Method of forming nanowires from colloidal natural material

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: in a method of forming nanowires from a colloidal natural material, based on a self-organised formation of linearly ordered nanosized current-conducting structures with a strictly specified orientation for the connection of separate micro- and nanoelectronic elements and/or formation of nanocomponents of an electronic element base, formation of structures and/or elements is carried out in one process for not more than 3 minutes under an impact of an electric constant field only with an intensity not higher than 5×103 V/m, configuration of which directly specifies both the dimensions and forms and the orientation of the nanosized current-conducting carbon structures, which are stably preserved without the application of any protective layers on a substrate from any material, including the one, containing separate micro- and nanoelectronic elements for their connection and/or for the formation of nanocomponents of the electronic element base.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the process of control of the form and location of the synthesised particles.

9 dwg

 

The invention relates to electronics and the connection methods in micro - and nonintegrally schemes.

One of the analogs of the present invention is a method of forming a conductive element nanometer size /1/, namely, that the conductive element nanometer size formed by the scan electrode located at a distance of from 2 to 100 nm from the surface of the cathode is covered with a carbon conductive environment. In an electrical circuit the anode-cathode is negative feedback, which when the scanning electrode is detected by the first random point on the surface of the cathode, characterized by a jump of conductivity (maximum U0), which is established and maintained by the voltage (in the range of from 2 to 0), which ensures the formation of the element nanometer size.

The disadvantages of this method lie in the fact that the length of the generated nanowires is limited scanning range, its location and size are determined randomly, and the formation occurs for a long time and is non-linear, mixed, caused by dynamic self-organization, the underlying formation process.

In accordance with another way /2/ for the formation of ordered one-dimensional conductive nanostructures happy without the mustache bending is used monocrystalline substrate, having a degree of spalling and/or other linear defects. The method includes vacuum condensation carried out in the specified temperature range of the substrate, the speed of condensation and during the time of formation, in which the line defects of the substrate is formed of at least one nanowire and the remainder of the substrate, the fill factor of the substrate must have a value excluding the coalescence of Islands.

The disadvantages of this method are that the optimal distance between the levels, precluding the formation of Islands on the defect-free portions of the substrate must be determined experimentally. Using this method it is difficult to create a nanowire with a given regular structure, since the surface of the substrate is not specially handled: the chips are of random nature, the presence of various linear defects.

The closest in technical essence and objectives is a way to control the shape of the synthesized particles and obtain materials and devices containing oriented anisotropic particles and nanostructures /3/. In this way multi-stage using both electric and magnetic fields is the synthesis of nanoparticles in the reaction mixture of the metal or ligand compounds are formed Langmuir m is nolo, then manageable and with a given orientation are transferred to the soft magnetic substrate and covered with a protective layer.

The disadvantages of this method is a multi-stage and complexity of a process for controlling the shape and location synthesized from the reaction mixture particles in the form of polymerized Langmuir monolayers of metal or ligand compounds, and synthesis of materials and the creation of devices built by the transfer soft substrate oriented anisotropic particles and nanostructures, in order to stabilize necessarily covered by a protective layer, using at all stages and electric, and magnetic fields.

Technical solution to address the identified shortcomings of the prototype is achieved by placing the colloidal natural carbon-containing material, in the form of an ensemble of nanoparticles with 30 nm to 70 nm, providing the formation for a period of not more than 3 minutes of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures with strictly specified orientation under the action of only constant electric field strength of not more than 5×103V/m, which allows the connection of individual micro - and nanoelectronic elements, and generate nanocomponent basic elements to create new electronic devices p is kalani.

