Method of marking explosive substance

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical methods of expertise of explosive substances and forensic identifying preparations. A method of marking an explosive substance consists in the introduction of a marking composition, containing identifiers, the quantity of which equals the quantity of technical parameters to be marked, into the explosive substance, obtained by mixing of separate components. To mark the explosive substance each separate component, included into the mixture of the explosive substance, is marked. The marking composition for each separate component is composed of at least one polymer material from the group of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of a molecular chain, representing an identifier, different from lengths of molecular chains and values of viscosity of polymer materials in the marking compositions of other separate components, constituting the mixture of the explosive substance. As the marking composition of the explosive substance a set of marking compositions of separate components of the said substance mixture is used.

EFFECT: improvement of marking.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to chemical methods for the examination of explosives (e) and forensic identification of drugs and can be used in investigative, investigative, forensic and litigation practice.

Investigation various sorts of circumstances produced with the use of explosives), require not only determine the type of explosive device and applied explosives, but also the establishment of the manufacturer of this CENTURY, as well as tracing its way from the producer to the place of use, or trafficking. Investigate industrial accidents involving EXPLOSIVES, as a rule, require the establishment date of manufacture and loading of their wells (holes) in order to further investigate compliance with technology CENTURIES and its loader. A number of mining companies by production blasting uses of industrial EXPLOSIVES (including emulsion)supplied from several manufacturers. Often prepare the unit can be charged multiple types of EXPLOSIVES from several manufacturers. This makes it difficult to identify the causes of failure, and makes it impossible for unequivocal identification of the manufacturer and type of EXPLOSIVES in the failed well. In addition, the merits of the t problem identification accidentally lost CENTURIES if they are detected.

To address these questions apply various technical merits of the methods of marking of explosives.

For example, there is a method of marking explosives, including introduction into explosive marking composition containing the IDs, the number of which is equal to the number of technical indicators, be labeled, while imposing identifiers with messagingattachment, chemical resistance in environments with any pH range, resistance to free radicals, chemical inertness to the components of the explosive, the lack of properties of surface-active substances of the 1st kind, chemical inertness to the products of the explosion and the absence of toxic properties, as identifiers use polymethylsiloxane (PMS) or polyethylsiloxane (PES), or their mixture (RU # 2368591, C06B 23/00, G01N 33/22, publ. 27.09.2009).

In the known method for the manufacture of EXPLOSIVES use of surface-active substances (surfactants) of the 2nd kind (when creating a reverse or "invert" emulsions). If the IDs will have surfactant properties of the 1-St kind, their insertion into the emulsion will break it. For this reason, a sign of lack of properties of surface-active substances of the 1st kind is also significant - polymethylsiloxane and polyethylsiloxane properties of surfactants do not possess. After the explosion of whom is onenew CENTURIES derived new chemical substances which identifiers should not react, i.e. they must have chemical inertness to the products of the explosion. Polymethylsiloxane and polyethylsiloxane chemically inert to the products of the explosion.

However, as a result of the research showed that this method has some drawbacks, which can in some circumstances lead to inaccurate or unreliable identify EXPLOSIVES, and often to its technical impossibility in practice:

- the explosion of an explosive charge, marked the prototype method, a polymer chain markers partially disintegrate - can form new connections with shorter polymer chains. The newly formed short polymers may be analogues of markers from another manufacturer other explosives. The analysis results will be ambiguous - as it will be found traces of the markers of several manufacturers and/or several explosives;

data markers may technically be found on such important subjects-the media as "the hand surface of the suspected person, using existing and emerging research methods, as a mixture of polymethylsiloxanes (PMS) and polyethylsiloxane (PES) macroinjection and will be UD is to privatise a long time in podozerova layer of the skin of the person, but the possible errors due to the prevalence of these compounds (e.g., PES - in-cosmetics: lipstick), which again leads to the loss of the most important "kriminalistichesky relevant information";

- the use of a mixture of polymethylsiloxanes (PMS) and polyethylsiloxane (PES) is a significant deficiency, as PES, in contrast to PMS, have considerably less "thermodynamic stability and will be stronger "disintegrate" and interact with the products of the explosion;

the use of this information coding method has a considerable complex and expensive, as it requires expensive instrumentation, and equipment ("gel permeation chromatography") and rather complicated methods for evaluation of the results.

In addition, BB is a mixture consisting of separate components, the characteristics of each of them separately in the binary system can be well read the chromatogram. But when mixing the individual components recombination codes by summation of polymer components with the same or nearly the length of the molecular chains. This is clearly seen on the chromatogram in Fig.1.

Thus, there is a method of encryption marking code set of units has the disadvantage of mixing significant a single is t marked by mixing materials what does the average marking mixtures individually marked materials.

The present invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result consists in increasing the accuracy of the identification CENTURIES by its code of identification to facilitate identification and detection of code and the ability to identify structural components from which the mixture is cooked.

