Piezoelectric shock pick-up

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: shock pick-up includes piezoelectric working medium and recording system. The working medium is made of piezoceramics with cohesion of 3-0 with maximum values of voltage index g33. At that the pick-up has an additional a resonating piezoelectric cell for calibration, which surface is coupled to the working medium surface.

EFFECT: increasing sensitivity of the piezoelectric pick-up at minimum weight, potential calibration and functional check in zero gravity conditions.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to electronic devices, and more particularly to piezoelectronic, the transducers of mechanical energy into electrical energy, the sensors kick and other

Well-known application of the piezoelectric elements uses the fact that during the deformation of the piezoelectric element in it is the charge transfer is a direct piezoelectric effect. On the other hand, the piezoelectric elements are also to purposefully influence the detail, in particular to deform it, when the piezoelectric element, on the contrary, serves voltage and use the resulting deformation of the reverse piezoelectric effect.

Known piezoelectric sensor is a Converter of mechanical energy into electrical energy due to the deformation of the piezoceramic element mechanical effects (impacts).

Known piezoelectric actuator Converter applied thereto electrical signals into mechanical force.

It is widely known application of piezoelectric sensors in the diagnostic systems of the car and the car alarm systems.

Mechanical impact of the piston on the housing in an internal combustion engine cause mechanical vibrations of the engine block, which in the working body of the knock sensor is a piezoelectric element is converted by a direct piezoeffect is in electrical signal. Piezoelectric sensors are used for registration of stroke and actuation of safety systems in cars.

The disadvantages of these structures are weak sensitivity to small mechanical stress, a lot of weight and the inability to estimate the magnitude of the impact.

Occurs when a mechanical impact on the piezosensor charge Q is determined by the formula

Q=F·dij,

where F is force,

dij- the value of piezomodulus.

For piezoceramic sensors connectivity 3-0, representing a porous piezoelectric ceramics with closed pores or cavities filled with a second phase, the determining factor is the longitudinal piezomodulus therefore, dij=d33.

When measuring the recorded quantity is the potential difference U that occur at the electrodes of the working fluid sensor

U=Q/C,

where C is the capacity of the working fluid sensor, andC~kε33Twhereε33Tthe absolute permittivity of the piezoelectric material of the working body of the sensor, therefore,

U~Fkd 33/ε33T=Fkg33,

where k is a factor determined by the geometry of the working fluid sensor, the properties of the measuring circuits;

g33is the piezoelectric stress coefficient of the piezoelectric material of the working fluid (piezocrystals).

Minimum detectable value of the force F is determined by the minimum values of the measured value U, depending on many factors, so a one-to-one correspondence between the measured value U and the force F is determined experimentally. This process is called calibration (calibration, scaling). As a specific influencing quantities use, for example, the impulse of the impact of a solid body (ball) of a certain mass, which they throw on the sensor with a known speed (from a height) and construct a calibration graph of U from mV, where m is the mass of the ball, V is the velocity at impact.

The multifactorial nature of the dependence of the recorded acting force F from the measured piezoelectric sensor potential difference U leads to the conclusion that to achieve high precision measurements of the piezoelectric shock sensor should be its calibration prior to the each dimension.

Disclosure of inventions

The problem to which this invention is directed, is the achievement of the technical result consists in creating a shock sensor with high piezocrystals with minimum weight, with the possibility of calibration and verification of the operability of the sensor even in the absence of gravity.

The problem is solved by the presence of piezoelectric shock sensor of the working fluid, is made of a piezoelectric composite connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics with a maximum value of piezocrystals g33and the surface of the working body are mechanically connected to a surface of a piezoelectric resonator for calibration; another distinguishing feature is that the resonator for calibration is made in the form of a multilayer piezoelectric element.

The most important characteristic of the piezoelectric elements is piezocrystals g33

g33=d33/ε33T

Significantly improve piezocrystals allows the transition to composite materials due to the significant decrease in the dielectric constant of the piezoelectric material the material of the working fluid sensor ε 33compared to dense magnetoactive material.

