Spacecraft nuclear propulsion system

FIELD: physics, atomic power.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to atomic power engineering and space-rocket engineering. The spacecraft nuclear propulsion system comprises a heater - gas-cooled nuclear reactor, a cooler, a recuperative heat exchanger, a pipe system with a gaseous working medium, coaxial turbine-compressor-electric power generator, electric jet engines, an automatic control system with measurement and control means. The number of loops of the turbine-compressor-electric power generator with equal electric power is a multiple of two with opposite direction of rotation of rotors of the turbine-compressor-electric power generator in each pair, wherein the pipe system connects the output of the heater - gas-cooled nuclear reactor with the input of each turbine, and the output of the turbine with the input of the channel of the heated gaseous working medium of its recuperative heat exchanger, the output of the channel of the heated gaseous working medium of the recuperative heat exchanger with the input of its cooler, the output of the cooler with the input of its compressor, the output of the compressor with the input of the channel of the cold gaseous working medium of its recuperative heat exchanger, the output of the channel of the cold gaseous working medium of each recuperative heat exchanger with the input of the heater - gas-cooled nuclear reactor.

EFFECT: high efficiency and reliability of the spacecraft nuclear propulsion system.

19 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to atomic energy and space engineering and can be used to create energy, mobility, and power propulsion units to solve problems associated with the delivery of SPACECRAFT (SC) into orbit operation and subsequent long-term energy supply equipment SPACECRAFT, as well as ensuring optimal accelerated expeditions to distant planets and deep space.

Known nuclear power installed (Yu, Demenko, Century, Konyukhov, A. S. Koroteev and other Nuclear rocket engines, LLC Norm-inform", Moscow, 2001, pp. 163-168)containing the nuclear reactor system storage and supply of the working fluid, a nozzle and a machine for converting thermal energy of a nuclear reactor in an electric are now sold in propulsion and power modes of operation: pull in the nuclear rocket engine and electric power in the power mode to power on-Board equipment of the AC generated in the closed loop system machine for converting thermal energy nuclear reactor electric. Loss of the working fluid through the nozzle make installation inefficient.

Known terrestrial nuclear power systems machine for converting thermal energy into electrical energy (EN No. 2447524 from 10.10.2008, and RU # 2122248 from 29.08.1995,) which does not allow to use them for the purposes of rocket and space technology (CT).

Known nuclear power plant (aedu), developed for CT (RU # 2276814 from 27.06.2005,) containing a nuclear reactor, the closed-loop system machine for converting thermal energy of a nuclear reactor in electrical, control system, an electric generator driven by the turbine and compressor (turbopump Assembly), the electric circuit of the rocket engine with its storage system and the feed motor propellant. The closed-loop system machine for converting thermal energy into electrical energy, in addition to heater (gas cooled nuclear reactor), turbine, compressor and generator even includes a refrigerator and a heat exchanger to use in their work turbogenerator thermodynamic cycle, sometimes called the Brayton cycle (see for example A. A. Kumandin, S. C. Timashev, V. P. Ivanov Energy system of the spacecraft, M, engineering, 1972, pp. 282-286). Single electric propulsion motors have a finite capacity. However, modern CT requires the use of large capacity in order for me to have the required level of thrust and specific impulse. With increasing power increases the instability of the AC, the gyroscopic moment of the units requires compensation, which further consumes the energy and movement of the working body. A single powerful AGR is Gata reduce the probability of failure and reduce the overall reliability aedu in General.

The technical result achieved in the implementation of the claimed invention, is to increase the efficiency and reliability of aedu CA, including large assigned resources life in space (on orbits when travelling between the orbits and in far space).

This technical result is achieved by the fact that jaadu KA, containing the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor, a refrigerator, a heat exchanger, a piping system with a gaseous working fluid (included), coaxial turbine-compressor-generator (TAG), electric propulsion engines (ERE), the automatic control system (ACS) with the means of measurement and control, characterized in that the number of contours TAG with equal electric power fold two opposite direction of rotation of the rotors TAG in each pair, while the piping system connects the output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor entrance of each turbine, the outlet of the turbine with the entrance channel heated included in your heat exchanger, the outlet tract heated included in the heat exchanger to the input of your fridge, fridge with the entrance of your compressor, the outlet of the compressor with the inlet channel cold included in your heat exchanger, the outlet duct cold included in each of the heat exchanger with the inlet of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor, the situation provided with a device for changing the pressure included in system transformation and distribution of electrical energy (SPREE), where each generator is connected via a switch SAU to each ERD their group and equal electric power ballast load collected from equal sections corresponding to the number of families in the group, in which one section is divided into equal parts and one single item submitted continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power, while SPREE equipped with devices to control the start of each generator mode of the electric motor from an external source of AC power and switch SAU is equipped with an electronic serial keys simultaneously activate at least two families, pairs of opposed spaced about the axis of the direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT, and electronic keys enable payload.

