Lignocellulosic material roasting method and unit
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used for the lignocellulosic material processing. The lignocellulosic material roasting method involves drying of the lignocellulosic material in a dryer (2). The dried lignocellulosic material is supplied to a roasting reactor (5), where a reaction is performed at the pressure of 1 to 50 bars and at a temperature of 100 to 1000°C with the formation of the roasted biomass and roasting gas. The roasting gas is returned to the roasting reactor (5) via pipelines (7). The roasted biomass is cooled in a cooler (29) operating at the absence of oxygen and containing an inert gas supply line (17). Additional inert gas is supplied to the cooler (29) as well. The inert gas is supplied from the cooler (29) in a flow (31) to a cyclone (32), where it is separated from solid particles, and then, it is returned to the cooler in a flow (36) and to the roasting reactor (5) in a flow (18).
EFFECT: inventions allow increasing the operating safety of a unit, its efficiency and environmental friendliness of the process.
20 cl, 1 dwg
This application claims the priority of provisional patent application U.S. No. 61/235114, registered on August 19, 2009, the complete contents of which are incorporated by reference.
The prior art INVENTIONS
The present invention generally relates to attitudes and ways of relating to firing (torrefaction) lignocellulosic material.
Firing refers to thermal treatment of wood, usually in an inert atmosphere at relatively low temperatures from 225 to 300°C. the Firing usually produces a fuel with the increased value of energy density relative to the weight by the decomposition of reactive hemicelluloses of wood.
Wood usually contains hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. In one aspect of the task of roasting is to remove moisture and volatile organic components with a low weight of the wood. Roasting can also be depolymerizing long polysaccharide chains hemicellulose part of the wood and to provide a hydrophobic solid product with an increased value of specific energy (per mass) and improved grindability. Due to changes in the chemical structure of wood after firing it may be suitable for use in coal combustion plants (burnt wood or biomass has characteristics that are similar to the characteristics of the low the quality of coal) or can be compressed into high quality pellets, replaces the standard wood pellets.
The firing has developed in the last few decades as a possible way of turning biomass-based wood in a viable Supplement to the spectrum of energy products. Although there have been many studies of the compositional changes that occur in biomass (wood), subjected to firing, commercial methods are not well developed. The proposed method and installation for firing were designed to satisfy a commercial need for a viable method of firing. Other methods of firing are described in: patent publication U.S. No. 2008/0223269, in which thermal conductivity is used for firing; U.S. patent No. 4787917, which burned wood molded into rods of raw wood; and PCT publication no WO 2005/056723, in which a continuous way and the installation is made of burned biomass from the source material (organic material originating from forestry or other rural agriculture, and fossil material nature or a mixture of lignocellulose).
BRIEF description of the INVENTION
Burning wood material usually produces three products: a solid dark color, which can be further processed into pellets or used directly as fuel from biomass; acid phase is made up of the con is entirely organic compounds (including acetic acid, formic acid, acetone, furfural, but not limited to); and gases, such as carbon monoxide or carbon dioxide. In one aspect, this method may be a method of low-temperature nizkochastotnogo pyrolysis, where the removed light to remove compounds having the least amount of heat and energy.
In one aspect of this method is approximately 30% of the mass is burned with the loss of only 10% of energy value, that is, the remaining solid mass (approximately 70% by weight of starting material) contains 90% of the original present value of warmth. The firing may take place in a reactor under pressure and at a temperature of 220-300°C, where direct contact of the source material/biomass (lignocellulosic material), which is pre-dried to remove approximately 95% of the moisture present in the original biomass, hot gas (gas that is relatively free from oxygen). By heating the dried biomass in the reactor firing, you can remove the remaining water from the biomass.
In one aspect of the present installation for firing lignocellulosic material. This unit may include: a dryer for drying lignocellulosic material, designed to remove at least part of moisture contained within the lignocellulosic material; a reactor burning, its usage is at a pressure of from 1 to 50 bar and at a temperature of from 100 to 1000°C, where the reactor firing generates burnt biomass and gas firing of the lignocellulosic material; the first loop recycling for returning gas firing back into the reactor firing; a cooler for cooling the burned biomass, where the cooler is adapted to operate under conditions of essentially no oxygen; a cyclone for separating the cooled baked biomass from an inert gas; a second loop recycling for returning the inert gas from the cyclone in the cooler and provide inert gas to the reactor firing; and the supply line, adapted to feeding the inert gas to be added to the cooler. This unit can be adapted to use an inert gas as the medium for heat transfer between the reactor firing and cooling.