Use as a working body sensor piezoelectric composite connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics with a maximum value of piezocrystals g33(currently, according to the OST 110444-87 the highest value of g33the material sjpc-36) provides the maximum sensitivity of the sensor at the minimum, due to the porosity, the weight while maintaining sufficient for the manufacture of a working body of the sensor mechanical q-factor. Depending on the porosity characteristics of the piezoelectric composite connectivity 3-0-based piezoceramics shown in Fig.1. Longitudinal piezoelectric module d33with increasing porosity up to 40% almost unchanged (Fig.1A), and the relative dielectric constant ofε33T/ε0decreases (Fig.1B), the coefficient of piezocrystals g33increases with increasing porosity (Fig.1B). Increase volume piezomodulus dv(Fig.1A) while reducingε33T(Fig.1B) is accompanied by a sharp increase in values about the roadways to piezocrystals g vwith the appropriate efficiency piezomaterial in receive mode.

Use as a working body sensor piezoelectric composite connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics also provides increased attenuation of the undesirable transverse vibrations in the working body of the sensor, since the magnitude of the transverse piezomodulus d31when the porosity decreases (Fig.1A).

When the application to the piezoelectric-resonator potential difference there is a rearrangement of the domain structure and the increase in the size N of the piezoelectric element by the value of ΔN (elongation of the piezoelectric element). The center of gravity of the piezoelectric element is moved by the value L=ΔH/2 during the reconstruction of the domain structure, buying at the end of the movement velocity V and momentum mV, which is transmitted to the piezoelectric working body of the sensor (Fig.2).

For piezoelement resonator is constructed of the calibration dependence of the momentum mV from the applied potential difference.

Calibration of the piezoelectric sensor is carried out by the changes applied to the piezoelectric-resonator is mechanically connected with the working surface of the sensors, the difference of potentials, using the previously obtained calibration dependence.

The expansion of the range of reliable measurements of the piezoelectric sensor is directly related to the prob is gnosti of the piezoelectric resonator to the extension.

Use for calibration multi-layer piezoelectric element dramatically increases the range of variation of the dimensions of the piezoelectric element by applying to the electrodes a potential difference U, which is illustrated by the following examples.

The elongation of the piezoelectric element δ [n] for the case of monolithic piezoelectric resonator (Fig.3A) is determined by the formula

ΔN=N·E·d33=0.01 m·104I/m·400·10-12m/=4·10-8m=0,04 µm,

where H=0.01 m is the length of the piezoelectric element,

E=U/H=104B/m, the electric field in the piezoelectric element,

U=100 V - potential difference,

d33=400·10-12m/b is the longitudinal piezomodulus.

Multilayer piezo-resonator (IPE) consists of layers of piezoelectric ceramics with a thickness h=5 0 μm=50·10-6m between the metal electrodes to a thickness of 3-5 μm, the layers are mechanically connected in series and electrically in parallel, as the capacitor (Fig.3b). When the supply voltage is 100 V field strength in the ceramic layers of IPE up to 2 kV/mm, and the thickness of each layer is to increase ΔN length of the piezoelectric element N.

The elongation of the piezoelectric element δ [n] for the case of multilayer piezoelectric resonator (Fig.3b) is determined by the formula

ΔN=N·E·d33=0.01 m·2·106I/m·400·1012m/=8·10-6 m=8 μm,

where N is the length of the piezoelectric element,

E=U/h=1·106/M - e tension is aktionscode field in the piezoelectric element,

U=100 V - potential difference,

h - the thickness of the layer of piezoelectric ceramics,

d33=400·10-12m/b is the longitudinal piezomodulus.

Thus, the use for calibration multi-layer piezoelectric element increases the range of variation of the dimensions of the piezoelectric element by applying to the electrodes a potential difference U is more than two orders of magnitude (200 times).

Theoretical calculations of the stresses arising from the application to the piezoelectric-resonator voltage Up,equal to 100 V and 1 V for the working fluid 30×25×1 mm composite 3-0-based material sjpc-36P, and the piezoelectric resonator 50 layer monolithic piezoelectric element, are shown in Table 1.