The resulting closed-loop piping system allows for a single heater to have a whole set turbomachine converters TAG, generating electricity. The number of contours TAG with equal electric power fold two opposite direction of rotation of the rotors TAG in each pair, so regardless of the number TAG in Aadu total gyroscopic effect is equal to zero and does not require compensation for additional expenditure of energy and movement of the working fluid in the system Orient the AI jaadu KA, that raises efficiency Aadu. When developing and debugging the design of the TAG circuit is equal to the electrical power is facilitated training design and greatly increases the reliability of aedu in General.

Electric power Aadu is determined by the heat capacity of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor. A nuclear reactor operates at a certain operating temperature that is optimal for its constructive elements, the TAG operates at a certain rotation frequency of the rotor of the turbine and compressor, the optimal thermodynamic power conversion cycle in a particular design. For regulating electric power Aadu need to regulate the heat output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor and TAG. At constant above the optimal parameters of the power the TAG can be adjusted by adjusting the mass flow included in a closed loop. Aadu provided with a device for changing the pressure included, which accordingly adjusts the mass flow included through a nuclear reactor and a TAG (with increasing power increases the pressure included when power is reduced reduces the pressure included). The aggregates at constant optimal parameters significantly improves the reliability of Aadu, including large is x is assigned the resources of life.

Aadu equipped with a system conversion and distribution of energy energy (SPREE), where each generator is connected via a switch SAU to each ERD their group. In this case, since the power of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor can be easily controlled, and the capacity of each ERD fixed, to maintain consistency in the optimal parameters of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor and TAG each generator through the switch SAU connected to the ballast load, which is equal to electric power their group ERE collected from equal sections corresponding to the number of families in the group, in which one section is divided into equal parts and one single item submitted continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power. Team SAU heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor of its comprehensive system of control and protection (CSUS) increases smoothly thermal capacity, the device changes the pressure included in "makes" this power of the reactor in the TAG, and the generator through the switch SAU resets additional electric power on a single element, which is filed with continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power. While achieving full capacity of a single switch element SAU off uchet it at the same time including equal element. The cycle is repeated as many times as equal elements in the section of the ballast load. Then switch the control system off section with equal elements, simultaneously including equal section of the ballast load or one ERD from this group each generator. Discussed the distinctive features allow you to implement any program of on/off Aadu to their consumers, with the observed gradual changes in the heat output of heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor and the corresponding electric power TCGP remain constant with respect to their optimal settings. As noted earlier, the work units Aadu at constant optimal parameters significantly improves the reliability of Aadu, including large assigned resources of life.

Group of electric propulsion thrusters are located on the farm Aadu equidistant from the longitudinal axis, and the inclusion of ERD one cause unwrapping the moment, which requires their compensation with an additional expenditure of energy and movement of the working fluid in the system orientation jaadu KA. Supply switch SAU electronic serial keys simultaneously activate at least two families, pairs of opposed spaced from siteline axis direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT, leads to the fact that the total unwrapping moment equal to zero and does not require their compensation, which also increases the efficiency Aadu. In addition, the switch SAU equipped with electronic keys enable payload.

For the initial launch Aadu SPREE equipped with devices to control the start of each generator mode of the electric motor from an external source of AC power (battery and solar). Inverter with variable frequency spins the rotor TAG to the frequency at which when the initial values of temperature of heating of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor and pressure included in the pipe system, the output of the turbine exceeds the power required by the compressor to the power value of idling TAG.

The combination discussed above distinguishing features provides obtaining the claimed technical result is to increase the efficiency and reliability of aedu CA, including large assigned resources of life.

In addition, to improve the efficiency and reliability of jaadu KA can be provided with the following features of the construct.

At the inlet of each compressor is installed valve is included for closing the channel of the pipeline when broken TAG or iseghem failure. The output of each compressor through continuously from SAU offline adjustable bypass valve connected to the outlet of the turbine. Acting on the bypass valve, the ACS supports the constancy of the optimal value of rotor speed TAG.

The output of each compressor through the inductor is connected via an auxiliary refrigerator to the inlet side of the generator and then through the outlet of the generator is connected to the input of the refrigerator or along the rotor TGK - with the input of the compressor. The pressure included the largest after the compressor, the part included is directed for cooling the stator windings of the generator and constant replacement of gas medium between the rotor and stator, the heating due to friction losses.