In another aspect of the described method of firing lignocellulosic material comprising the steps of: drying the lignocellulosic material to remove at least part of moisture contained within the lignocellulosic material; the reaction of the dried lignocellulosic material at a pressure of from 1 to 50 bar and at a temperature of from 100 to 1000°C in the reactor firing for the generation of burned biomass and gas firing; returning at least part of the gas firing back into the reactor kiln; cooling the burned biomass in the cooler working conditions, essentially no oxygen; the division of burned biomass and inert gas in the cyclone; return part of the inert gas separated in the cyclone, cooler and return part of the inert gas separated in the cyclone, the reactor firing; filing extension inert gas cooler. This method may use an inert gas as the medium for heat transfer between the reactor firing and cooling.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
Fig.1 is a block diagram depicting one implementation of the present invention.
DETAILED description of the INVENTION
Fig.1 schematically depicts the installation of commercial scale, capable of burning biomass (lignocellulosic material). An implementation option in Fig.1 discloses the advantages of the implementation of this method by heating in the absence of oxygen, which is beneficial for safe efficient operation.
In the illustrated method, the biomass material is fed through the pipeline 1 in a dewatering device 2, which represents any traditional or non-traditional dewatering device that is capable of removing from 85 to 98% of the water present in the biomass. In the depicted dewatering device 2, the moisture present in the biomass is removed using energy supplied from the hot gas 23. The desiccant can remove this sufficient moisture to an absolute moisture content in the dried lignocellulose the material was less than 15% of the total mass of lignocellulosic material. In the depicted embodiment, the hot gas in line 23 is the result of residual gas in the pipe 9 from 8 installation of combustion after combustion gas slightly cooled by indirect heat exchanger 20. The heat exchanger 20 provides energy return in the hot flue gas 9 back to the reactor 5 firing through the pipeline 19 for use in the heating of the reactor 5.
The drying gas supplied to the dryer 2 to line 23 may have a temperature up to 1000°C, allowing the drainage to the desired residual moisture level. Dried biomass is then fed through line 3 and the rotary valve 4 to the inlet of the reactor 5 under pressure (also called reactor firing). The reactor 5 firing can work with from 5 to 20 bar and at a working temperature of approximately 220-300°C. In other embodiments, implementation of the pressure may vary from 1 to 50 bar (and all subranges between them), and the temperature can vary from 100 to 1000°C. and all subranges between them).
To raise the temperature of the material dried biomass (for example, from 100 to 300°C) serves the heat from the heated gas of the reactor is supplied through pipe 19. The heated gas reactor formed part of the gas firing (gas produced in the reactor 5 firing), which comes out of the reactor 5 firing through the pipeline 6 and which is returned to the reactor 5 of the Gigue (in the form of returned gas burning pipeline 7), and part rich in nitrogen gas of the cyclone through the pipeline 18.
Part of the recovered gas firing, which is returned to the reactor 5 firing, and any additional rich in nitrogen gas can be heated in the indirect heat exchanger 20 of the combustion gas or other heating means in the pipe 9 from 8 installation of combustion before use in the reactor 5 firing. Part of the gas firing (for example, part of the in the pipeline 21)obtained in the reactor 5 firing can be fed to the installation of 8 combustion, where the gas firing is mixed with the oxygen-containing gas supplied through the pipe 12 from the unit 11 of adsorption with pressure fluctuation (AAA), and/or the combustion air and/or with cheap fuel is supplied through line 22 (if necessary), with the furnace combustion gas coming through the pipeline 9 installation 8 combustion.
