011).

The disadvantage of this method is passive prevent further flooding of the well and the lower well productivity. Subsequent exploitation of natural lowering reservoir pressure will rise GVK and having to re-conduct the proposed operations over a relatively short period. For example, in terms of the Cenomanian deposits of the Urengoy field annual rise GVK is 2-3 meters

There is a method of developing a flooded oil fields by the method of GI is dynamic limiting water inflow in the variant of dual selection of oil and water (Patent RU 2401937 from 27.10.2009 class. EV 43/12, publication date 20.10.2010). The method includes dividing the packer interior space of the production well between the roof of the reservoir and the area of oil-water contact, equipment downhole device for dual operation of the reservoir, the pumping produced water below the oil-water contact and pedacinho space and pumping out product formation from nadakarni space.

According to the invention the packer divide the interior space of the production well, leaving the top 50-70% of the thickness of the oil-bearing area. Before selecting water from pedacinho space in a pre-pumped high-viscosity oil-water emulsion. Thus regulate the pumping of produced water, which with increasing oil above 10-20% of the amount of water pumping out the last reduce or stop, and regulate the pumping of product formation. To do this, while reducing the oil content below 70-80% of the number of water pumping out the last reduce or stop to reduce the water content of the products, ensuring the provisions of the oil-water contact at practically the same level.

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of using metal hardware for dual use two objects of the reservoir (water and oil) and the external devices and power sources for lifting Wallpaper the reservoir fluids.

A known method of removing the reservoir fluid from the well portions due to the energy of the produced gas. (Patent RU 2471968 dated 23.06.2011 class. EW 43/00, publication date 10.01.2013). The method includes periodic descent of the flying valve under the liquid level to the bottom of the absorber and its subsequent rise in the Elevator column pipe with a column of reservoir fluid to the wellhead.

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of prior restraints of water in the well and low performance liquid extraction, which is acceptable only in the early stages of irrigation wells.

The task of the invention is to provide a process in which a is increased well productivity due to the recovery of flooded gas or gas-condensate wells, the prevention of further flooding and samozatachivanie and increase turnaround time.

This object is achieved in that in the method of recovering water-cut gas or gas-condensate wells and prevent flooding and samozatachivanie when further operation of the well jammed, washed sand tube and perform hydraulic fracturing with its simultaneous fastening around the perforation interval, the amount of bottom-hole zone of the well perforation interval p is sdelat two operational object using injection and punching shear in the depth of the reservoir radius waterproofing composition, forming a waterproofing screen, maintain the solidification time of the insulating composition, the volume of the borehole at the level of education waterproofing screen is divided into two operational areas, setting a packer, deflated with the column tubing (tubing), the tubing string equipped with gas-lift valve in the upper part of the perforated interval the top of the object, casing shoes set below 1.5-2 m of the bottom holes of the perforated interval of the lower object and undertaking the selection of downhole water by gas lift from lower operational object by the energy of the gas from the top of the operational object.

Hydraulic fracturing and the fastening layer is carried out by injection of fracturing fluid containing an aqueous solution srednekamennogo liquid glass of the following composition, wt.%: sodium silicate 12-17, acetone 4-7, methyl alcohol 10-18, water the rest, the injection of fracturing fluid into the formation exercise 30-40 minutes after cooking, while achieving hydraulic fracturing in liquid gap impose additional proppant in the amount of 100-150 kg per 1 m3the liquid, after the injection of fracturing fluid with proppant pumped into the reservoir an aqueous-alcoholic solution of calcium chloride of the following composition, wt.%: calcium chloride 17,0-19,0; ethyl alcohol 25,0-45,0; water the rest.

Valoisasti the config screen create in the middle of the perforated interval in the thickness of 1.5-2 m depth jacking insulating composition layer with a radius of 5-7 m

Holding pinning layer zones specified method with simultaneous restriction of the inflow of formation water provides high quality repair work on the wells.

When docked breeds bottom-hole formation zone, there is generally a decrease in filtration and capacitive properties of the manifold. Proposed a comprehensive approach to the issue of the fight with sand, based on the combination of hydraulic fracturing of the productive formation with chemical method of fastening of the bottom zone, allows you to compensate for this deficiency by creating a large surface filter by hydraulic fracturing.