Piping system provided with a multi-layered insulating elements located both inside and outside sections of pipelines. The insulation serves to protect the structural load-bearing elements from exposure to high temperature and to reduce heat loss by radiation into space.

The device changes the pressure included contains a container of stock included in the bypass flow valve included in the system piping and pump-compressor pump included from a piping system in the vessel, the pressure monitoring. If included is a mixture of gases, the current capacity with the stock included connects cooking system included containing cylinders with several gases, valves bypass the mixer and managing the detector composition included.

Each refrigerator is made with triple channel liquid working fluid, the inputs and the outputs of which are connected with a fridge emitter and transfer pump. With increasing power Aadu to reset low-grade heat radiation requires all large surfaces that are easier to organize in separate refrigerators-emitters, without creating additional resistance in the path included. Refrigerators-emitters are combined in the path of liquid working fluid in a common block that has the inputs and outputs to each refrigerator. Fridge-emitter can be performed on partitioned and each partition is connected to the cooling circuit of a facility working at various temperatures. Some sections of the refrigerator emitter can be equipped with a generator drops and intake free flying droplet of the liquid flow of the working fluid. The organization of reset low-grade heat in a thermodynamic cycle Aadu direct impact on its effectiveness and efficiency

Heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor with the purpose of saving weight supplied partitioned radiation protection, blocks which are distributed in zones of acceptable levels of exposure e is the elements of design and electronic components installed and the AC.

SPREE made in the form of several electric circuits, no galvanic connection between them, each connected to its power supply and is equipped with the inverter devices full range of voltages and capacities for power consumers. An electric generator having a rotor with permanent magnets, generates three-phase alternating current of high frequency, which is then converted and distributed to consumers. This generator, in some cases, circuit optimization by weight, can have multiple independent windings with different voltage level.

Switch SAU equipped with electronic keys Association of DC electric power of several generators to power the payload of the SPACECRAFT. Switching AC would have caused an additional problem synchronizing frequency.

In the case of four generators and more switch SAU supplied electronic serial keys simultaneous operation of the four families, symmetrically located crosswise relative to the axis of the direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT. Since the circuit included in the total, then set the power in the four TAG and transfer it into four ERD is more symmetric energy process, and, in addition, the choice of the propulsion, specifically spatial location is different, raises efficiency Aadu, because it does not cause uncompensated unwrapping moments.

Optimization of circuit design Aadu and in the further development of electronic component base on all ballast load of each generator can be made continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation adopted electronic power.

SAU contains the block maintain the desired rotational speed of the rotors TAG associated with a by-pass valve and a single element of a ballast load of each TAG, block increasing/decreasing the effective capacity of the installation associated with the device to change the pressure included and the device to change the heat output of heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor, the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable ERD/off section of the ballast load and, accordingly, off ERS/enable section of the ballast load and the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable payload/off sections of the ballast load and, accordingly, off payload/include sections of the ballast load. All these blocks control the devices mentioned earlier and providing persistence values of optimal parameters Aadu: temperature of heating of the heater - gas cooled poison is REGO reactor and frequency of rotation of the rotors TAG.

Thus, the set of distinctive features ensures the achievement of the claimed technical result improves the efficiency and reliability of aedu CA, including large assigned resources of life.

The invention presents 2 schemes. In Fig.1 shows a pneumatic diagram of Fig.2 - electrical structural diagram jaadu KA.

Turbine 1, a compressor 2 and a generator 3 are aligned (Fig.1). Piping system connects the heater - gas cooled reactor 4 to the input of each of the turbine 1, the outlet of the turbine 1 with the inlet channel heated included in your heat exchanger 5, the output path of the heated included in the heat exchanger 5 to the input of your refrigerator 6, the output of the refrigerator 6 to the input of your compressor 2 compressor 2 with the inlet channel cold included in your heat exchanger 5, the output path of the cold included in each of the heat exchanger 5 with the inlet of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4. At the inlet of the compressor 2 is installed valve 7. Between the inlet of the compressor 2 and the output of your turbine 1 is a bypass valve 8. The output of the compressor 2 is also connected through a throttle 9 and the auxiliary refrigerator 10 to the inlet side of the generator 3, the outlet of which is connected to the input of your refrigerator 6. Piping system provided with a device 11 changes the value of the pressure included.

The generator 3 is connected (Fig.2) to the conversion system and power distribution 12, which generates the necessary voltages and capacities, and then through the switch 13 is connected to each ERD his group 14 and equal electric power ballast load 15, collected from equal sections corresponding to the number of families in group 14, in which one section is divided into equal parts and one single item 16 filed continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power. The switch 13 is also equipped with electronic keys enable payload 17. To enable aedu system 12 is equipped with a device launch 18 each generator 3 in electric mode from an external source of AC power.