Furnace gas combustion can be used as a heat source for indirect heat exchanger 20, to heat the digester gas fed to the reactor 5 firing through the pipeline 19. The cooled flue gas combustion stream 23 can be used in the dewatering installation 2, in order to dry the incoming biomass. Drying furnace gas pipeline 24, obtained from the drying process, can be referred for additional treatment before discharge to the atmosphere or other acceptable resolution.
Burned is the first biomass, the output stream 25 from the reactor 5 firing at a temperature of from about 220 to 300°C can be fed to the rotary valve 26 at the entrance to the cooler 29 with fluidized bed (or another cooler with direct contact). The cooler 29 with the fluidized bed can be a combination of indirect cooler that uses water as the cooling medium, and direct cooling using chilled rich in nitrogen stream 17 or any other inert gas from the heat exchanger 16 and the added nitrogen from the unit 11 AAA (or equipment separation gas of a different type) or any other inert gas, to cool the burned biomass, which is a cooler 29 fluidized bed flow 25 to about 90°C in the absence of oxygen or in essentially the absence of oxygen. Chilled roasted biomass can be produced from the cooler 29 with the fluidized bed through a rotary valve 30 (or similar device comprising a cooler 29 fluidized bed in the absence of oxygen or in essentially the absence of oxygen). Cold burned biomass in the stream 40 discharged from the cooler 29 with the fluidized bed, can be mixed with the stream 35 solids burned biomass, separated in the cyclone 32 (produced through rotary valve 33 or other such equipment, guarantee is it in the absence of oxygen or in essentially the absence of oxygen is maintained in the cyclone 32), receiving stream 37 for additional processing in a granulating installation 38 or other processing product for pressing or packing of solid burnt biomass.
The cooler 29 with the fluidized bed can be operated at essentially atmospheric pressure (for example, the chiller can operate under mild vacuum or pressure slightly above atmospheric) and can use indirect cooling from the cooling water (designated as the cooling water supply (PHS) 27 and return cooling water (SWW) 28), as well as direct cooling from the rich in nitrogen gas stream 17. Rich in nitrogen gas stream 17 may contain a portion rich in nitrogen gas cyclone in stream 36, combined with added nitrogen 13. The heat exchanger 16 can be supplied with cooling water as a medium of indirect cooling or other cooling material.
Gas cooler fluidized bed in the flow 31 of the cooler 29 with the fluidized bed can be directed into the cyclone 32, where the cooled gas is separated from any captured solids. The cooled gas stream 34 may then be separated into two or more parts. For example, the thread 34 of nitrogen cyclone can be divided into two parts: (i) stream 18, which can napravljaetsja the heat exchanger 20 in the heating loop around the reactor firing for mixing with a flow of 7, to fuel the reactor 5 firing, and (ii) stream 36, which is fed into the heat exchanger 16 for cooling.
The air in the pipe 10 can be fed to the installation AAA 11, which receive two gas flow: augment nitric thread 13 (thread, rich in nitrogen, with a small amount of oxygen or without him) and oxygen-rich stream 12, which is used together with the cheapest fuel in the installation of combustion.
Although the proposed description uses nitrogen as the gas in the loop heating and cooling, where the absence of oxygen or essentially no oxygen can be used to avoid explosive mixtures, any inert gas (such as argon or carbon dioxide, but the preferred nitrogen) can be used instead of nitrogen. Inert gas (e.g. nitrogen) is used in this way as a "carrier" gas, which means that the inert gas transfers heat required in the reactor firing, and from cooler fluidized bed. In addition, although this method can be used to install the AAA for separating nitrogen from air, any other method of separating nitrogen from the air can also be used and is not the essential feature of this invention. In the scope of the present invention can use any source of nitrogen or other inert gas.
In the embodiment of Fig.1, in addition, ohla is giving water is described as a cooling medium in the systems of indirect cooling. In other embodiments, the implementation of the cooling medium may be some environment other than water, without affecting the essential technical features of this method. That is, any fluid capable of effective cooling can be used.