As a result of the testing method of forming nanowires of colloidal natural material in permanent electric field strength of not more than 5×103A/m set set of essential differences from the prototype /3/, namely, that of linearly ordered nanosized conductive patterns with strictly specified orientation, to connect the individual micro - and nanoelectronic elements and/or the formation of nanocomponents electronic element base, characterized in that the formation of structures and/or elements occurs in a single process within no more than 3 minutes under the action of only constant electric field strength of not more than 5×103V/m, the configuration of which directly specifies how the size and shape, and orientation of nanoscale conductive carbon structures, which have remained stable without causing any protective layers on a substrate of any material, including micro - and nanoelectronic elements to their connections and/or for the formation of nanocomponents electronic components.

For the formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures from colloidal natural carbon-containing material applied design, presents n is Fig.1, with the distance between the electrodes: 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm, the processes of ordering are illustrated by the diagrams shown in Fig.2 for illustration of the first stage, and Fig.3 for illustration of the second stage. In Fig.1-3 and Fig.6: 1 - colloid natural carbonaceous material, 2 - electrode, 3 - substrate of Fig.3: 4 - dipole-polarized particles, 5 - charged chains of nanoparticles. Create a separate e-nanocomponents is made according to the scheme shown in Fig.6: 9 - system pointed cathodes 10 - substrate-anode 11 is formed nanocomponent, the image of which is shown in Fig.7. Colloidal natural carbon-containing material is applied with the method of the drops on the surface of the substrate containing micro - and nanoelectronic elements and/or without them, with the aim of forming nanocomponents electronic components. Further, in accordance with the problem to be solved by the formation of nanocomponents and/or connections between the individual micro - and nanoelectronic elements to the scheme shown in Fig.2 and/or Fig.6, is fed constant electric field strength of not more than 5×103W/m Duration of the formation process is not more than 3 minutes.

The basis for a qualitative physical model of the method of formation of nanowires from kolloidn the th natural material, structures and/or elements connecting micro - and nanoelectronic elements, considered conclusions about what nanosystems with organic inclusions are the perfect material /5/ to explore processes of self-organization - in diffusion-limited conditions, when the flux of particles entering the system exceeds the value of their diffusion and self-Assembly - if the condition: Eb>Einter≥Ekin>Edthe binding energy of the particles to the substrate is greater than the intermolecular interaction energy and the kinetic and energy to their diffusion. This nanosystems with the dominant organic composition tend to processes of self-Assembly, whereas for inorganic nanoparticles characterized by self-organization processes with the formation of dendritic nanostructures. Linearly-ordered nanoscale conductive patterns, oriented predominantly along the direction specified constant electric field, formed under the action of the electrophoretic force, the value of which, according to /6/, is proportional to the square of the gradient of the amplitude of the electric field - ∇E2and the cube of the particle radius R3(volume of a particle):

where

Re|K(ω)|=[(ε21)/(ε2+2ε1)]+{3(ε1σ22σ1/[τMW2+2σ1)21+ω 2τMW2)]} is the real part of the function of Clauses-Massotti; ε1and σ1and ε2and σ2- the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of the medium and particle, respectively, ω is the frequency of the alternating electric field. Important is the amount of time to recharge variables in electric fields: τMW=(ε2+2ε1)/(σ2+2σ1- the relaxation time of the charges of the Maxwell-Wagner. In accordance with (1)at the first stage /6/action F causes redistribution of colloidal particles in an electric field (Fig.1), since FEFS~∇E2. The conducted studies show that /4/ on colloidal natural carbonaceous material formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive nanostructures starts after about 15 s, which by analogy with /6/ corresponds to the second stage (Fig.3)when the nanoparticles 4 in the electric field of the dipole is polarized under the action of Coulomb interaction forces of nature:

FInH=Cπε1(KRE)2,(2)

built in self-organized comprobadas the e structure 5. Here is a numerical factor depending on the distance between the particles 4 and the length of the chains 5 of them. From (2) that the dipole-polarized particles of the same size are oriented along the lines of the electric field 6, which are visible in the pictures of Fig.4. Along with this insufficiently polarized particles 7, in particular with large sizes or different phase composition, can be arranged perpendicular to the lines of electric field intensity 6, as shows Fig.4, and, while the dipole-polarized particles of the same small size are oriented along the lines of the electric field, forming a dendritic structure 7 (Fig.4, b), which is consistent with the findings /6/.