The device operates as follows. After removal Aadu on the reference orbit produce disclosure farms Aadu with the nomination of a nuclear reactor 4 with Turbomachinery converters far ahead. SPREE 12 is located along the farm and at the other end of it, which also hosted the switch 13 SAU, ERD 14, the ballast load 15, the payload device 17 run 18, the instrument-compartment SAU.

In jaadu KA implemented azotobacteraceae thermodynamic cycle (sometimes called the Brayton cycle, which consists of the Vuh Isobar, the respective processes of heating and cooling, and, in the ideal case, the two isotrop corresponding to the processes of compression and expansion. For this part Aadu put the heater 4 and the refrigerator 6 included in the turbine 1 and the compressor 2. Useful power equal to the difference between the work of expansion included in the turbine 1 and the work of compression in the compressor 2 at a constant flow rate included (circulation) in the pipe system, taking into account different temperatures included in front of the turbine 1 and the compressor 2 due to, respectively, heat in the heater 4 and the cooling in the refrigerator 6. The heat exchanger 5 can improve the overall conversion efficiency. By changing the kind of gas and the composition included in its flow (circulation along the contour), the ratio of the heating temperatures in the heater 4 and the cooling in the refrigerator 6 included in the circuit, the degree of expansion in the turbine 1 and the compression in the compressor 2 included in the circuit is calculated required capacity of the installation for the nominal steady-state operation.

Heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 through CSOS is heated to the initial temperature, the pipeline system is already filled included with the initial pressure, is heated, if necessary, the individual elements of the pneumatic circuit (CBC) install and begin to spin the generators 3 in electric mode from device launch 18. Electricity is eresa from the battery and solar panels of the SPACECRAFT. Inverter with variable frequency increases the frequency of rotation of the rotors of the generators-motors 3, this increases the speed of circulation included in the circuit and increasing the second flow included. Starting from a certain moment there is a retaining loop, i.e., receive redundant power turbine 1, exceeding the compression costs included in the compressor 2, the friction and heat losses in the circuit TAG. The device launch 18 is turned off. Setting out on some electric power, which further SAU increases to capacity idle. The temperature of the heating heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 and the rotational speed of the rotors TAG 1-2-3 brought to the optimum set values.

To activate the propulsion system, which consists of a number of electric propulsion thrusters, perform the following procedure. By command of ACS CSUS increases thermal capacity of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 and the device 11 pressure changes included increases the pressure included in the piping system, while maintaining the temperature included in the output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 constant and equal to the optimal value. Increasing the power generator 3 is made of a single element 16, which is filed with continuous from SAU offline R. the regulation, take electric power. While achieving full capacity of a single switch element 16 SAU 13 turns it off, at the same time including an equal element in this section of the ballast load 15. The cycle is repeated as many times as equal elements contained in this section of the ballast load 15. Then switch SAU 13 turns off the section with equal elements, while including other equal section of the ballast load 15 or one ERD 14 from this group each generator 3. You can type electric power to several equal sections ballast load corresponding to the amount of power consumers payload 17, and simultaneously to turn it off loaded equal sections ballast load 15. You can gain full power at all equal sections ballast load and then use all ERD 14 this group each generator 3. Logic switch SAU 13 allows you to simultaneously include not less than two ERD 14, opposed pairs located on the farm Aadu about the axis of the direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT, usually coinciding with the longitudinal axis X installation and KA.

The transition to idling occurs in the reverse sequence of the above described cycles. CSUS reduces thermal output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4, the device 11 changes the pressure included siphoning pump-to what impressora part included keeping the temperature included in the output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 constant and equal to the optimal value, the electric power from one ERD 14 thrown into equal elements section of the ballast load 15, and the identity element 16 gradually reduces the received electric power under the continuous action from SAU Autonomous regulation. Reaching zero power on a single element 16 switch SAU 13 disables equal element in this section and at the same time again includes a single element 16, at the same time this single element 16 begins again to reduce the received power. The cycle is repeated as many times as equal elements contained in this section of the ballast load 15. Then switch SAU 13 disables another of equal section, at the same time again, including a section of a ballast load 15 with equal elements with a single element 16. Because electric power ballast load 15 is equal to the power ERD 14 this group each generator 13, you can disable all families, bringing power to all sections of the ballast load 15, and, by repeating the above cycle, a smooth transition to the idle mode. Similarly produced and disabling payload 17. The process of reducing the power Aadu slower than the process in which helicene power, due to the radiation of inertia of a nuclear reactor. Note that when consumers payload portion of the electric is turned off so that the total power consumption does not exceed the rated power Aadu.