Resulting voltage 427 and 4,27 differ In 100 times and can be measured.

Thus, the distinctive features of the invention are: the presence in the piezoelectric shock sensor of the working fluid, is made of a piezoelectric composite, connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics with a maximum value of the stress ratio g33and mechanically connected to the surface of the working body of the piezoelectric resonator for calibration; another distinguishing feature is that the resonator for calibration is made in the form of a multilayer piezoelectric element.

The embodiments of the invention are explained using the accompanying drawings Phi is .1-3, Table 1.

Fig.1A. The dependence of pesumably d from the porosity p of ceramics with closed porosity.

d33- longitudinal piezomodulus;

dvvolume piezomodulus;

d31- cross piezomodulus.

Fig.1B. The dependence of relative permittivity ofε33T/ε0from the porosity p of ceramics with closed porosity.

Fig.1B. The dependence of piezocrystals g33from the porosity p of ceramics with closed porosity.

Fig.2. The inventive piezoelectric shock sensor, where:

1 - working body of the sensor is made of a piezoelectric composite, connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics with a maximum value of the stress ratio g33,

2 - the working surface of the piezoelectric working body of the sensor,

3 - piezo-resonator for calibration,

4 - move the center of gravity of the piezoelectric element when applying a potential difference (voltage),

5 is a pulse that occurs when moving, and the recoil impulse.

Fig.3. The design of the piezoelectric resonator for calibration: (a) monolithic piezo-resonator, b) multilayer piezo-resonator.

Table 1. Theoretical calculations of the stresses arising in applied and the piezoelectric-resonator voltage U pequal to 100 V and 1 V for the working fluid 30×25×1 mm composite 3-0-based material sjpc-36P, and the piezoelectric resonator 50 layer monolithic piezoelectric element.

The implementation of the invention.

The choice of materials and Assembly on a concrete example.

From piezoceramic materials included in the OST 11 0444-87, the maximum value of piezocrystals characterized piezoelectric ceramic CTS-36

g33=d3333=221·10-12CL/N/(700 cent to 8.85 10-12F/m)=357·10-4In·m/N

Piezoelectric composite connectivity 3-0-based piezoelectric ceramics CTS-36 is marked as porous piezoceramics CTS-36P, and is characterized less by 23% density and higher value of stress ratio

g33=d3333=176·10-12CL/N/a(462 cent to 8.85 10-12F/m)==540·10-4In·m/N (the values of d33and ε33experimentally obtained and is close to the values given on the website of JSC "NII ELPA" [http://www.elpapiezo.ru/porous.shtml]).

The working body of the sensor is made of porous piezoceramics CTS-36P, in the form of a piezoelectric-plate size 30-0,2× 25-0,2× 1,0-0,01mm, with continuous metallization planes 30-0,2× 25-0,2mm and polarization in the direction perpendicular to the planes.

Multilayer piezo-resonator for calibration is made on the technology with the use of laid down the nogo casting, when powder of piezoelectric ceramics with a solution of an organic ligaments prepare a slurry, which through the die plate, pour on a moving surface, dried, and get a flexible, thin raw film of powder of piezoelectric ceramics and organic ligament thickness 60 μm; the "raw" film is cut into blanks, each cover through sectretary metal-containing paste; procurement quantity 50 pieces stacked on each other in the package, and the bottom and top of the package are 2-4 non-plated layer of the film; the package is pressed and cut into a layered raw blanks, each of which size 7,2 x 7,2×3.2 mm is of the 50 layers of raw ceramic film with a metal-containing paste, heat treatment transforms the raw blanks sintered in a 50-layer monolith dimensions 6 x 6 x 2.5 mm of alternating layers of ceramic with a thickness of 50 μm and the internal electrodes to a thickness of 3-5 μm, odd and even layers which extend on the opposite side of the surface, where they connect the outer electrodes so that the sintered 50 layer monolith is a capacitor with gaskets made of ceramics; application to the side electrodes of a DC electric field voltage 100-120 V at a temperature of 100°C ceramics polarize; 50 is formed g-layer monolithic piezo with insulating layers on the ends of the top and reduce the. This multilayer piezo grind the ends and connected, for example glued, preferably close to the center, to the surface of the working body of the shock sensor.