It is known that the selection of fluid from the well is formed of depression funnel and the associated maximum water level rise in the bottomhole formation zone. The nature of the curvature of the depression cone and the maximum height of rise of the liquid within the reservoir associated with the rate of sampling formation fluid and the borehole diameter. Insulation screen simultaneously performs two functions: it creates a layer of two separate, sufficiently independent, facility operation and influence these characteristics of depression cones. The first allows you to organize downhole gas lift with all the attendant advantages of both technological and economic plan. P the latter reduces the level of water rise in a well bore zone, even when the current level GVK will reach and exceed the level of installation of the insulation screen.

The essence of the proposed method is described in the following example.

For major repairs and restoration adopted gas well No. 824 and gas condensate well # 8363 Urengoy oil and gas condensate field (OGCF). First, draining the Cenomanian sediments flooding at the initial stage for a workover rig was more than two thirds of the perforation interval, the second draining the lower Cretaceous sediments, flooded completely.

In the first stage, well jammed, washed sand tube and conduct hydraulic fracturing with simultaneous fastening of the formation, then:

- pescocostanzo installation and cementing Assembly tie with a hard line with the borehole;

in pescocostanzo installation prepare the liquid gap containing aqueous solution srednekamennogo liquid glass composition, wt.%: sodium silicate 12-17, acetone 4-7, methyl alcohol 10-18, water - the rest, based filling it porous annular space and of fractures at a distance of 0.5 m from the plane of the implementation. Maximum concentration of components in the fluid gap, the formation of a gel with the desired properties for hydraulic fracturing, and for the purpose of fixing breeds prize of the flow zone. The required thickness is fixed pore space to ensure the sustainability of bottom-hole formation zone formation in these conditions is not less than 0.5 m;

- 30-40 min after cooking liquid begin the process of injection into the reservoir. Within a specified period of time the fluid gap becomes necessary indicators for viscosity, during this time the viscosity of the gel increases from 2 to ~60 MPa*s;

- when you reach hydraulic fracturing in liquid gap impose additional proppant in the amount of 100-150 kg per 1 m3the fluid. The ratio of proppant provides complete filling of fractures and no significant impact on the technological characteristics of the fluid gap;

after completion of injection of the calculated quantity of fracturing fluid with proppant pumped into the reservoir an aqueous-alcoholic solution of calcium chloride composition, wt.%: calcium chloride 17,0-19,0; ethyl alcohol 25,0-45,0; water the rest. The maximum concentrations of components in a water-alcohol solution of calcium chloride provides qualitative consolidation of the formation due to the solidification of the injected fluid gap.

After pumping the estimated amount of water-alcohol solution of calcium chloride hole close to 46-50 hours. During this period of time is proishodit full interaction between the components of the fastening system of the formation.

Then waterproofing screen upload insulating composition (for example, the composition of trade names AKOR MG or AKRON). Waterproofing screen create in the middle of the perforated interval in the thickness of 1.5-2 m depth jacking insulating composition layer with a radius of 5-7 meters Stand the time of solidification of the insulating composition. The specified thickness of the waterproofing of the screen provides the required mechanical properties for its operation and minimum consumption of materials. When the radius of the insulation screen 5-7 m provided the necessary lift restriction of fluid along the perforated interval, and minimum material consumption.

The volume of the wells on the level of education waterproofing screen is divided into two operational areas setting a packer, deflated with the column tubing. The tubing string equipped with gas-lift valve in the upper part of the perforated interval the top of the object, casing shoes set below 1.5-2 m of the bottom holes of the perforated interval of the lower object and undertaking the selection of downhole water by gas lift from lower operational object by the energy of the gas from the top of the operating object. Set casing shoes below 1.5-2 m of the bottom holes of the perforated interval of the lower object provides a stable arboricola in operation.

For the purpose of exploitation as part of the wellhead equipment provide for connection of two-tier system of gas-jet ejectors. In wellhead equipment provide output for gas supplied through the tubing through the closure device of the receiving chamber of the gas-jet ejector and the outlet for gas that is not involved in gas-lift liquid lifting the bottom of the object, with the arrival of his working through the nozzle jet ejector of the first stage in the receiving chamber of the gas-jet ejector of the second stage.

Perform the call flow of gas from the reservoir (due to the depression created by an inkjet ejector of the second stage), after which the well is put into operation at the gas through the additional output in the wellhead equipment and control the flow and pressure of a gas removable ultrasonic sensors at the entrance to a common header. In the call flow of formation fluids leached from the reservoir and the remaining unreacted reagents of the hydraulic fracturing process.