If the damage is any TAG can be switched off by the valve 7, thereby eliminating the overflow included. The output of each of the compressor 2 through continuously from SAU offline adjustable bypass valve 8 is connected to the outlet of the turbine 1, which is essential for maintaining the constancy of the speed of the rotors TAG 1-2-3. The output of each of the compressor 2 through the throttle 9 is connected through an auxiliary refrigerator 10 to the inlet side of the generator 3, then through the outlet of the generator 3 to the input of the refrigerator 6 or along the rotor TCGP 2-3 with the inlet of the compressor 2 (in the latter case, when unsealed cavities of compressor 2 and a generator 3 from each other). It is necessary to cool the stator windings of the generator 3 and the change included between the rotor and stator, the heating due to friction losses. The piping between the turbine 1 and the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 and the heat exchanger 5 is provided with a multilayer insulating elements located both inside and outside sections of piping; piping between the heat exchanger 5 and the heater - gas cooled nuclear is eaction 4 provided with a multilayer insulating elements, located outside. Internal insulation is used to protect structural load-bearing elements from exposure to high temperature, to reduce heat loss by radiation into space. The device 11 changes the pressure included contains a container of stock included in the bypass flow valve included in the system piping and pump-compressor pump included from a piping system in the vessel, the pressure monitoring. If included is a mixture of gases (e.g. helium, with the addition of xenon), to capacity with the stock included connects the system preparation included containing gas cylinders, valves bypass the mixer and managing the detector composition included. Each refrigerator 6 is made with triple channel liquid working fluid, the inputs and the outputs of which are connected with a fridge emitter and transfer pump. At high power Aadu to reset low-grade heat radiation requires a large surface, which is easier to arrange for extra refrigerators-emitters, without creating resistance in the path included. Refrigerators-emitters are combined in the path of liquid working fluid in a common block that has the inputs and outputs to each refrigerator 6.

Fridge-emitter can be performed on partitioned, and each partition are connected to the modern contours of the cooling installation working at different values of temperature. Some sections of the refrigerator emitter can be equipped with a generator drops and intake free flying droplet of the liquid flow of the working fluid. Heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 is supplied partitioned radiation protection, blocks which are distributed in zones of acceptable levels of exposure of structural elements and electronic components installed and the AC. SPREE 12 made in the form of several electric circuits, no galvanic connection between them, each connected to your generator 3 and is provided with the inverter devices full range of voltages and capacities for power consumers. Standard: the DC voltage of 28.5 and 100 C. high voltage for the electric propulsion unit 14 and the payload 17, for example, 3x-phase voltage of 2000 V and 1000 Hz, the DC voltage of 4.5 kV.

The generator 3 having a rotor with permanent magnets, when the speed of 60000 rpm and generates three-phase current with a frequency of 1000 Hz. SPREE 12 converts it into a constant current of 4.5 kV and 100 In and 28.5 C. In some cases, the generator 3 can have several independent windings with different voltage levels. Switch SAU 13 is equipped with an electronic key enabling consumers payload 17 with the possibility the firm joins DC electric power of several generators 3 meals payload 17. Switching AC would cause the additional problem of synchronization of generators 3 frequency. In the case of four generators 3 or more in the composition Aadu switch SAU 13 supplied electronic serial keys simultaneous operation of the four ERD 14, symmetrically located crosswise relative to the axis of the direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT. Since the circuit included in the total, then set the power in the four TAG and transfer it into four ERD 14 sections of the ballast load 15 is more symmetric energy process; moreover, the choice ERD 14, specifically spatially arranged, raises efficiency Aadu, because it does not cause uncompensated unwrapping moments. With appropriate development of electronic component base on all ballast load 15 can be made continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power. SAU contains the block maintain the desired rotational speed of the rotors 1-2-3 TAG associated with the bypass valve 8 and a single element 16 ballast load 15 of each generator 3, block increasing/decreasing the effective capacity of the installation associated with the device 11 changes the pressure included and the device CSUS change the heat output of heater - gas cooled nuclear reaction is ora 4, the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable ERD 14/off section of the ballast load 15 and, respectively, off ERE 14/enable section of the ballast load 15 and the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable payload 17/off sections of the ballast load 15 and, respectively, off the payload 17/activate partitions ballast load 15. All these blocks control devices for changing modes Aadu with persistence values of optimal parameters Aadu: temperature of heating of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor 4 and the rotational speed of the rotors 1-2-3 TAG.

At the moment this invention, a mathematical model was developed and conducted a mock design of the individual units.