Piezoelectric shock sensor can be manufactured on standard equipment manufactured piezoelectric ceramics.

Table 1
The formulas and parametersValues for Up=100Values for Uo=1B
The parameters of the piezoelectric resonator
The number of piezoelectric elements nn=50n=50
Density ρ8·103kg/m38·103kg/m3
The thickness of the layer of piezoelectric ceramics h50·10-6m50·10-6m
Mass m=(a×a×H)·p(6×6×2,5)×8=720·10-6kg(6×6×2,5)×8=720·10-6kg
Side resonator and6·10-3m6·10-3m
The height of the resonator N2,5·10-3m2,5·10-3m
d33400·10-12KL/R400·10-12CL/N
The voltage on the resonator Up1001B
E=Up/h100B/0.05 m=2·103/M1B/0.05 m=2·101/M
ΔN=N·E·d332,5·10-3m·2·103V/m 400·10-12CL/N=2·10-6m2,5·10-3m·2·101V/m 400·10-12CL/N=2·10-8m
L=ΔH/21·10-6m1·10-8m
The speed of sound in the resonator With≈3·103m/s≈3·103m/s
Time "polarization" τ=h/C50·10-6m/3·103m/s≈17·10-950·10-6/3·103m/s≈17·10-9
Accelerationand=2L/τ22·10-6m/(17)2·10· c≈6,92·109m/s220·10-9m/(17)2·10-18c≈6,92·107m/s2
The velocity V of the center of gravity at the end of the motion V=andτ≈6,92·109m/c2·17·10-9C=117,6·m/s=6,92·107m/s2·17·10-9C=1,176 m/s
The momentum p=mVp=720·10-6kg·of 117.6 m/s=84,67·10-3kg·m/cP=720·10-6kg·1,176 m/c=84,67·10-5kg·m/c
p=Fτ
Force F=p/τ
(0,08467 kg·m/s)/17·10-9≈4,981·106N84,67·10-5kg·m/c/17·10-9c=4,981·104H
Force F=ma720·10-6kg·6,92·109m/c2=4982,4·103m/s2=≈4982,4·103N≈720·10-6kg 6,92 107m/s2=49824 10-12kg m/s2=49,82·103N
The parameters of the working fluid
The density ρ, ·103kg/m35,855,85
The thickness of the piezoelectric element h, 1·10-6m11
Mass m=(a×a×h) p=(30×25×1) 5,85·10-6kg=30*25*1*5.85·10-9·103kg=4,39·10-3kg-30*25*1*5.85·10-9kg =4,39·10-3kg
The container, F. (experiment)3500·10-123500·10-12
d33(experiment)300·10-12CL/N300·10-12CL/N
The resulting charge Q=F·d334982,4·103N·300·10-12CL/H=1494·10-6CL49,8·103H·400·10-12CL/H=14,94·10-6CL
The voltage U=Q/S=1494·10-6CL/3500·10-12F≈0.427·103In=14,94·10-6CL/3500·10-12F≈4.27 B

1. Piezoelectric shock sensor comprising a piezoelectric actuating and registration system, characterized in that the working body made of piezoelectric ceramics connectivity 3-0 with a maximum value of the stress ratio g33moreover , the sensor further comprises a piezo-resonator for calibration, the surface of which is connected to the surface of the working body.

2. Piezoelectric shock sensor under item 1, characterized in that h is of the piezo-resonator for calibration is made in the form of a multilayer piezoelectric element.

3. Piezoelectric shock sensor under item 1, characterized in that the surface of the piezo-resonator for calibration and the surface of the working body are connected by bonding.

4. Piezoelectric shock sensor under item 1, characterized in that the surface of the piezo-resonator for calibration and the surface of the working body are connected mechanically.



 

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SUBSTANCE: at the first stage of manufacture preparation of component parts and assemblies takes place that is manufacture of an armour ring of spring steel, of a ring nozzle with a conic external facet of a tungsten alloy, a titanium hexagonal foundation and a cup-type body with a coaxial connector or a cable. The second stage involves fixation of the assembly in the vertical axial fixture of the electroerosion wire-cutting machine-tool, making three vertical grooves in fixed positions, mounting sensor elements, press-fitting or hot shrink fit of the armour ring on the ring nozzle with piezoelectric elements, making horizontal radial sections under the armour ring for an inertial mass formation and installation and fixation of the body and connection to the outlet of the preliminary amplifier of the connector.

EFFECT: invention allows to use in the transducer various materials for the foundation and inertial masses which enables to deliver small-scale sizes combined with high sensitivity and self frequency due to addition of a preliminary amplifier to the transducer design which amplifier is connected to the sensor elements while the manufacture method proper involves a minimum quantity of operations.

5 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: vibration-frequency micromechanical accelerometer has a substrate (1) made from dielectric material, an inertial mass (2) with a centre hole (3), support element (4) and an additional support element (5), mounted on the substrate (1) and placed in the centre hole (3). The inertial mass (2) is linked to the support element (4) through elastic members (6). A resonator (7) is mounted on one side to the inertial mass (2) and on the other side to the additional support element (5), is a movable electrode and, together with fixed electrodes (8), is an oscillation exciting-pick up system.

EFFECT: accelerometer enables to measure the value of the current linear acceleration in the direction of axis X with high accuracy owing to a frequency-domain output signal and high Q-factor of oscillations of the resonator.

2 cl, 2 dwg

Accelerometer // 2421736

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: accelerometer has an elastically deformable element 1 made from piezoelectric material, attached on one side to a holder 2, and on the other side to an inertial mass 3. The elastically deformable element 1 has on both sides identical cuts 4 and 5, over which low-temperature glass soldering is used to symmetrically attach ends of plates 6 and 7 of measuring piezoelectric elements with SAW or VAW - structures with possibility of their longitudinal compression-stretching. The holder 2 and the inertial mass 3 may be made from material of the elastically deformable element - piezoelectric material, and their crystallographic axes are aligned identically with crystallographic axes of the elastically deformable element 1 and plates 6 and 7. The material of the elastically deformable element 1 may be a metal alloy with constant modulus of elasticity in the working temperature range, and plates 6 and 7 are attached by their ends using glue or glass-to-metal soldering. The material of the elastically deformable element 1 may be a composite material on which there is a metal layer. Plates 6 and 7 are attached by their ends by soldering and their electrodes are made by etching the metal layer of the elastically deformable element. The inertial mass 3 may be an elongated section of the elastically deformable element 1. Plates 6 and 7 may be attached by their ends in rectangular cuts 4 and 5 flush with surfaces of the elastically deformable element and with a gap to the bottom of these cuts.

EFFECT: reduced measurement error, high accuracy and sensitivity of the device.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in lightning object with optical radiation, in conversion of reflected signal into autodyne signal and in recording its power. Further the signal is digitised and analysed. Value of object acceleration is determined by solving an inverse problem defining minimum of functional: where a is linear acceleration of an object, Pexsp are experimental values of the autodyne signal, Ptheor are theoretical values of the autodyne signal, θ is phase incursion of the autodyne signal, t is time interval of the autodyne signal. The exact value of global minimum is found by the method of descent along sought-for parametres θ and a.

EFFECT: measurement of acceleration at micro-shifts in wide dynamic range of accelerations and upgraded accuracy of absolute acceleration measurement within limits meeting modern precision devices.

4 dwg

FIELD: measurement technology.

SUBSTANCE: device can be used for measuring accelerations of objects. Liquid accelerometer has channel filled with working fluid. Two hydrostatic pressure frequency converter detectors are disposed at ends of accelerometer. Frequency converter is made in form of fiber interferometer, which has coherent light source matched optically with two fiber coils and photoreceiver connected with frequency meter through amplifier. To determining sign of acceleration the special electronic circuit is introduced into accelerometer additionally.

EFFECT: optical output signal at output of accelerometer.

3 cl, 3 dwg

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