Then start the process of downhole gas-lift liquid lifting the bottom of the object. Slowly opening the shut-off device in wellhead equipment main output for gas supplied through the tubing into the intake chamber of the gas-jet ejector of the first stage, ask the depression in the tubing. Control flow and pressure gas inlet into the receiving chambers of the ejector of the second stage outer removable sensors. The well is restored upon reaching the density of the fluid or liquid content in the gas-liquid mixture of the calculated values.

The calculation of the characteristics of downhole gas-lift lifting gas-liquid mixture in the tubing string is carried out in accordance with the recommendations. (C. M. Ant Exploitation of oil and gas wells" M Depths with 384).

For well # 824

original data:

the perforation interval - 1105-1170 m;

- artificial slaughter - 1182 m;

the overlap of the perforated interval of the liquid column is 39.5 m;

- reservoir pressure is 2.01 MPa;

- downhole pressure of 1.95 MPa;

- daily production of gas - 127 thousand m3/day;

the diameter of casing 168 m;

- diameter gas-lift column - 73 m;

calculated values:

- maximum specific consumption of gas-lift gas - 490,39 m3/t;

- the density of the gas mixture (fluid) - 2,734 kg/m3;

mass fluid - 2,035 kg/m3;

- the maximum possible flow rate of the liquid - 95,93 t/day;

- daily demand for gas-lift gas - 47043,6 m3.

For well # 8363

original data:

the perforation interval - 2819-2862 m;

the overlap of the perforated interval of the liquid column is full;

- pressure - 9.55 MPa;

- downhole pressure is 8.75 MPa;

- pressure on the mouth - 6,62 MPa;

- total daily production from the Aza - 157 thousand m3/day;

the diameter of casing 73 m;

- diameter gas-lift column 42 m;

calculated values:

- maximum specific consumption of gas-lift gas - 452,4 m3/t;

- the density of the gas mixture (fluid) - 2,976 kg/m3;

mass fluid - 2.21 kg/m3;

- the maximum possible flow rate of the liquid - 51,26 t/day;

- daily demand for gas-lift gas - 23194,17 m3.

The calculation of the pressure at the output of the ejectors of the first and second stages of a two-stage system gas-jet ejectors required to create a depression at the mouth of the tubing and columns for entering gas extraction wells in the common collectors of the bushes with the purpose of transporting it on a unit, you can perform in accordance with the recommendations. (E. I. Sokolov, N. M. Zinger Jet devices. - 3rd ed., Rev. - M. 1989. - 352 S.).

For well # 824:

- the pressure at the outlet of the first ejector stage of 0.53 MPa;

- the pressure at the outlet of the ejector of the second stage of 1.50 MPa.

for well # 8363:

- the pressure at the outlet of the first ejector stage of 2.34 MPa;

- the pressure at the outlet of the second ejector stage - 6,27 MPa.

When the above calculated values of the density of the fluid and liquid content in the gas-liquid mixture is well restored. To ensure the operation of the two stage system gas-jet ejectors need the second pressure is 0.53 and 2,34 MPa, 1.50 and 6,27 MPa for the first and second stages of wells No. 824 and 8363, respectively.

The proposed method provides the additional volumes of gas and gas condensate at the expense of the recovery of drowned and idle gas or gas-condensate wells, the prevention of further flooding and samozatachivanie during operation and increase the turnaround time. The turnaround time of operation of the wells, taking into account the rate of decline in reservoir pressure and lifting GVK before significant manifestation of irrigation and removal of the dispersed solid phase is increased almost in 2 times and is 6-8 years.

1. Method of recovering water-cut gas or gas-condensate wells and prevent flooding in the future life, characterized by the fact that the well jammed, washed sand tube and perform hydraulic fracturing with its simultaneous fastening around the perforation interval, the amount of bottom-hole zone of the well perforation interval is divided into two operational object using injection and punching shear in the depth of the reservoir radius waterproofing composition, forming waterproofing screen, maintain the solidification time of the insulating composition, the volume of the borehole at the level of education waterproofing screen is divided into two ek is operating zone setting of the packer, launched with the column tubing - tubing, the tubing string equipped with gas-lift valve in the upper part of the perforated interval the top of the object, casing shoes set below 1.5-2 m of the bottom holes of the perforated interval of the lower object and undertaking the selection of downhole water by gas lift from lower operational object by the energy of the gas from the top of the operational object.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that hydraulic fracturing and the fastening layer is carried out by injection of fracturing fluid containing an aqueous solution srednekamennogo liquid glass composition, wt.%:
sodium silicate - 12-17;
acetone - 4-7;
methyl alcohol - 10-18;
water - the rest,
the injection of fracturing fluid into the formation exercise 30-40 minutes after cooking, while achieving hydraulic fracturing in liquid gap impose additional proppant in the amount of 100-150 kg per 1 m3the liquid, after the injection of fracturing fluid with proppant pumped into the reservoir an aqueous-alcoholic solution of calcium chloride composition, wt.%:
calcium chloride - 17,0-19,0;
ethyl alcohol - 25,0-45,0;
water - the rest.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the waterproofing screen create in the middle of the perforated interval in the thickness of 1.5-2 m depth jacking insulating composition layer with a radius of 5-7m arrives at.