1. Nuclear power and the installation of a SPACECRAFT (SC)containing the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor, a refrigerator, a heat exchanger, a piping system with a gaseous working fluid (included), coaxial turbine-compressor-generator (TAG), electric propulsion engines (ERE), the automatic control system (ACS) with the means of measurement and control, characterized in that the number of contours TAG with equal electric power fold two opposite direction of rotation of the rotor is in the TCGP in each pair, when this piping system connects the output of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor entrance of each turbine, the outlet of the turbine with the inlet channel heated included in your heat exchanger, the outlet tract heated included in the heat exchanger to the input of your fridge, fridge with the entrance of your compressor, the outlet of the compressor with the inlet channel cold included in your heat exchanger, the outlet duct cold included in each of the heat exchanger with the inlet of the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor, the plant is equipped with a device to change the pressure included in system transformation and distribution of electrical energy (SPREE), where each generator is connected via a switch SAU to each ERD their group and equal to her electric power ballast load collected from equal sections corresponding to the number of families in the group, in which one section is divided into equal parts and one single item submitted continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power, while SPREE equipped with devices to control the start of each generator mode of the electric motor from an external source of AC power and switch SAU is equipped with an electronic serial keys simultaneously activate at least two families, pairs of opposed spaced relative to the part axis direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT, and electronic keys enable payload.

2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the inlet of each compressor is installed valve included.

3. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the output of each compressor through continuously from SAU offline adjustable bypass valve connected to the outlet of the turbine.

4. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the output of each compressor through the inductor is connected via an auxiliary refrigerator to the inlet side of the generator and through the outlet of the generator is connected to the input of the refrigerator.

5. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the output of each compressor through the inductor is connected via an auxiliary refrigerator to the inlet side of the generator and forth along the rotor TAG with the input of the compressor.

6. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the piping system is equipped with multi-layer insulating elements located both inside and outside sections of the pipeline.

7. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the device changes the pressure included contains a container of stock included in the bypass flow valve included in the system piping and pump-compressor pump included from a piping system into the tank, gauges, pressure control.

8. Installation according to p. 7, characterized in that capacity with reserve included connected the cooking system included containing cylinders with several gases, valves bypass the mixer and managing the detector composition included.

9. Installation under item 1, characterized in that each refrigerator is made with triple channel liquid working fluid, the inputs and the outputs of which are connected with a fridge-emitter and pumping the pump.

10. Installation under item 9, characterized in that refrigerator-emitters are grouped on the path of liquid working fluid in a common block that has the inputs and outputs to each refrigerator.

11. Installation according to p. 10, characterized in that the refrigerator-emitter performed partitioned and each partition is connected to the cooling circuit of a facility working at various temperatures.

12. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that the part of sections of the refrigerator emitter is equipped with a generator drops and intake free flying droplet of the liquid flow of the working fluid.

13. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the heater - gas cooled nuclear reactor equipped with a partitioned radiation protection, blocks which are distributed in zones of acceptable levels of exposure of structural elements and electronic components installed and the AC.

14. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the generators have several independent windings with different voltage level.

15. The mouth of the transportation under item 1, characterized in that SPREE made in the form of several electric circuits, no galvanic connection between them, each connected to its power supply and is equipped with the inverter devices full range of voltages and capacities for power users.

16. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the switch SAU equipped with electronic keys Association of DC electric power of several generators to power the payload of the SPACECRAFT.

17. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the switch SAU equipped with electronic key serial simultaneous operation of the four families, symmetrically located crosswise relative to the axis of the direction of flight of the SPACECRAFT.

18. Installation under item 1, characterized in that at all ballast load of each generator served continuous from SAU Autonomous regulation of the received electric power.

19. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the SAU contains the block maintain the desired rotational speed of the rotors TAG associated with a by-pass valve and a single element of a ballast load of each TAG, block increasing/decreasing the effective capacity of the installation associated with the device to change the pressure included and the device to change the heat output of heater - gas cooled I the cluster of the reactor, the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable ERD/off section of the ballast load and, accordingly, off ERS/enable section of the ballast load and the control unit electronic keys synchronous enable payload/off sections of the ballast load and, accordingly, off payload/include sections of the ballast load.