This technical result is achieved by a method for marking explosives, which consists in the introduction into explosive, which is obtained by mixing the individual components, the marking composition containing the IDs, the number of which is equal to the number of technical indicators, be labeled, for marking explosives carry out the marking of each individual component, which is included in the mixture of explosives, thus marking composition for each individual component consists of at least one polymeric material, the length of the molecular chain, which is the ID, which is different from the length of the molecular chains of polymer materials in marking compositions of other separate components, the components of the explosive mixture substances, and as a marking composition of the explosive use set arkaroola compositions of individual components of the mixture of this substance.

The marking compositions of each individual component used polymers having messagingattachment, chemical resistance in environments with any pH range, resistance to free radicals, chemical inertness to the components of the explosive, the lack of properties of surface-active substances of the 1st kind, chemical inertness to the products of the explosion and the absence of toxic properties.

These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.

According to the present invention discusses a new way of labelling of explosives, which is based on the marking of EXPLOSIVES marking composition containing the identifiers, which are in turn marking identifiers of components or materials, which are prepared by mixing the mixture.

In Fig.1 is a chromatogram of a mixture of the prototype;

Fig.2 is a chromatogram of the mixture of example 1;

Fig.3 is a chromatogram of the mixture according to example 2.

A way of marking CENTURIES, introduced into the mixture of explosive substances obtained by mixing the individual components, the marking composition, based on the fact that every single feature included in the mixture is subjected to pre is prior to mixing the individual marking, not coinciding with similar markings introduced in other components of the mixture.

The marking composition for each individual component consists of at least one polymeric material, the length of the molecular chain, which is the identifier which is different from the length of the molecular chains of polymer materials in marking compositions other individual components that comprise a mixture of explosives. Thus, as a marking composition of the explosive used a set of marking compositions of the individual components of the mixture of this substance.

In General polymeric materials for marking compositions of each individual component selected from a number of polymers having messagingattachment, chemical resistance in environments with any pH range, resistance to free radicals, chemical inertness to the components of the explosive, the lack of properties of surface-active substances of the 1st kind, chemical inertness to the products of the explosion and the absence of toxic properties. For example, in the quality of marking compositions of each individual component can be used polyorganosiloxanes (oligoaniline) with different lengths of the molecular chains. The use of a polymer with fixed-length molecular is epoki as marking component is possible, but this eliminates or simplifies the structure of the secrecy code and simplifies the process of its recognition on the chromatogram. Therefore, preferably, as marking compositions of each individual component to use a mixture of (a set) of polyorganosiloxane (oligoanilines) with different lengths of the molecular chains in which each one technical indicator corresponds to the ID in the form of polyorganosiloxane with the appropriate length of the molecular chain and the corresponding output time ("holding") on the chromatogram corresponding to the length of the molecular chain.

For each of the individual components included in the mixture, this set of individual and does not coincide with the sets for the other components, so it is pronounced identifier of the component. ID as a key or code, allows not only to identify the component of the mixture before or after applying the BB, but also to clarify the nature of its origin or manufacture (city, country, manufacturer, place of manufacture, date and so on). When mixing the individual components to obtain the CENTURIES blend and marking compositions, but as each composition is made up of a set of polymer (s) with the length of the molecular chains, different and distinct from the molecular lengths CE the next set of other individual components of the mixture CENTURIES, physical mixing does not result in the destruction or modification of the individual marking codes each component.

A feature of the inventive method is that in the marking composition or the composition for each individual component of the mixture CENTURIES can be added to individual "secret token" of the same or of a different origin than the examples. This "secret key" can be introduced in the mixing process and the preparation of a mixture of EXPLOSIVES and be an additional identifier for CENTURIES, used to get when decoding additional information about BB. This "secret key" can be readable by other technologies and other means and devices. Introduction to marking composition "secret key" increases the reliability of clarifying the nature of CENTURIES.

The choice as examples of polymers of the type polyorganosiloxanes (oligoanilines) based on a successful combination of their chemical and physical properties. The main classes of polyorganosiloxanes branched, Cyclopentanol and stair structure that can be used as identity markers"include polymethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane, polyphenylsiloxane, oligodimethylsiloxane and polymethylphenylsiloxane, polyalkyloxy with alkyl, RA is calami C4 and more from the silicon atom - Si, and some other organosilicon compounds.

To illustrate thermodynamic stability of polyorganosiloxanes table 1 shows some typical physico-chemical properties of some of the used testing as a prototype-"markers" polydimethylsiloxanes liquids production "Dow Corning@200", according to the manufacturer: source .

50
Table 1
The viscosity at 25°C (mm/s - CST),Flash point, °C (closedFlash point, °C (outdoorVolatility, % (max) weight loss after 24 h at 150°C, CST 208.
№ p/pon CTM 0004.the crucible), STM 0021.the crucible), STM 0006.
1.10>100>16310,0
2.20>100>20410,0
3.>100>2852,0
4.100>100>3150,5
5.200>100>3150,5
6.350>100>3150,5
7.1000>100>3210,5
8.10000>100>3212,0

Further experimental tests of individual charges "powerful" blasting EXPLOSIVES, mixed ammonium-Selitrennoe village CENTURIES, and industrial water-filled CENTURIES, different weight, which was added as a "prototype markers" polydimethylsiloxane fluid production "Dow Corning@200", in quantities of about 200 g per 1 ton of EXPLOSIVES (0.02% wt.) or less, showed the following:

- polydimethylsiloxane "well-found" and section which are by GLC and HPLC "explosion", including on the background of existing contamination "foreign substances" (e.g., petroleum products);

- any traces of food polydimethylsiloxane liquids lighter homologues were not detected, indicating the absence of migration of decomposition products and the destruction of polydimethylsiloxanes in looking after the explosion.