Thus, the formed charged chains 5, schematically depicted in Fig.3 that experienced confirmed their confocal microscopic image 8 shown in Fig.5.

Example 1.

The characterization of the method of formation of nanowires of colloidal natural material linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures completed in 4 designs, a view which schematically depicted in Fig.1 without the proposed material with him and Fig.2 and 3. The distance between the electrodes ("+/-" and "-/+") - l, indicated in Fig.1-3 figure 2, is: 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mm of Emerging micro - and Nan is the dimensional structure of colloidal natural carbonaceous material is presented in the photographs of Fig.4, a-b and Fig.5.

The start time of the formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures from the moment of turning on the electric field and prior to the formation of structures τ is almost proportional to the distance between the electrodes, as is confirmed by the dependence of τ(l), shown in Fig.8. So for a distance of 0.5 mm is 15 C.

In Fig.9 shows the time dependence of the formation of dendritic structures S(t) under the action of a constant electric field with intensity of more than 4×104V/m, based on analysis of photographs of dendritic structures from colloidal natural carbon-containing material, shown in Fig.4, a-B. The analysis shows that S(t) consists of two parts: the first with a slight alteration of the size of the dendrites with a constant speed of 10-5m/s, when their polarization, and the second rapid growth of dendritic structures with an acceleration of 6×10-5m/s2. On this basis, set the tension of a constant electric field of 5×103V/m, which is formed linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures from colloidal natural carbon-containing material.

Example 2.

In the method of formation of nanowires of natural colloidal what about the natural material it is applied with the method of the drops on the surface of the substrate, containing micro - and nanoelectronic elements. In Fig.1-3 showing: 1 - colloid natural carbonaceous material, 2 - electrode, 3 - substrate of Fig.3: 4 - dipole-polarized particles, 5 - charged chains of nanoparticles. In Fig.1 the distance between the electrodes ("+/-" and "-/+") - 2, denoted by l, is equal to 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0 mm, respectively. This allows after switching on the DC electric field strength of not more than 5×103/M by 15 structure of colloidal natural carbonaceous material, as shown in Fig.2, which corresponds to the first stage. After this begins the formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures in the form of charged chains of different sizes of nanoparticles 5, microphotography confocal images are shown in Fig.5, which corresponds to the second stage. Thus, there is the formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures in the form of charged chains of different sizes at constant electric field strength of not more than 5×103B/m, which lasts about 3 minutes.

Example 3.

In the method of formation of nanowires of colloidal natural material it is applied with the method of the drops on the surface of the substrate to form the work nanocomponents electronic components. Create a separate e-nanocomponents is made according to the scheme shown in Fig.6. For this system of pointed cathodes, one of which for illustration is shown in Fig.6 applied DC electric field with a strength of not more than 5×103In/m On it 9 - system pointed cathodes 10 - substrate-anode 11 is formed nanocomponent. It microphotography confocal image shown in Fig.7. In Fig.6-7 showing: 1 - colloid natural carbonaceous material, 2 - electrode, 3 - substrate of Fig.3: 4 - dipole-polarized particles, 5 - charged chains of nanoparticles. Thus, there is a forming system point of micro - and nanocomponents under the action of a constant electric field with a strength of not more than 5×103In/m

SOURCES of INFORMATION

1. Mardzvincau C. M., Kudryavtsev S. E., Levin, C. L. / Method of forming a conductive element nanometer size // Patent RF №2194334, publ. 10.12.2002.

2. Okorokov D. B., N. Kozlenko.And., Swedes E. C. / Method of forming a conductive element nanometer size // Patent RF №2401246, publ. 10.10.2010.