In one aspect, the essential feature of this method is the ability to use rich in nitrogen gas from the cyclone (which otherwise will be removed from the installation) as part of the gas reactor for roasting step. By using this rich nitrogen gas may be selected balance sheet and in the cooling loop, and a heating loop with a minimum addition of extra nitrogen. This also means that the composition of the gas firing is used to establish the operating conditions of the installation of combustion by regulating the relationship of gas (by pipeline 21) of the reactor, reaching in the installation of combustion to the gas (by pipeline 6)produced by the reactor. This attitude - which can be expressed in volumetric or molar units - then defines the quantity of nitrogen required for recharging, as well as on the number of required cheap fuel. Also preferably, when the return flows in the loops of the heating and cooling remain in the absence of oxygen or in essentially the absence of oxygen. In one aspect, the method described in Fig.1 is to provide for the optimal size of the equipment, thereby preserving capital costs, but also reduces the environmental impact of the products of this method.
Although this invention has been described in connection with what is presently considered the most practical and preferred method of implementation, it should be understood that the invention is not limited to the described embodiment, but, on the contrary, it is assumed that it covers various modifications and equivalent implementation that is included in the nature and scope of the applied claims.
1. Installation for firing lignocellulosic material containing:
drier for drying lignocellulosic material to remove at least part of moisture contained in the lignocellulosic material;
the reactor firing for operation at pressures from 1 to 50 bar and at a temperature of from 100 to 1000°C, where the reactor firing generates burnt biomass from lignocellulosic material and generates gas firing;
the first loop recycling for returning gas firing back into the reactor firing;
a cooler for cooling the burned biomass, where the cooler is adapted to operate in essentially the absence of oxygen;
the second loop recycling for the return of the inert gas in the cooler and provide inert gas to the reactor firing; and
the supply line DL is the introduction of inert gas cooler;
where this unit is adapted to use an inert gas as at least part of the medium for heat transfer between the reactor firing and cooling.
2. Installation under item 1, where the cooler is a cooler fluidized bed and where the installation further comprises a cyclone for separating the cooled baked biomass from an inert gas.
3. Installation under item 1, where the inert gas contains nitrogen.
4. Installation under item 1, where the specified desiccant adapted to remove the moisture present in the lignocellulosic material, so that the absolute moisture content of the lignocellulosic material is less than 15% of the total mass of lignocellulosic material.
5. Installation under item 1, where the specified dehumidifier consumes the energy of the hot gas at temperatures up to 1000°C.
6. Installation under item 1, where the specified reactor kiln operates at a pressure of from 5 to 20 bar.
7. Installation under item 1, where the specified reactor kiln operated at a temperature of approximately 220-300°C.
8. Installation under item 1, additionally containing a pellet mill is for pressing solid burnt biomass obtained from the cooler.
9. Installation under item 1, additionally containing separator air for separation into at least a first stream containing oxygen, and a second thread, the content is of ASI nitrogen, where nitrogen is used as inert gas.
10. Installation under item 1, additionally containing a device for combustion of at least oxygen and part of the gas firing, obtained in the reactor firing.
11. Installation according to p. 10, where the device combustion produces flue gas fed to the dehydrator for drying lignocellulosic material.
12. The firing method of lignocellulosic material containing phases, where:
dried lignocellulosic material to remove at least part of moisture contained in the lignocellulosic material;
carry out the reaction of the dried lignocellulosic material at a pressure of from 1 to 50 bar and at a temperature of from 100 to 1000°C in the reactor firing, generating burnt biomass and gas firing;
return at least part of the gas firing back into the reactor firing;
cool the burned biomass in the cooler, operating in essentially the absence of oxygen;
return the inert gas in the cooler and return the inert gas in the reactor firing;
serves incremental inert gas in the cooler;
where this method uses an inert gas as at least part of the medium for heat transfer between the reactor firing and cooling.
13. The method according to p. 12, where the cooler is a cooler fluidized bed and where the method further contains the it phase separation of burned biomass and inert gas in the cyclone.
14. The method according to p. 12, where the specified inert gas contains nitrogen.
15. The method according to p. 12, where the step of drying removes the moisture present in the lignocellulosic material, so that the absolute moisture content of the lignocellulosic material is less than 15% of the total mass of lignocellulosic material.
16. The method according to p. 12, further containing the step, where you burn at least oxygen and part of the gas firing, obtained in the reactor firing, receiving hot flue gas.