Thus, the composition of explosives for each component constituting the mixture, formed their own personal and unique "chemical barcode", the reading of which operate on the principle of the presence or absence of the component with the corresponding output time ("holding"), on the chromatogram.

Use as markers CENTURIES only mixture ("set") polyorganosiloxanes (oligoanilines) with strictly defined length of the molecules of each of the components in the mixture, allows to detect and decode the code markings in one step, using as coding data two criteria: the presence/absence of the substance on the principle of binary (0/1) and the time of their release on the chromatogram. Used when decrypting methods: - gas-liquid chromatography (GLC); - high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)chromatography - mass spectrometry "selected ions".

To mark this way you not only the AMI mixed and individual CENTURIES, but their components are inorganic oxidizing agents (ammonium nitrate grades "a", "B" and "IV").

The proposed new method is devoid of the specified disadvantage be unreadable marking mixtures individually marked materials.

The essence of the proposed method consists in the following.

For example, the marking material "And" it is necessary to place the digital code [123456789]. *≡N

To implement polymers have M-type. With the utmost length of the molecular chain M (lim), where M (lim)≡A.

Then, for the implementation of the digital code * you must have (minimize) the polymer M-type with long molecular chains.

{c=in/andN=with a×109{a=/with awith a=N×10-9the A=(a/N)×109

Moreover, the material "A" mark:

1. The introduction of a and M(lim);

2. The introduction of only a, M(lim) is stored as the secret key.

For marking various materials should take different chain polymers

(A; B; C; D; E; ...etc...), where a - vodka, TNT, nitrate, etc.

Then the mixture is then marked materials when reading will show, among other things, and component composition of the mixture on commodity components (not chemical components). Below are two examples.

1) Mixture of:

Na=║(a/a)×10-9

N=║(/B)×10-9

Nc=║(c/C)×10-9

The chromatogram shown in Fig.2

2) the Mixture chromatogram which is shown in Fig.3.

The keys a, b, C - known to a limited circle of persons.

The advantages of the proposed method of labeling VV:

- polyorganosiloxanes (oligoaniline) is highly thermodynamically stable, do not decompose during storage and microorganisms, as well as completely inert and non-toxic for humans and animals (example - "silicone implants in plastic surgery");

- polyorganosiloxanes (about yorgancilar) extremely cheap;

is their introduction in the amount of 200 g per 1 ton of EXPLOSIVES (0.02% wt.) will not lead to an appreciation of CENTURIES, nor to change explosive properties;

-polyorganosiloxanes (oligoaniline) will be soluble in podozerovym layers of human skin, will remain there for much longer than the traces of trace EXPLOSIVES that will allow flush with the surfaces of the hands of suspects to determine not only the presence of traces of EXPLOSIVES, but also to establish the fact of appeals ("contact"), with specific parties EXPLOSIVES or articles containing it;

- similarly, it will be possible to obtain such information after the date of the explosion;

- polyorganosiloxane (oligoaniline) can be marked not only the individual CENTURIES, but also the components of inorganic oxidants composite EXPLOSIVES (ammonium nitrate, for example)that are completely "off" extremely important for forensic practice, the question of its origin in the traces after the explosion" ("biological origin it or not").

This method also allows you to avoid getting the wrong result by reading individual chemical code CC by mixing two different parties CENTURIES, insensitive to the interaction of the marker with the products of the explosion themselves marker compounds cannot be completely removed by any physicochemical means of the CENTURIES, and also accounts for the peculiarities of the algorithm for writing and reading information allows you to avoid errors when decoding" if you get polyorganosiloxanes (oligoanilines) "domestic use".

1. Labelling of explosives, which consists in the introduction into explosive, which is obtained by mixing the individual components, the marking composition containing the IDs, the number of which is equal to the number of technical indicators, be labeled, characterized in that for marking explosives carry out the marking of each individual component, which is included in the mixture of explosives, thus marking composition for each individual component consists of at least one polymeric material from a number of polyorganosiloxanes with the length of the molecular chain, which is the ID, which is different from the length of the molecular chains and the values of viscosity of polymer materials in marking compositions other individual components a mixture of explosives, and as a marking composition of the explosive use a set of marking compositions of the individual components of the mixture of this substance.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the marking compositions of each individual component used polymers having messagingattachment, chemical resistance in environments with any pH range, resistance to free radicals, chemical inertness to the components of the explosive, the absence of which the influence of properties of surface-active substances of the 1st kind chemical inertness to the products of the explosion and the absence of toxic properties.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the marking compositions of each individual component, a mixture of polyorganosiloxanes with different lengths of the molecular chains in which each one technical indicator corresponds to the ID in the form of polyorganosiloxane with the appropriate length of the molecular chain and the corresponding output on the chromatogram.



 

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