3. Gubin, S. P., Obydenov A. Y., Soldatov E. S., Trifonov, A. S., Khanin centuries, Clamps, B. / the Way to control the shape of the synthesized particles and obtain materials and devices containing about what generowanie anisotropic particles and nanostructures (options) // Patent RF №2160697, publ. 20.12.2000.

4. Kuzmenko A. P., Dobrica B. N., Chan Nien Aung, Abakumov P. C., Timakov, Doctor of historical Sciences / the formation of fractals in diffusion-limited conditions on the example of peat // proceedings of the southwestern state University. 2011. No. 6(39). H 2. S. 17-24.

5. Jrlin D. Velev and Ketan H. Bhatt / On-chip micromanipulation and assembly of colloidal particles by electric fields // Soft Matter. 2006. No. 2. P. 738-750.

6. Angelika Kiihnie / Self-assembly of organic molecules at metal surfaces // Current Opinion in Colloid and Interface Science 2009. No. 14. P. 157-168.

The method of formation of nanowires of colloidal natural material, based on samoorganizovannoe the formation of linearly ordered nanosized conductive structures with strictly specified orientation to connect the individual micro - and nanoelectronic elements and/or the formation of nanocomponents electronic element base, characterized in that the formation of structures and/or elements occurs in a single process within no more than 3 minutes under the action of only constant electric field strength of not more than 5×103V/m, the configuration of which directly specifies how the size and shape, and orientation of nanoscale conductive carbon structures, which have remained stable without causing any protective layers on a substrate of any material, including micro - and nanoelectronic elements for the x connection and/or for the formation of nanocomponents electronic components.



 

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1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: nanotechnologies.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a technology for obtaining films of ferrites-garnets and can be used in application magneto-optics to obtain magneto-optic disks, modulators and deflectors. The method involves manufacture of a target of the specified composition, treatment of a monocrystalline substrate of gallium garnet with argon ions, spraying of the target onto the substrate with further annealing of the obtained film; with that, a substrate of complex replaced gallium garnet is used; the spraying process is performed onto the substrate heated up to 800-850°C; controlled oxygen ion flow is supplied to the substrate areas during the spraying process, and the obtained films are annealed in oxygen environment during 0.5-1.0 hour at the temperature of 700-750°C and normal atmospheric pressure.

EFFECT: invention allows improving quality of obtained nanodimensional films of Bi-containing ferrites-garnets, as well as a value of specific faraday rotation.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to natural polysaccharide polymers and can be used in medicine. The obtained water-soluble bioactive nanocomposite includes a melanin compound-modified hyaluronic acid salt as a matrix and gold nanoparticles as filler. The method includes chemical reaction of solid-phase hyaluronic acid powder, a melanin compound, aurichlorohydric acid or a gold salt in conditions of simultaneous pressure action in the range of 50 to 1000 MPa and shearing deformation in a mechanochemical reactor at temperature of -18° to 110°C.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a water-soluble bioactive nanocomposite with high output of the end product and high content of gold.

4 cl, 18 ex

FIELD: carbon materials.

SUBSTANCE: weighed quantity of diamonds with average particle size 4 nm are placed into press mold and compacted into tablet. Tablet is then placed into vacuum chamber as target. The latter is evacuated and after introduction of cushion gas, target is cooled to -100оС and kept until its mass increases by a factor of 2-4. Direct voltage is then applied to electrodes of vacuum chamber and target is exposed to pulse laser emission with power providing heating of particles not higher than 900оС. Atomized target material form microfibers between electrodes. In order to reduce fragility of microfibers, vapors of nonionic-type polymer, e.g. polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylbutyral or polyacrylamide, are added into chamber to pressure 10-2 to 10-4 gauge atm immediately after laser irradiation. Resulting microfibers have diamond structure and content of non-diamond phase therein does not exceed 6.22%.

EFFECT: increased proportion of diamond structure in product and increased its storage stability.

2 cl

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