17. The method according to p. 16, further containing the step serving hot flue gas in the drier at a temperature up to 1000°C.
18. The method according to p. 12, further containing the step where pressed into a solid pellet fired biomass obtained from the cooler.
19. The method according to p. 12, further containing the step, where you share the air on at least the first stream containing oxygen, and a second stream containing nitrogen, and using nitrogen as the inert gas.
20. The method according to p. 12, where the reaction of the dried lignocellulosic material is performed at a pressure from 5 to 20 bar.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of activating coal particles in a vertical axially symmetrical annular chamber by batchwise loading of the area under the hearth with size-fractioned particles, heating, removing moisture and volatile substances, as well as cooling with organised ascending-descending annular circulatory movement of particles with heated and cooled flue gases and steam, fed from the side of the roof cover by axial vertically descending streams, removal during activation and release into the furnace of a heat-producing apparatus of gaseous activation products, batchwise unloading of activated cooled particles from the area under the hearth, characterised by that circulation of particles in the ascending-descending annular stream is carried out by axial vertically descending streams of heated flue gases at the first, then a mixture of heated flue gases and steam and at the end cooled flue gases, fed into the annular chamber. The volume of the loaded portions of coal particles Vy=(0.1-0.7)VK the volume of the annular chamber, m3; the speed of the medium in the ascending branch of the circulation annular stream wn=(0.1-0.6)w0 the speed of the axial vertically descending stream of flue gases and steam, m/s; and content of oxygen in the fed axial vertically descending streams maintained at O2=(0.04-0.16).
EFFECT: maximum removal of volatile substances from coal particles with minimum burning of coke residue, providing maximum sorption activity of the obtained product.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes preparation, pre-heating and tempering of source oil stock, at the same time moist oil stock is exposed to grinding to fraction of 0-25 mm, dried by internal smoke gases with rated speed of 60-90 m/sec and temperature of 350-400°C in the suspended layer with fountain-like circulation of coke particles to 0.5-2% of moisture content, exposed to cyclone separation with provision of trap ratio of more than 97% and with sifting of dust-like particles with fraction from 0 to less than 2 mm, which is treated with greasing agent with consumption of 0.5-1.0 wt %, per 1 one of coke, and stabilised hot coke with T-60-90°C of fraction more than 2-25 mm is tempered in a rotary drum furnace.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase productivity of tempering furnaces, to stabilise process mode of coke tempering, to improve quality of oil coke, to reduce specific power inputs, to produce commercial product, to reduce anthropogenic emissions into environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an increase in quality of carbon-containing materials by means of thermal processing using method of direct contact of material with heat-bearing medium and removing moisture from material. Carbon-containing materials, which have the first level of balanced content, are subjected to direct contact with heat-bearing medium under pressure to heat the material and remove moisture therefrom to the second level of moisture content being lower than the first one and to reduce the level of balanced moisture content to the value which lies between the first and the second level of the balanced moisture content, with further separation of released moisture from material. Plant for processing carbon-containing materials incorporates technological apparatus with material loading chamber, input and output devices for loading and discharging material from the chamber, input device for supply of heat-bearing medium into technological apparatus for direct contact with material, ventilation window for gas removal, draining device for water discharge and separator, which serves as a means of separation of liquid and hard particles of the material.
EFFECT: chances to remove undesirable admixtures from material and minimisation of residual moisture when processing carbon-containing materials.
57 cl, 9 dwg, 6 ex
FIELD: briquetting brown coal in regions remote from consumer.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes grinding the coal, heat treatment, mixing with binder and molding. Coal is mixed with binder at pyrolysis of coal fines and "chocolate"-shaped plates are molded in between polymer films.
EFFECT: reduced wear of briquettes in transit; reduced consumption of binder.
FIELD: metallurgy, oil refining industry and coke-chemical industry; calcining of carbon-bearing materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertinent to production of calcined carbon-bearing materials, in particular, to production of graphitized electrodes and anodic mass and may be used in metallurgical, oil refining, coke-chemical industries. A method of calcinations of the carbon-bearing materials provides for a preliminary heating of materials. Simultaneously with the process of calcination they conduct preheating of the material in a heater in the mode of a counter-flow of heat produced during reburning of a waste gas generated during calcination of the carbon-bearing material. The preliminary heating of the material preferably should be realized at the temperatures not exceeding 350-400°С. The invention allows to increase the furnace performance by 20% and to reduce a specific consumption of fuel by 50%.