 

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1 dwg

FIELD: nuclear power engineering, space rocketry; power plants and propulsion systems.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method provides for operation of proposed nuclear propulsion system in two modes: (a) propulsion mode afforded by nuclear engine loop wherein working medium is supplied through turbine-driven pump unit to reactor, the latter is heated, and gas flows out of nozzle for throttling; (b) power generation mode in which electrical energy is produced in closed loop of system for computer-aided conversion of nuclear reactor heat energy into electricity. Propulsion mode is effected due to additional introduction of electric motor circuit in NPS. Motor is started in response to signal arriving from control system for feeding working medium to power-driven propellers. The latter provide for additional thrust and additional electrical energy is produced in power generation mode within nuclear engine loop due to using part of working medium heated in nuclear reactor and introducing additional electric generator. Working medium is supplied to turbine-driven pump unit. Spent working medium used for the purpose is returned to nuclear reactor for reuse.

EFFECT: enlarged functional capabilities, minimized mass and size of nuclear propulsion system.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: industrial structures that can be used for building underground nuclear power stations.

SUBSTANCE: proposed nuclear power station has process units incorporated in single nuclear power unit which are disposed in underground openings. Power unit has reactor and turbogenerator plants with shipment-and-processing compartment and associated systems for recovering radioactive wastes provided with exits to surface; water circulating system; plenum-exhaust ventilation system; cable routes and transport-service lines. Underground openings for receiving mentioned units are located at two communicating levels. At least one unit, system for accumulating and recovering radioactive wastes, and plenum-exhaust ventilation system are disposed at upper level. Spent nuclear fuel storage and radioactive waste burial ground are disposed at lower level. Like ends of tunnels for these units are communicating through tunnels for transport-service lines with tunnels for accommodating reactor plant. The latter is disposed in deepened caisson and provided with insulating containment. The latter, caisson wall, and partition form solid and tight vacuum enclosure joined with shipment-and-processing compartment of unit. Reactor plant of power unit uses liquid-metal cooled fast reactor.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and environmental friendliness in power generation, as well as nuclear and radiation safety of power station.

18 cl, 2 dwg

The invention relates to the field of power system using nuclear reactors for high-temperature sources of heat, Stirling engines, and is designed as a combined power plants for Autonomous objects

The invention relates to nuclear energy, in particular for space nuclear power plants

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used in carrier rockets.. Proposed rocket comprises head unit with payload, parallel separable rocket stages with multichamber engines with fuel tanks shaped to torus, tapered tail, short central body at first stage, single trough-like nozzle at second stage, bottom part composed of outer and inner cones composed by outer and inner surfaces of short central body shell and inner surface of single trough-like nozzle shell. Fuel tanks and single trough-like nozzle are arranged inside short central body between first-stage tanks.

EFFECT: decreased bottom resistance, higher specific pulse.

5 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, particularly, to astronaut operation in weightlessness. Proposed holder comprises retainer composed by wire (made of afterflow material) in non-metallic sheath, ring at retainer end in diameter comparable with sized of fingers of inflated space-suit glove, lever with opening in diameter comparable with retainer diameter.

EFFECT: higher safety of articles retention in open space.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, particularly, to astronaut operation in weightlessness. Proposed holder comprises retainer composed by wire (made of afterflow material) in non-metallic sheath, rings at retainer end in diameter comparable with sized of fingers of inflated space-suit glove.

EFFECT: higher safety of articles retention in open space.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: pulse is obtained by ejection of gasified liquid residues of unused components of rocket propellants (RP). Pulse is generated by combustion of unused components of rocket propellants (RP) on rocket gas engine combustion chamber. Volume of unused propellant residues is limited to divide a second heat carrier mass flow rate into parts, one being fed in tank section confined by the screen while another portion being fed into tank second part. Amount of fed heat carrier is defined proceeding from evaporation of residual propellant component drops. Device for withdrawal of separable carrier rocket section comprises oxidiser and propellant tanks, tank supercharging system, rocket gas engine with feed and gasification systems. It incorporates feed lines with acoustic radiators (calculated proceeding from minimum mass loses for gasification by preset amounts of propellant and pressure). Said separation screen is calculated proceeding from surface tension force.

EFFECT: reduced power consumption for gasification.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used for attachment and separation of cluster-configuration of carrier rocket. Proposed device comprises air operated pusher, attachment assembles and lock. Air operated pusher comprises cylinder with rod equipped with turn keys, spherical joint with ball lock and retainer piston, structural rod secured at bearing structure nearby wall second stage. Cylinder comprises extra cavity for rod pull-in.

EFFECT: higher reliability, decreased weight.

3 cl, 9 dwg

Spacecraft // 2520811

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design and thermal control of spacecraft in weight of up to 100 kg launched as parallel payloads. Spacecraft unpressurised parallelepiped-like container has cellular panels (3, 4, 5) with instruments (2) installed threat. Heat from instruments (2) is uniformly distributed over said cellular panels by means of manifold heat pipes (6). Note here that instruments are stabilised thermally. Notable decrease in instrument heat release switches on the electric heaters at upper cellular panel (3). This allows a tolerable temperature of instruments to be ensured by cellular panel and heat pipes (6). Lower cellular panel (4) is directed towards the Earth and represents a radiator design. Upper and lower panels are interconnected by adjustable diagonal struts (8). Shield-vacuum heat insulation (9) is arranged at lateral faces of instrument container without cellular panel. Said insulation is arranged at screen structure secured at cellular panel, on inner side of solar battery panes (1).

EFFECT: decreased weight, enhanced performances on mini- and micro-spacecraft.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cosmonautics and can be used for safeguarding Earth against collision with dangerous cosmic body. Moon launch missile system comprises launching table located directly on the Moon surface, thermal casing placed on launching table and having opening cover at the top, mirrored outer surface and inner surface covered with heat insulating material (teflon, polytetrafluoroethylene, polychlorotrifluoroethylene, crystalline copolymer of ethane with tetrafluoroethylene), temperature-control system with heat accumulators and heater, power source, jet-propulsion solid-fuel missile with payload of 5-9 tons and takeoff mass of 20-30 tons. The launching table in the central part has translating cover to exhaust gases during missile takeoff.

EFFECT: invention permits to improve the Earth safety against collision with dangerous cosmic body.

6 cl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used for increasing the radiation safety of manned spaceship crew. Spaceship comprises shuttle unit, working compartment, power plat with fuel store and adaptor stage. The latter is provided with hatches with tight covers and is arranged inside fuel tank to communicated working compartment with shuttle unit. At increased radiation level the crew moves into adapter stage to be isolated by covers.

EFFECT: higher radiation safety.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aerospace engineering and can be used at lunar rocket launching complexes (LLC). Nearby LCC, on lunar surface, arranged are thermal jacket with heat accumulators, pump station, solar batteries and storage battery, thermal jacket outer surface being coated with light-reflecting film while outer surface with heat-insulation panels. Heat accumulators are filled with liquid heat carrier to half of their volume to heat its by the heat of celestial bodies at opening the covers of said thermal jacket with the help of open/close system light sensors during natural lunar day. Temperature of LCC structure elements and rocket liquid propellant components is measured during natural lunar night LCC structure elements and rocket liquid propellant components are heated by pumping liquid heat carrier heated from celestial bodies via said components and elements from charged thermal accumulators into empty thermal accumulators during the entire natural lunar night with the help of pump station pumps supplied from solar batteries or storage battery.

EFFECT: higher reliability of heating system during long-term operation of LCC.

5 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to thioethers, suitable for application in sealant composition, which contain the structure described by formula (I): -[-S-(RX)p-(R1X)q-R2-]n- (I), in which (a) each of R which can be identical or different stands for C2-10 n-alkylene group; C2-10 branched alkylene group; C6-8 cycloalkylene group; C6-14 alkylcycloalkylene; or C8-10 alkylarylene group ; (b) each of R1, which can be identical or different stands for C1-10 n-alkylene group; C2-10 branched alkylene group; C6-8 cycloalkylene group; C6-14 alkylcycloalkylene; or C8-10 alkylarylene group; (c) each of R2, which can be identical or different stands for C2-10 n-alkylene group; C2-10 branched alkylene group; C6-8 cycloalkylene group; C6-14 alkylcycloalkylene; or C8-10 alkylarylene group ; (d) X stands for O; (e) p has value in the range from 1 to 5; (f) q has value in the range from 0 to 5; (g) n has value in the range from 1 to 60; and (h) R and R1 are different from each other. Also described is method of obtaining such thioethers, sealant compositions which contain them, as well as aerospace flying apparatuses, which contain surface with coating containing thioethers, or a hole, sealed with a sealant composition, which contains thioethers.

EFFECT: obtaining novel thioethers, possessing excellent fuel resistance and resistance to higher temperature with reduced expenditures.

32 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; cryogenic stages of space rockets.

SUBSTANCE: according for first version, oxidizer supply unit is shifted in transversal direction and is secured in lower point of convex part of lower head plate of oxidizer tank, thus forming additional space in inter-tank compartment in axial direction; this space is used for displacement of cruise engine together with fuel tank towards oxidizer tank. According to second version, oxidizer supply unit is secured on concave part of lower head plate of oxidizer tank. Full suction of oxidizer from tank is performed by means of passages of intake unit introduced into concave part of lower head plate of oxidizer tank and used for coupling the lower zone of oxidizer tank with oxidizer supply unit inlet.

EFFECT: improved mass characteristics due to reduction of overall dimensions in length.

2 dwg

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