 

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21 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to usage of fluid for the well treatment. The method increasing productivity of formation through which the well passes includes introduction of fluid for treatment to the well which contains non-hydrated borated galactomannan gum (NBGG), at that more than one producing zone in the formation is isolated from the other area by fluid hardening for treatment of the well in order to increase productivity of the formation. The method increasing productivity of the hydrocarbon-bearing formation (MIPHBF) with the passing well has a lot of producing area and comprises the following stages: introduction of fluid containing (NBGG) close to the preset producing area for the purpose of well treatment; isolation of the preset producing area from other areas is made by hardening of the above fluid; perforation of the insulated preset producing area; and provision of hydraulic fracturing of the above well area by introduction of the disruptive fluid at pressure sufficient for fracturing of the preset perforated producing area. The MIPHBF method includes a cemented vertical well, has a lot of producing area and comprises the following stages wherein: a) the producing area of the well is perforated; b) hydraulic fracturing of the perforated producing area is made by introduction of disruptive fluid into it at pressure sufficient for fracturing of the above area; c) fluid for well treatment with NBGG is injected into a casing string above the specified area; d) isolation of the area specified in the stage c) by hardening of the fluid for well treatment; and e) repetition of the stages a)-d) in one or several producing areas of the cemented vertical well. The MIPHBF method contains the stages with introduction of the fluid for well treatment into annular space between a wall of the well bore and the casing string in the well bore, the fluid for well treatment containing borated guar, at that the casing string is equipped with a zonal isolation device; hardening of the fluid for well treatment; perforation of the isolated producing area inside the zonal isolation device; and provision of hydraulic fracturing of the isolated producing area by injection of disruptive fluid at pressure sufficient for fracturing of the isolated producing area. The MIPHBF method for a non-vertical well contains the following stages: a) the first packer is introduced to the well; b) a zonal component of the insulation device is introduced to the well close to the first packer; c) the second packer is introduced to the well until an area is formed which is limited by the zonal component of the insulation device, the first and second packers; d) the fluid for well treatment, which contains borated guar, is introduced for hardening and hermetic isolation of the area limited by the first and second packers from other areas in the well; e) hydraulic fracturing of the area isolated at the stage f) by injection of disruptive fluid to the area at pressure sufficient for hydraulic fracturing of the area; and g) repetition of stages from a) up to e) in another area of the well. Invention is developed in dependent claims.

EFFECT: improving efficiency of productive area blockage in the formation.

25 cl, 9 ex, 2 tbl, 7 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises water, at least one water soluble foam make, i.e. silicon-containing ester contained in water and fluid other than water. Said water contains salt solution while fluid other than water contains liquid hydrocarbons. Stable foam is produced from waters by combining them with gas in the presence of hydrocarbon fluids with the help of above described foam maker. Fluid load is removed from gas well by injection therein of foam maker obtained as described above and removal therefrom of stable foam as it forms. Hydrofrac with the help of foam at drilling comprises injection of above described foam maker into well. Fluid formed are lifted to oil well surface by injection of said foam maker to be combined with well fluid. Invention is developed in dependent claims.

EFFECT: higher efficiency in the presence of great amounts of hydrocarbons.

23 cl, 7 tbl, 6 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel production and injection horizontal wells combined with multiple hydraulic fracturing of the seam. Note here that at least one production well is drilled in beds with permeability not over 2 mD. First, one horizontal well is drilled with angle between maximum major strain of the bed and direction of borehole making 30-60 degrees. Multiple hydrofrac is realised thereat. Well is put in operation. If bed pressure decreases by not over 3% a year then further development is performed under natural conditions with drilling the injection wells. Other production wells are drilled parallel with the first one in case the initial geological store of oil per one horizontal well makes at least 50 thou t at spacing between said wells not exceeding 100 m. Multiple hydrofrac is realised for all wells. Note here that the number of multiple hydrofrac stages is selected proceeding from analytic relationship.

EFFECT: higher yield owing higher coverage.

3 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stimulation of wells penetrating into underground beds, particularly, to well stimulation with the help of mica-type proppants at hydrofrac. Proposed method comprises the steps that follow. (a) Injection of thickened drill fluid. (b) Injection of thickened proppant suspension containing mineral plate-like particles. (c) Injection of deflecting material. (d) Reiteration of steps a-c at least three times. Note here that plate-like particles make 20-100 wt % of proppant while their depth makes 1-500 mcm.

EFFECT: efficient hydrofrac.

9 cl, 4 ex, 1 tbl, 7 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of horizontal producers and injectors with parallel horizontal boreholes or selecting drilled wells, determination of the first direction for the maximum primary stress in the stratum δmax1, performing multiple hydraulic fracturing in horizontal boreholes of producers and injectors, injecting water through horizontal injectors and extracting the product through horizontal producers. At that at first multiple hydraulic fracturing is made in horizontal boreholes of the producers thus obtaining fractures in parallel to δmax1, water injection is made to horizontal injectors with temperature t equal to the current temperature of the stratum t, while the product is extracted through the horizontal producers. During the closest winter period water is cooled till temperature of (0.5-0.7) t and injected in the volume to be calculated as per the suggested formula, change in the maximum primary stress of the stratum δmax2 is recorded for bottomhole zone of the injector in result of cold water injection, multiple hydraulic fracturing is made in the horizontal borehole of the injector thus obtaining fractures in parallel to δmax2, thereupon injection of non-cooled water is started.

EFFECT: increasing oil recovery of the productive stratum.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of producers and injectors, making elements with the injector in the centre and producers around it or selecting drilled wells, determination of the first direction for the maximum primary stress in the stratum δmax1, performing hydraulic fracturing in producers, injecting water through injectors and extracting the product through producers. At that hydraulic fracturing is performed at first in the wells where displacement front from the injector is parallel to the direction of hydraulic fracturing, thus obtaining fractures in parallel to δmax1. Water is injected to injection wells with temperature equal to temperature of the stratum t, and the product is extracted through the producers. During the closest winter period water is cooled up to the temperature of (0.5-0.7)t and injected in the respective volume until inflow of cold water is fixed in the remaining wells without performed hydraulic fracturing, change in maximum primary stress of the stratum δmax2 is determined in the producers without performed hydraulic fracturing in result of cold water injection, hydraulic fracturing is made in the above producers thus obtaining fractures in parallel to δmax2, thereafter injection of non-cooled water is started.

EFFECT: increasing oil recovery of formations.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions is related to the methods which can be used in treatment of underground strata and, more specifically to the improved methods for distribution and deviation of fluids in underground strata. The method includes introduction of the first lost circulation material to an underground stratum through which the wellbore passes in order to reduce or prevent fluid flow to the first part of the underground stratum. Reduction or prevention is made by the first lost circulation material to the first part of the underground stratum. A part of the first fluid is introduced to the second part of the underground stratum having a higher fluid resistance than the first part of the underground stratum. The second lost circulation material is introduced to the underground stratum through which the wellbore passes in order to reduce or prevent fluid flow to the second part of the underground stratum. A part of the second fluid is introduced to the first part of the underground stratum with the first flow rate. The first lost circulation material is removed from the underground stratum. By means of temperature monitoring in the respective part of the underground stratum the time is determined when the first lost circulation material was removed, at least partially, from the underground stratum. The second fluid is introduced into the first part of the underground stratum.

EFFECT: increasing isolation efficiency.

12 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: ceramics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of molded ceramic materials for use as propping agent in production of liquid and gaseous fluids from bored wells. Method comprises briquetting and heat treatment of aluminosilicates kaolin at 1150-1250оС. Resulting mix is ground to average grain size 3-5 μm and loaded into granulator. Before granulation, 1.2-3.0% mineralizer and 5-10% plasticizer are added. Mix is moistened with dozed amount of organic binder and stirred to form granules. At the end of granulation, fired ground material for powdering granules is added in amount 1.2-3.0%. Granules are dried and screened to isolate desired fraction, which is subjected to final firing at 1370-1450оС for 30-60 min and then re-screened into commercial fractions.

EFFECT: enabled manufacture of granules having low loose density and high strength allowing their use at depths up to 14000 feet (4200 m).

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex

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