EFFECT: the invention ensures significant increase of the furnace productivity and high reduction a specific consumption of the fuel.
2 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel briquettes including grinding of wood wastes, their mixing, drying and pelletizing. Note here that briquette comprises an extra element composed of core of compacted asp saw dust with hole for drawbar.
EFFECT: higher calorific capacity, higher ecological and fire safety at application, transportation and storage.
FIELD: physics; control.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to systems for controlling pressure and temperature of a reactor and can be used in reactors containing an aqueous solution at temperature close to the boiling point of the solution. The system for controlling pressure and temperature of chemical reactor, in which a hydrothermal biomass carbonisation reaction takes place, includes: a) a reservoir 21 with at least one pressure control device, b) a connecting pipe between the reservoir 21 and the reactor 18 and c) a device for injecting condensates into the reactor.
EFFECT: invention enables to use process water to reduce reactor temperature, reduces the cost of cleaning and maintaining the system and provides pressure and temperature stability.
24 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing briquettes of straw of grain crops, which is shredded and then compacted, at that the shredded straw is preliminary dried to a moisture content of 15-20%, and then is fed to a screw extruder and is gradually compressed up until it is heated to a temperature above the 290°C and its density is no more than 1.3 g/cm3, then the resulting mass is extruded in the form of a cylinder having a uniform structure, and during the extrusion a constant temperature not exceeding 340° is maintained in the forming die of the extruder. Also the device for manufacturing briquettes from shredded straw is disclosed.
EFFECT: resulting briquettes have a uniform stable form, which does not change during long-term storage.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an agent for ignition, comprising a plurality of spiral twisted fibres of combustible material coated with agent improving combustion, applied by spraying method, at that the means for ignition comprises an inner part and an outer part, and the outer part density ranges from 0.03 to 0.13 kg/m3, and the inner part density is from about 0.15 to 0.5 g/cm3, at that the fuel material is wood, a the agent improving combustion is wax. The invention also relates to a method of manufacturing the agent for ignition, according to which the initial twisting of fibres of combustible material is carried out to obtain a rope, the agent improving combustion is applied to the rope by spraying method, the final twisting of the rope is carried out to the desired density, and the rope is divided into pieces of suitable length.
EFFECT: present invention can be used to facilitate ignition of wood, coal and other combustible materials in furnaces, fireplaces, fires, etc.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to making the granules or briquettes from lignine-bearing material. Proposed process includes the steps that follow. Said lignine-bearing material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor. Said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for 1-12 minutes. Pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes. Invention relates also to lignine-bearing granule or briquette used as fuel source and produced as indicated above. Besides, it relates to production of granules or briquettes from biomass. This process includes the steps that follow. Material with moisture content under 30 wt % is fed into reactor, said material is heated to 180-235°C by steam injection into reactor for at least 1 minute, pressure is dropped to form processed material to granules or briquettes.
EFFECT: better physical properties, ease of transportation and storage, higher output power of fuel combustors.
24 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for briquetting of biowaste of animals and birds, comprising a loading hopper, a conical auger installed in the hollow body, a scraper conveyor arranged in the lower part of the body, a spring-loaded plate in the form of a ski is installed at the side of the conical auger top at the outlet from the body. It additionally comprises a mixer made of a body, nozzles for input of a filler and an aggregate, besides, along the vertical axis of the mixer body there is a rotor with blades arranged at the angle to each other, the lower part of the mixer via the gate and the pipeline is connected to the lower part of the device for mixing of the material with the binder made of a body and a nozzle of binder injection, inside the body on its opposite sides there are two augers in the form of a spiral with the opposite winding rotating with the help of electric motors, at the outer side of the device body for mixing along its perimeter there is a coil with a coolant. Blades installed on the rotor of the mixer have the shape of a rectangular triangle. Application of the proposed device makes it possible to use biowaste of animals (manure, dung), and also to use local resource in the form of easily available and environment-safe materials.
EFFECT: produced briquettes are used for heat production.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.
EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.
15 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel from compacted biomass whereat moist biomass is dried prior to compaction. Before drying, biomass is mechanically dewatered for decrease in moisture content and ground before mechanical dewatering. Note that biomass is ground to puree state, rubbed to obtain fiber and subjected to fine grinding to destruct cellular structures to biomass consistency varying from paste to fluid. Invention relates also to appliance for producing fuel from compacted biomass. Fine grinding allows better removal of water either mechanically or at preliminary dewatering.
EFFECT: decreased amount of contaminants released in combustion and boiler corrosion, higher combustion heat and ash fusion point.
11 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: described is fuel, which is a mixture, one component of which consists of partially dehydrated spent grains from production of bioethanol and the other component consists of ground materials, where the ratio of the weight of sodium and the weight of potassium in ash residues to the weight of other incombustible components is less than 1:5.85 and/or that ratio varies based on achieving a melting point of ash of said mixture higher than 760°C. Also described is a method of producing fuel, a method of producing heat energy from fuel and an apparatus for carrying out said method.
EFFECT: comprehensive processing of spent grains in order to produce energy using an environmentally friendly technology, which does not produce undesirable wastes which require recycling.
41 cl, 11 ex, 6 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for processing dewatered sludge of waste water treatment plants to fuel briquettes shaped as cylinders includes dosing and mixing of solid components and sludge produced by waste water treatment plants in mixer, formation of mixture and subsequent drying of briquette-shaped fuel; it is distinguished by delivery of prepared and mixed in mixer mass to special-purpose rotary-pulsing apparatus where mixture under pressure of 15-20 MPa is subjected to mechanical activation, homogenisation and restructuring; then it is hold within 2-3 hours, thereafter it is enriched by oil sludge and fed to moulding extruder; at that sludge of waste water treatment plants with water content of 55-25 % by weight is used; briquettes are dried at 70÷80°C during 30÷50 minutes or at room temperature during 2÷3 days till it reaches humidity of 17÷22%; at that shaped fuel contains the following components, by wt %: - fine solid components containing wooden and raw plant material, peat, coal slack - 40-70%, oil sludge - 5-6%, sludge of waste water treatment plants - remaining part.
EFFECT: produced fuel has high mechanical strength that allows reducing costs for its storage, loading, unloading and transportation.
1 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: pyrolisis liquid is formed by pyrolysis from a raw material with a biobase with the formation of a gaseous pyrolysis product with the pypolysis in the pyrolysis reactor; after that, the product is condensed with obtaining the pyrolysis liquid in a condenser, circulating gas is supplied into the pyrolysis reactor, with circulating gas being transported by a liquid ring compressor into the pyrolysis reactor, being purified before its supply into the pyrolysis reactor; the pyrolysis liquid is used as a liquid layer in the liquid ring compressor. A device for production of the pyrolysis liquid includes, at least, the pyrolysis reactor (1), in which the gaseous pyrolysis product (2) is formed by the pyrolysis of the raw material which has the biobase, supply means (3) of the raw material, which has the biobase, for the supply of the raw material, which has the biobase, into the pyrolysis reactor, the condenser (4), in which the gaseous pyrolysis product (2) is condensed with obtaining the pyrolysis liquid (5), means of gas supply for supply of circulating gas (7) into the pyrolysis reactor, means of circulating gas (7) circulation to provide circulation of circulating gas from the condenser to the pyrolysis reactor, with an installation including the liquid ring compressor (6) for transportation of circulating gas (7) into the pyrolysis reactor from the condenser (4) and purification of circulating gas, the installation includes means of the compressor liquid circulation for transportation of the pyrolysis liquid (5a), used as the liquid layer in the liquid ring compressor from the condenser (4) into the liquid ring compressor (6) and from the liquid ring compressor (6) back into the condenser (4).
EFFECT: pyrolysis liquid from the raw material on the biobase works well as the liquid layer of the liquid ring compressor with an increase of circulating gas quality.
9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex