Lighting device for touch- and object-sensitive display

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: integrated vision and display system contains a layer generating display image; image detector is designed for visualisation of infrared radiation in the narrow range of angles in regard to display surface normal and it includes reflection of one or more objects at the display surface or close to it; radiator of the vision system is designed to radiate infrared radiation for the purpose of objects lighting; light waveguide passes visible and infrared radiation and has the opposite upper and/or lower surfaces designed to receive infrared radiation from the vision system radiator, to guide infrared radiation by TIR from the upper and lower surfaces and projection of infrared radiation to an object outside limits of the narrow range of angles in regard to display surface normal.

EFFECT: improving functionality and small size of the device.

14 cl, 14 dwg

 

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Based on the vision input system make it easier for people to interact with computers. In particular, the ability of the computer to recognize the touch and identify objects, allowing for a wider range of natural, intuitive input mechanisms. In line with this, the further development of technologies input-based vision can create a practical alternative mechanisms for input by keyboard and mouse. Due to the higher functionality, compactness and versatility of design entry system on the basis of the vision can be in one area with the display system, such as a flat panel display system.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

Offers a unified vision and display. The system includes a layer forming the displayed image, made with the possibility of transmission of the displayed image for viewing through the display surface. The system also includes a detector image made with the possibility of visualization of infrared radiation in a narrow range of angles relative to the normal to the surface of the display. This rendered infrared radiation includes a reflection from one or more objects on the display surface or near it. The system is also the cancel in itself illuminating device system vision containing the emitter vision systems and permeable to visible and infrared light guide. The emitter of the vision system has a capability of emitting infrared radiation to illuminate one or more objects. The light guide is configured to receive infrared radiation from the emitter of the vision system. The light guide conducts infrared radiation by total internal reflection and projecting infrared radiation on said one or more objects outside of a narrow range of angles relative to the normal to the surface of the display.

It should be understood that the above invention is provided to introduce simplified form some of the concepts, which are further outlined in the detailed description following below. It is not intended to identify key or essential features of the claimed subject matter of the invention, the scope of which is defined by the claims following the detailed description. In addition, the claimed subject matter is not limited to implementations that eliminate any disadvantages mentioned above or in any part of this description.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

In Fig.1 shows features of the workstation in accordance with one embodiment of the present image is the shadow.

Fig.2 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.

Fig.3-10 are schematic views in section, showing particularly the connective structures in accordance with the variations in implementation of the present invention.

Fig.11 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system in another embodiment of the present invention.

In Fig.12 shows a graph of oblojennosti depending on the distance across the optical fiber in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.

In Fig.13 shows a graph of reflectivityRlayer filter, as a function of wavelength for the two ranges of angles of incidence, in accordance with one embodiment of the present invention.

Fig.14 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system in another embodiment of the present invention.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

The following describes the object of the present invention with reference to some embodiments. Components, which can be essentially the same in two or more variants domestic who, marked consistently and described with minimal repetitions. However, it should be noted that components denoted consistently in different variants of implementation may differ, at least partially. In addition, it should be noted that included in the description of the drawings are schematic. Illustrated embodiments of, usually do not are drawn to scale; aspect ratio, the size of elements and number of elements can be specially modified to individual characteristics or ratio easily seen.

In Fig.1 shows features of the workstation 10 in one exemplary embodiment. Workstation includes large-sensitive to touch and objects surface 12 of the display, which may be oriented horizontally. For this orientation, one or more persons can stand or sit next to the workstation to see a display surface and interact with her on top. Below the surface of the display is the optical system 14. The optical system may be configured to provide the functions of the display and input functions on the basis of the vision workstation. Accordingly, the optical system can be the t to contain a unified vision system and display.

To maintain the functions of the display optical system 14 may be configured to project a visible image through the surface 12 of the display. To provide input on the vision, the optical system may be configured to capture at least a partial image of one or more objects 16 located on the surface of the display or close to it - for example, fingers, chips, electronic devices, paper cards, food or drink. Accordingly, the optical system can be made with the possibility of lighting objects and detecting radiation reflected from objects. Thus, the optical system can register the position, the area of the vertical projection or other property objects located on the surface of the display, or near it.

In Fig.1 illustrates a computer 18, hidden in an automated workplace 10 and functionally associated with the optical system 14. In other embodiments, implementation of the computer may be located and/or distributed remotely and connected to the optical system through a wired or wireless communication line. Regardless of its location, the computer may be configured to transmit the display data to the optical system and receiving input data from the optical is istemi. Additionally, the computer may be configured to process the input data for issuing various types of information.

Fig.2 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system 14 in one embodiment. The optical system includes a backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) 20, posted to project a visible light control layer 22 LCD and partially through it. Backlit LCD and the control layer LCD collectively placed to produce the displayed image, visible through the surface 12 of the display.

Backlight LCD 20 can contain any source of light, properly configured to use the display system-based LCD; it may contain a suitable increase the brightness of the film, limiting the angle of a film or other structure and one or more main lighting layers. In one embodiment, the LCD backlight may contain one or more compact cylindrical fluorescent (CCFL) light sources. In another embodiment, the LCD backlight may include one or more light emitting diodes (LED) - red, green and blue LEDs, or, for example, built-in white LEDs.

The control layer 22 LCD is forming the image display layer, made with who is a very useful transfer of the displayed image for viewing through the surface 12 of the display; it contains a two-dimensional matrix sampling of items made with the possibility of spatial and temporal modulation of the intensity of light from the backlight 20 LCD. In one embodiment, strobe elements can be polarizing LCD elements associated with red, green and blue Windows transparency. In one embodiment, the control layer of the LCD and the LCD backlight can be functionally connected to the computer 18 and is configured to receive from the displayed data.

Further, in accordance with Fig.2, the optical system 14 includes shaping optics 24 and the detector 26 of the image. Forming optics can be wedge-shaped and almost flat opposite upper and lower surfaces that define the clinoid shape the size of one degree or less. The upper surface of the forming optics can be made with the possibility of passing radiation reflected from one or more objects 16, located on the surface 12 of the display, or near it. The bottom surface may include deflecting the film, made with the possibility of deviation of the reflected radiation in the direction of the curved surface faces forming optics. Curved surface faces can support reflects the structure of the Fresnel performed with the who what and is very useful for focus and reflection of radiation towards the detector 26 of the image. In one embodiment, the radiation reflected from objects on the surface of the display, it may extend in the direction of the curved surface faces, and from it, by means of total internal reflection (TIR) from the upper and lower surfaces forming optics.

The detector 26 of the image may be made with the possibility of imaging the reflection from one or more objects 16, located on the surface 12 of the display, or near it. The image detector may be configured to capture at least a partial image of the object and outputting corresponding image data to the computer 18. In line with this, the computer can be made with the possibility of receiving and processing image data from the image detector and responsive to the position of objects. In one embodiment, the image detector may include a digital camera.

The detector 26 images, which can form images of some of the reflections from objects 16 and exclude the rest. In particular, the reflection generated by the detector image can be restricted to a narrow (for example, ±10 degrees) range of angles relative to the normal to the display surface, i.e., the direction perpendicular to the surface 12 of the display. This limitation may especializado, at least three structural characteristics shown configuration. First, the image detector may include an aperture configured to pass radiation in the range bounded by the corners of the field of vision of the detector image and block radiation outside the field of view. Secondly, the wedge shape of the shaping optics 24 may inherently limit the entrance angular aperture of the radiation coming from the top surface, a relatively narrow range of angles (for example, from 2 to 3 degrees). Since forming optics is essentially telecentric from the point of view of the guiding angle of the input angular aperture depending on the position across the width of the optics, the change guide angle can occur within 10 degrees from the normal to the surface at any point along the top surface. Thirdly, forming optics can be made with the possibility of display space provisions in the input box in the space of angles in the output window, which can accommodate the lens of the detector image. Due to the display position in the corner, carried out by forming optics and lens (which converts the angular information input on the back window in the spatial information detector image), the image of the display surface can be the b formed in the detector image; the field of view generated by the detector of the image contains the image of the display surface. Because of reflection from the object 16 to the surface 12 of the display or near it can be essentially the scattering and high (for example, lambertucci) tightening angle, the radiation reflected from the optics down almost perpendicular to the surface 12 of the display, may be depicted, and radiation with greater magnitude of angle of incidence relative to the surface of the display may not be depicted. This configuration can help to avoid unwanted decrease of contrast in the captured image due to scattering of radiation down from the lighting unit vision systems, as further described below.

The detector 26 of the image may include one or more filters, for example, color or interference is located in front of the aperture to limit the response of the detector image one or more bands of wavelengths. The filters may include high-frequency, low-pass or band-pass filters; they may, for example, to pass infrared radiation, absorb visible light and/or reflected visible radiation. In one embodiment, one or more optical filters may be configured to limit the response of the detector image is placed a narrow band of wavelengths, emitted by the lighting system vision, as further described below.

In Fig.2 shows only one variant of implementation of the optical system 14. In other embodiments, the implementation of the shaping optics 24 and the detector 26 images can be replaced by a mosaic of image detectors with smaller increments, each of which captures an image with a limited part of the surface 12 of the display. In line with this, the computer 18 may be configured to receive images from each of the detectors of the image and to collect from them the total picture. In another embodiment, may be used a configuration of forming an image with an offset axis to obtain images of objects on the display surface or near it.

Further, in accordance with Fig.2, the optical system 14 includes a lighting device 28 vision system. The lighting device of the vision system is configured to lighting objects on the display surface or near it, thereby giving the radiation that is detected, as described above, after reflection from the object. In the shown embodiment, the lighting device of the vision system contains the emitter 30 of the vision system, the optical fiber 32 and the connecting structure is ur 34.

The emitter 30 of the vision system can be configured to emit infrared radiation. In one embodiment, the emitter vision system can emit radiation in a narrow band of wavelengths centered at 850 nm. Accordingly, the emitter vision system may contain a matrix of infrared (IR) LEDs that are placed along one or more sides or side surfaces of the light guide 32. In one embodiment, the IR LEDs can be placed along one side surface of the light guide and defend each other at a distance of 10-20 mm, although there are also other distances; in another embodiment, the matrix IR LEDs can be distributed along the opposite side surfaces of the light guide.

The light guide 32 may include a plate or wedge-shaped monolith having opposite upper and lower surfaces and is configured to receive infrared radiation from the emitter 30 of the vision system. In the following drawings, in which the light guide is shown in more detail, the reference position 36 is used to denote the light guide plate, and the reference position 38 is used to denote the wedge-shaped light guide. Further, in accordance with Fig.2, the light guide may be made of material that transmits in anomily more infrared wavelengths and one or more visible wavelengths. In particular, the material is capable of passing at least some wavelengths emitted by the emitter 30 of the vision system, and at least some of the wavelengths emitted by the backlight of the LCD 20. The fiber can be made with the possibility of infrared radiation by TIR from the upper and lower surfaces and projecting infrared radiation to objects 16 outside a narrow range of angles allowed by the detector 26 of the image.

The connecting structure 34 can be any node collimating optical means, performed with partial information, radiation and input from the emitter 30 of the vision system in the light guide 32. Below with reference to Fig.3-10 describes several embodiments of a connecting structure. In each embodiment, the relative location and material properties of the emitter vision system, the connecting structure and the optical fiber can be selected so that the divergent luminous flux from the emitter of the vision system was collected and introduced into the light guide.

Further, in accordance with Fig.2, the optical system 14 includes a protective layer 40. The protective layer may contain sheet made of pervious to visible and infrared radiation material is essentially the same as described for the optical fiber 32. In the shown embodiment, the OS is supervising the upper surface of the protective layer contains malaysiawe layer 42, made with the possibility of attenuation of specular reflection of ambient light. In other embodiments, the implementation of the protective layer can contain any suitable antireflection coating. In the shown embodiment, the protective layer 40 is connected with the control layer 22 LCD through srednerossijskoe layer 44, which is made with masking or obscuring the various internal components of the optical system from being viewed through the surface 12 of the display. In one embodiment, srednerossijskoe layer can provide the angular divergence of the backlight of the order of 35-45 degrees at half maximum, making the internal components of the optical system is less noticeable to the viewer.

As shown in Fig.2, the control layer 22 LCD can be applied between the optical fiber 32 and the surface 12 of the display. However, it is clear that other configurations, fully consistent with the description may give a different layer. In particular, the fiber can be in the form of a layer between forming an image display layer and the surface of the display, for example, the fiber may be placed on managing layer LCD for loss reduction in coverage from the control layer LCD, as further described below. In some embodiments, the implementation of any of the layers of the protective layer 40 and R is seawaysa layers 42 and 44 - or they can all be removed from the optical system, the functions of these layers are transferred to other components of the optical system.

Fig.3 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connection structure in one of about embodiment. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46 and the corner cube prism 48. The surface of a right-angle prism is optically attached flush with the bottom surface of the light guide 32 near the edge of the lower surface of the light guide and parallel to it. The rod lens is aligned with the Central plane of a corner cube prism under the waveguide and parallel to an edge of the bottom surface of the light guide. With respect to the main surface of the corner cube prism emitter 30 vision system is located on the diametrically opposite side of the rod lens. In one embodiment, the rod lens and angle prism can be made of acrylic resin or polycarbonate. The rod lens may, for example, be an extruded rod of acrylic polymer with a diameter of 3 mm.

In this and subsequent embodiments, the implementation of the rod lens 46 is configured to narrow the light cone emitted by the emitter 30 of the vision system, so that a considerable part of the world PE who was agavales through a horizontal plane of symmetry of the light guide 32 and almost parallel to it with a relatively small number of reflections from the top and bottom surfaces of the light guide. In some embodiments, implementation of the same rod lens may be used to input radiation from multiple emitters vision system in the light guide. This configuration is best seen in Fig.4, which shows the horizontal projection of this variant implementation below. In one embodiment, the rod lens may overlap the edge of the lower surface of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include a rod lens and a corner cube prism, oriented along each of two opposite edges of the bottom surface of the light guide. Options for implementation, which include a rod lens, only the radiation is almost perpendicular to the horizontal plane of the light guide, is going to reduce the divergence, so that the lateral scattering of the radiation in the horizontal plane occurs on a small optical path that in some cases it may be useful to achieve high uniformity on the shortest optical path along the optical fiber. In other variants of implementation, in which convex lenses provide focus (see below), the radiation is going in two directions and thus may require a longer optical path along the optical fiber, prior to reaching a similar level of uniformity in the transverse direction of the light guide.

Fig.5 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connective structures of another variant implementation. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46 and a Fresnel prism 50. The Fresnel prism is optically connected flush with the bottom surface of the light guide 32 near the edge of the lower surface of the light guide and parallel to it. The rod lens is located under the light guide parallel to the edge of the lower surface of the light guide and configured to input radiation in the Fresnel prism. In one embodiment, the rod lens may overlap the edge of the lower surface of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include a rod lens and a Fresnel prism, oriented along each of two opposite edges of the bottom surface of the light guide. In other embodiments, the implementation instead of the Fresnel prism may be used prismatic bars. In other embodiments, implementation of the prismatic grating can be supplemented lens grating for combining optical power.

Fig.6 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connection structure in another embodiment. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46 and the corner cube prism 52 having they are vacuum surface is rnost hypotenuse. Main plane angle prism is flush with the edge surface of the light guide 32. The rod lens is aligned to the adjacent base plane angle of the prism under the waveguide and parallel to an edge of the bottom surface of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include two rod lenses and two corner cube prism, oriented along the opposite edge surfaces of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include a prism, the surface of the hypotenuse of which is silvered and which uses TIR at the border. In this case, the divergence of the light flux can be low with the aim of preserving the high efficiency of the connection.

Fig.7 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connection structure in another embodiment. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46 and the trapezoidal prism 54, with silver plated inclined plane. Long the main plane of the trapezoidal prism includes opposite first and second end zones. The first end zone long primary surface is flush with the edge surface of the light guide 32. The second end zone long base plane aligned with the rod lens under the waveguide and parallel to an edge of the bottom surface is the surface of the light guide. In one embodiment, a trapezoidal prism can be made of acrylic resin or polycarbonate. In one embodiment, the rod lens may overlap the edge of the lower surface of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include a rod lens and a trapezoidal prism, oriented along each of two opposite boundary surfaces of the light guide. In another embodiment, the connecting structure may include a trapezoidal prism inclined surfaces which are not silvered.

Fig.8 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connection structure in another embodiment. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46. The axis of the rod lens may lie in the horizontal plane of symmetry of the optical fiber 32 to be oriented parallel to the edge surface of the light guide. In one embodiment, the rod lens can cover the edge surface of the light guide. Other options for implementation may include a rod lens oriented along each of two opposite boundary surfaces of the light guide.

Fig.9 is a schematic view in section, showing particularly the connective structure the market in another example implementation. Shows the connecting structure includes a rod lens 46 and lenticular grating 56. The rod lens can be focused near a sloping boundary surface of the light guide 38 and parallel to it. In one embodiment, the lens-shaped lattice can be embedded in the film, which is attached to the inclined edge surface of the light guide. In other embodiments, implementation of the rod lens may be replaced by a collector in the form of one-dimensional complex parabolic concentrator (1D-CPC). In other embodiments, implementation of the lenticular grating may be replaced by a collector in the form of 1D-CPC for summation optical power, and in one embodiment, 1D-CPC can be replaced as a rod lens, and the lens-shaped grille.

The connecting structure shown in Fig.9, may be used, including, for inputting radiation into an inclined edge surface of the wedge-shaped light guide 38 so that the radiation is introduced into the light guide, is released from the upper surface, as shown in the drawing. In this configuration, the spatial non-uniformity of the radiation emerging from the top plane, associated with the angular uniformity of the radiation introduced into the inclined edge surface. Therefore, it is desirable that the connecting structure provided a very uniform input emission is as a function of angle of incidence. In the embodiment depicted in Fig.9, this is achieved by selecting the lenticular grating 56 and/or 1D-CPC, which projects radiation in a limited range of angles and with high angular uniformity. In addition, the rod lens 46 can be selected for collecting radiation in the range of several angles more acute than the output angular aperture lenticular grating.

The above-described embodiments of the connecting structure includes a collimating optical means (rod lenses, prisms, lenticular grating, collectors in the form of 1D-CPC and grating)having optical power only in one direction. In accordance with this mentioned collimating optical means collect the radiation from the emitter 30 of the vision system in only one direction. Therefore, it can cover the full length of the edge of the light guide to collect light from multiple emitters vision system, placed on edge, as shown in the example depicted in Fig.4 horizontal projection. However, in other embodiments, the implementation of the connecting structure may include similar collimating optical means having an optical power in two directions, for example convex lens and 2D-CPC. In such scenarios, the implementation of the connecting structure may include the abortion practices collimating optical means, associated with the respective sets of emitters vision system and further associated with the optical fiber 32. This configuration is shown, for example, in Fig.10, in which the collimating optical means 58 is made in the form of two-dimensional collimating optical means.

It should be noted that although the above-mentioned various collimating optical means may provide increased efficiency of input into the light guide, it may not be necessary in all cases. For example, when connecting to the edge of the light guide 32 high input efficiency can be achieved without the use of a collimating optical means, but because of the higher angular divergence of the input radiation layer collecting scattered radiation (see below) should provide a significantly lower intensity of scattering in comparison with a case in which radiation is collected with less divergence. However, in configurations in which the radiation is introduced from the bottom side of the fiber, you may experience loss of input, when the radiation is not going at very low divergence.

In accordance with Fig.9, the wedge-shaped light guide 38 contains almost flat and the opposite upper and lower surfaces. The upper and lower surfaces define the clinoid shape, which in some examples may be from zero to one degree. FR is opposite first and second boundary surfaces of different heights are located near the upper and lower surfaces. As shown in Fig.9, the infrared radiation from the emitter system 30 vision enters the light guide through the connecting structure and propagates through the light guide by TIR. Radiation is conducted from the first boundary surface in the direction of the second boundary surface meets the upper or lower surface with a subcritical angle of incidence and refracted from the upper surface of the light guide is substantially collimated.

In the form shown in Fig.9 embodiment, the angle of incidence of the input radiation relative to the opposite upper and lower surfaces after each reflection is reduced by half the angle of the taper. It follows that the angle of incidence on the boundary surface on which the radiation is displayed in the position along the top or bottom surface from which the radiation comes out. Because of the fiber leaves only the radiation, which violates the condition for TIR, all the radiation projected from the fiber comes from different angles, usually within a few degrees relative to the critical angle determined by the refractive index of the medium fiber, the refractive index of the medium surrounding the fiber (e.g., air), radiation angle on the entrance boundary surface, and to a higher order - thickness wedge and vertical positioning is eaten input radiation on the surface of the coupling wedge. In line with this, the above parameters can be chosen so that a substantial part of the radiation was from a fiber with a relatively large angle of exit. Provides a large exit angle of makes sense, since it minimizes the intensity of the scattered radiation from the lighting device vision system, which can be skipped in the detector 26 of the image. In addition, it is possible to prove that the spatial distribution of the luminous flux emerging from the upper surface of the light guide with high values of θ, is controlled by the angular distribution of the light flux introduced into the light guide, as noted above.

Fig.11 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system in another applied embodiment. The optical system 60 includes a light guide plate 36 and the connecting structure 34, as shown in Fig.8. In the form shown in Fig.11 embodiment, the fiber can be made from a thick sheet of glass V thickness of approximately 3 mm - product company Shott Glass, Inc. This product has a transmittance of from 54 to 50 percent per meter of path length at 850 nanometers.

The light guide 36 contains almost flat and the opposite upper and lower surfaces and opposite first and second cu is Evie surface is almost the same height, adjacent to the upper and lower surfaces. Infrared radiation from the emitter 30 of the vision system is carried out from the first boundary surface in the second direction; due to the reflection from the opposite surfaces of the infrared light introduced into the light guide propagates through the light guide by TIR. As further described below, the TIR condition can be broken (i.e. broken) in different ways, leading to different modes of detection, touch and/or object to the top or bottom surface.

For example, the imposition of a finger on the top surface of the light guide 36 and the protective layer 44, with which the optical fiber is connected, may violate the condition of TIR, allowing the radiation out of the waveguide and reflected from the finger. The reflected radiation can then be distributed back through the fiber at a relatively small angle relative to the normal to the surface and recorded by the detector 26 of the image. Further, since the flux of the reflected radiation depends on the area of contact between the finger and the upper surface of the light guide, computer, functionally associated with the image detector may be configured to respond to increasing or decreasing the area of contact between the said one or more objects and the display surface. Thus, the computer is p can determine the pressure, exerted on the surface, and take appropriate action to increase the sound volume, zoom, etc. in response to the fact touch and/or prolonged external pressure.

The above-described contact modes of perception are based on the fact that the surface of the optical fiber "soaked" touching object. However, many objects due to the properties of their materials or topology will not be reliable to moisten the surface with which they are in contact. In addition, it may be desirable for the vision system had the ability to perceive an object that is near, but does not touch the surface of the display. So are assumed to be more universal modes of perception, which can be installed instead of adding the above-described contact perception. As further described below, the TIR condition can be violated in a controlled extent in the absence of any touch of the detected object. Accordingly, the described optical system may be configured to provide contact of perception based on touch and on the basis of vision and perception and tracking of objects near the surface of the display.

Accordingly, the optical system 60 of the scattering layer 62 p is spoelgen on the upper surface of the light guide 36 parallel upper and lower surfaces. Light-diffusing layer partially violates the condition for TIR at the interface between the upper surface of the light guide layer above the protective layer 44 shown in the embodiment. Due to interaction with light-diffusing layer some of the radiation, which in other cases would be conducted through the light guide by TIR, requires critical angle, which allows him to emerge from the light guide. The emergent radiation may spread up and down relative to the boundary, which violates the condition for TIR. The radiation, which propagates upwards, can illuminate one or more objects 16, located on the surface 12 of the display, or near it.

Violation of conditions of TIR and the output radiation upward from the light guide 36 can occur regardless of whether the scattering layer 62 on the bottom surface or the top surface. In the variants of implementation, in which the scattering layer is located on the bottom surface of the light guide may be used by an air gap or other layer with a low refractive index, in order to ensure the dissemination of violations of conditions of TIR at sufficiently small angles of incidence, in order to optically isolate the optical fiber and to prevent loss of input radiation in the underlying layers. The location of the scattering layer on the bottom surface of the light guide gives p akusherstvo in reducing the loss of contrast for visible display of the radiation, because of the weak scattering effect of reducing the contrast of the display is reduced by reducing the distance of the lens from the layer display. In addition, when using the scattering layer surface elevation, located on the bottom surface of the light guide, one significant advantage is directional displacement of the emergent radiation. In particular, the flux is facing toward the top surface, may be 20-30 percent more compared to the stream, facing in the opposite direction. Thus, the emergent radiation can more effectively illuminate objects on the surface 12 of the display.

In one embodiment, the scattering layer 62 may be made in the form of the scattering layer of the volumetric type, in which multiple scattering elements distributed in a three-dimensional volume of the light guide 36 or in it. In one example, the scattering layer volumetric type may be made in the form of a flexible film having a controlled density of light scattering centers, such as particles distributed therein and is stationary. The flexible film may be attached to the top or bottom surface of the light guide by means of adhesive with a consistent refractive index or in any other suitable way. One example rasseivaya the film layer volume is the product ADF0505 company Fusion Optix Corporation.

The scattering layer 62 volume type is of particular advantage when placed on the upper surface of the light guide 36. When placing the scattering layer volumetric type mentioned by way of the fiber can be attached directly to this layer above it without any air gap. The exception of the air gap may not be feasible for the scattering layer type surface topography (see below), whose scattering properties can be reduced by optical wetting. The exception of the air gap is useful from a design perspective; in addition, it can reduce some optical artifacts caused by the Fresnel reflection of the ambient light in a multilayer structure. However, it should be noted that even if the scattering layer is superimposed directly on the top surface of the light guide can still be used in the air gap between the bottom surface and the average scatterer (Fig.11 not shown), which may feel on the top surface of the control layer 22 LCD. In this case, can be used antireflection coating on any of the various interfaces with the air of the optical system to help reduce the loss of contrast due to reflection of ambient light.

In another embodiment, the scattering layer 62 can be made in the form of the scattering layer, the surface relief, in which multiple light-scattering elements are placed on a two-dimensional surface on the light guide 36 or in it. For example, the scattering layer may include periodic or aperiodic grating concave and convex elementary lenses, holes or protrusions. They can be used as collecting items, giving precise control of the output radiation. In one embodiment, the surface elements can be formed directly on the fiber. Suitable methods of forming include, for example, thermal styling and UV varnishing. In another embodiment, the film having such elements, can feel on the surface of the light guide, to get to it (for example, knurling hot press) or be formed by screen printing. Screen printing, in particular, is an example of a variant that can give low upfront costs, and low cost mass production. In such cases, you can avoid problematic costs for retrofitting associated with some technologies diffuser. In addition, screen printing, knurling and similar methods can reduce by one the number of layers that would be required in alternative ways. Surface elements, which may be knurled or screen printing, clucalc in white point, violating TIR spectra or diffusing plates. In other embodiments, the implementation of point spectra or scattering pads can be transparent in the visible range, but reflective in the infrared range, for example, covered with a dichroic mirror surface relief built into the fiber.

When the antireflection coating coating of the scattering layer placed on the bottom surface, may be less inclined to scattering of ambient light, providing a display surface having overall more smooth and less milk. In this regard, it should be understood that the image contrast on the display can be reduced, if the display surface is placed in any of the scattering layer. The loss of image contrast on the display can be increased, since a given scatterer is placed in the plane located farther away from the surface of the display. In addition, for a given gap, the loss of contrast of the image on the display increases with the degree of scattering of the scattering layer. To help reduce the loss of contrast due to scattered ambient light as opposed to direct deterioration of image quality caused by the observation layer display through the lens, ar coating can be applied on both CT is Ron air gap - on the lower surface of the diffuser (layered or laminated on the lower surface of the light guide) and on the upper surface of the middle diffuser, placed or layered on the lower surface of the light guide. When using a diffuser of the type of surface relief, placed on the lower surface of the light guide, one significant advantage is the directional shift of the scattered radiation in the upward direction by at least 30% compared with the light energy coming down, which increases the efficiency of the projected radiation in the direction to objects on the bottom surface 12 of the display, or near it.

Scattering of radiation from the scattering layer type bulk and surface topography can be described mathematically. When modeling such scattering is considered to represent the character is flat-scattering layer a Gaussian distribution, axisymmetric space the guides of the cosines and having a width determined by the intensity of the scattering σ. In line with this, the indicator σ can be related to the expected required normal distribution profile of the transmitted radiation, as described below.

For a scattering layer of a three-dimensional convolution typenthe same gaussiana network

θ eff=θ12+θ12+...+θ12=nθ2,

whereθi- full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the profile of the angular scattering of each layer,θis the same angular width, assuming that all the scattering layers are the same, andθeff- the result of the effective profile of the angular scattering fornadjacent layers have the same scattering profile. Inside the scattering medium, the optical path is increased relative to the normal to the surface in thecpagain, where

cp=1cosθavg,

andθavg- average ofngaussiana. For volumetric scattering-layer type optical path is doubled, so

θeff=2cpθN2,

and, in addition,

the N=θeff22cp.

When modeling using any suitable program of building of the beam angular divergence is determined from the Gaussian with width σ defined. In this case, the value of σ can be transformed into effective angular width FWHM using the following relationship:

θeff=2ln2σ,

and the corresponding effective angular width in air can be estimated as follows:

θeff,air=2sin-1[n1n0sin(θeff2)].

Therefore, the desired output profile along the normal in the air scattering layer volumetric type

θ N,air=θeff,air22cp.

Thus, the scattering nature of the indicator (defined σ) to achieve the specified output uniformity at the exit surface of the light guide may be calculated for a given thickness of the fiber, the length of the interaction, loss absorption in the material, as well as the direction and divergence of the input radiation. Next, the resulting value of σ can be transformed into a more physical form indicator to select the appropriate scattering layer, because some lenses are characterized by the profile of the angular scattering at normal incidence and in the air. Finally, it should be noted that since the above analysis considers a Gaussian profile, a significant deviation of the profile of the angular scattering from Gaussian can affect the effective angular width, used above in the simulation. In this case, as the scattering layer of the volumetric type, the profile may more appropriately be described by the profile Genii-Grinstein and have such a profile that half of the energy in this profile existed in pre is Elah angular width, which is somewhat outside the FWHM of the profile, resulting in the necessary additional factor based on the energy distribution. However, it is believed that if the parameter σ is determined by the optimization model, this conversion values of Sigma, as described above, can give a fairly close description of the scattering of the character desired from the scattering layer at normal incidence and in the air, so you have to choose suitable scattering layer for the fiber.

Similarly, the scattering layer, the surface relief

θeff=θ12+θ12+...+θ12.

For the model within the environment using the measured full width at half maximum of the reflected radiation at an average angle

cp=1cosθavg,θm.

Now we Dene the expected transfer function at normal incidence

θT= sin-1n1sin(θm/2)n0-θm2.

Finally, we get the following ratio:

θeff=crθT,wherecr=θMθT.

The application of the above theory gives guidance on the conversion of the respective values of σ in a physically meaningful values of the width profile of the angular scattering to the scattering layer 62 in various alleged here variants of implementation. In one example, when using a shown in Fig.3 connecting the structure to the calculated optimum value of σ to obtain uniform illumination from a light guide is strongly dependent on the internal angles angle prism, and mentioned the value varies from 0.035 to connecting rod lens 46 with an internal angle of 60 degrees to 0.06 for the internal angle of 75 degrees

Additional parameters that affect the uniform distribution on the output surface of the light guide are: thicknesstfiber lengthLthe interaction region of the lens, absorption of the material at the wavelength (wavelengths) of the emitter of the vision system and the angular distribution of the radiation introduced into the light guide. As might be expected, the intensity of the gathering of the radiation is increased by a specified distance with the increase in the number of reflections at the interface of the light guide/diffuse layer. With more than a thin fiber is characterized by a large number of reflections at a given distance compared to the thicker the fiber, requiring less higly-scattering layer. For the same reasons the interaction in a longer regionLwill require less higly-scattering layer. In addition, the attenuation due to absorption in the material causes loss of radiation at high intensity gathering at a given distance and therefore will require less higly-scattering layer to maintain the uniformity. The angular information of the radiation introduced into the optical fiber affects the number of reflections, endured radiation, for a given thickness and therefore necessitates more weak scatterer in the variants of implementation, in which the scattering layer is connected with the lower surface of the light the ode. For higher values of input angles required less scattering intensity with the goal of preserving the uniformity on the input surface.

In one embodiment, the scattering layer 62 can be uniformly scattering depending on the distance from one or more elements of the collimating optical means in the connection structure, for example, from the rod lens 46 in Fig.11. It may contain uniformly formed of the scattering layer of the volumetric type, in which wells, dots, elementary lenses, etc. are the same size, the focal properties and/or the intensity of scattering and are located at equal distances from each other. In such scenarios, the implementation of the luminous flux emerging from the upper surface of the light guide 36 and maximum near the connecting structure and decreases exponentially with increasing distance from the connection structure.

In the variants of implementation, which uses such a scattering layer and in which the radiation is introduced into one edge surface of the light guide 36, the lighting can be more intense towards the edge of the light guide, which is radiation. In the variants of implementation, which uses such a scattering layer, but in which the radiation is introduced in two opposite boundary surface of the light guide, the result is the dominant lighting can be more uniform, and in some applications can be satisfactorily uniform.

However, to ensure lighting with even higher uniformity is assumed to be variants of implementation, in which the intensity of light scattering σ scattering layer varies depending on the distance from the connection structure. For example, the intensity of light scattering may increase with increasing distance from the connection patterns; a scattering layer may be minimally scattering near the connecting structure and may become more diffuse with increasing distance from the connection structure. The gradient of the scattering layer of this kind can contain heterogeneous formed by diffusing layer volumetric type of scattering centers, the density of which increases with increasing distance from the connecting structure, or the scattering layer surface topography, in which wells, dots, elementary lenses, etc. are built in a row with increasing size, increasing the scattering ability or increasing step for increasing the distance from the connection structure. In the variants of implementation, in which the radiation is introduced into the opposite end of the fiber, the intensity of scattering of the scattering layer may be weaker near protivovesa what their edges and stronger in the middle part of the light guide. In some cases, changes in the intensity of scattering required to achieve high uniformity at the exit surface of the light guide may have a Gaussian shape with a non-zero offset.

In the variants of implementation, in which the intensity of the scattering of the scattering layer 62 is changed depending on the distance from the connecting structure, this change may be continuous as a result of continuous changes in the density of scattering centers, properties of elements of surface topography, etc. In other embodiments, implementation of changes in the intensity of scattering of radiation can be carried out in discrete steps in the step change these properties. For example, in Fig.12 shows a graph of the data in oblojennosti for fiber containing stepwise changing the scattering layer deposited on the bottom surface. In this example, the scattering layer contains ten zones in the form of strips of equal width, parallel to the opposite edge surfaces of the fiber from which the radiation is introduced into the light guide. The intensity of the scattering of σ zones in the form of strips increases in the sequence of 0.075, 0,076, 0,088, 0,110, 0,140 from the edge to the middle of the fiber, and then decreases in the sequence 0,140, 0,110, 0,088, 0,076 and 0,075 to the other edge. On shown in Fig.12 graph of the relative intensity of the radiation, projected from the optical fiber caused by the vertical axis, and a distance zones scattering across the fiber plotted horizontally. Note that although the average intensity across the light guide is fairly constant, the observed failure intensity associated with transitions between zones. If the intensity across the light guide is changed continuously, in contrast to the speed change output uniformity across the fiber can be further improved.

In accordance with Fig.11, the scattering layer 62, as a rule, leads to the release of radiation from a fiber 36 with comparable values of flow up and down. Despite the fact that the output angle of the emergent radiation can be quite large, and the field of view of detector 26 image small enough to avoid significant loss of contrast due to scattered down the radiation reaching the detector image, it remains true that in the absence of any action to collect such radiation it will be lost. Therefore, in some embodiments, the implementation of the fiber can include a layer of reflective or transmissive filter, located parallel to the scattering layer and the scattering layer, the opposite surface of the display. The filter layer can be more reflective and less transmissive for radiation greatly the mi angles, than for radiation with smaller angles of incidence. In addition, the filter layer can be more reflective and less transmissive to infrared light than to visible light.

In accordance with that shown in Fig.11 an implementation option contains a layer of filter 64 is placed on the bottom surface of the light guide 36. The filter layer may be performed in such a way as to have transmittance and reflectance with a selectivity of wavelength, as described above. In particular, the filter layer may be substantially transparent, for example, in one or more visible wavelengths, but it is much more reflective to incident radiation at relatively small angles of incidence. Such properties are shown, for example, in Fig.13, which depicts the reflectivityRasfunction of wavelength for the two ranges of angles of incidence. Affixed to the bottom surface of the light guide layer filter can increase the efficiency of illumination of 50 to 100 percent due to redirection dissipated downward radiation, which otherwise would go from the bottom surface of the light guide and it would be useless for lighting objects 16 on the surface 12 of the display.

The layer 64 of the filter can be made in the form of interference coatings. In one embodiment, the filter layer which may have a structure dichroic filter, in which many thin (10 - 100 nm) layers with controlled refractive index are stacked on each other. In another embodiment, the filter layer may have a structure of folded filter, in which the refractive index of the material is continuously changed in a controlled way. In one embodiment, the filter layer may be performed in such a way that it is a coincidence in phase on the surface of the fiber to which it is applied, therefore, the Fresnel reflections are minimized. In this case, the light guide 36 can feel on the other substrate while maintaining the conditions for TIR at the multilayer surface. By combining layer filter with a multilayer material can provide a high contrast image display while increasing the efficiency of the lighting device system vision. In addition, the multilayer material can increase the stiffness of the multilayer optical system, providing an overall thinner design and thereby improving the accuracy of the vision system.

Fig.14 is a schematic view in section, showing the features of the optical system in another embodiment. The optical system 66 light guide plate 36 itself serves as a protective layer. In this embodiment, the light guide is placed n the d a managing layer 22 LCD. The scattering layer 62 type of surface relief is placed on the bottom surface of the light guide for effective lighting of objects on the surface 12 of the display, or near it, with optical isolation optical fiber provides a thin optical gap.

Further, in accordance with Fig.14, srednerossijskoe layer 44 is superimposed on the upper surface of the control layer 22 LCD, and the vision system, essentially as described above, is placed under the managing layer LCD. In view of the at least three structural aspects, each of which is described above with respect to other variants of the implementation shown in Fig.14 configuration provides a highly efficient lighting of objects placed on the surface 12 of the display, or near it. First, the control layer of the LCD is out of the way of the light waveguide, where it does not cause weakening of the projected radiation. Secondly, the scattering layer 62 type of surface relief is placed on the bottom surface of the light guide, in which it can move the light towards the display surface. Thirdly, the layer 64 of the filter is placed under the scattering layer and configured to redirect a significant portion of the radiation that is not scattered in the downward direction, so it becomes useful for lighting objects.

Nikon is C, it is clear that the products described here, systems and methods are illustrative character and that these specific embodiments of, or examples should not be construed in the sense of constraint, as assumed numerous modifications. Accordingly, the present invention includes all new and non-obvious combinations of the various described herein systems and methods, as well as any or all of their options.

1. United vision system and display that contains:
forming the image display layer configured to transmit the displayed image for viewing through the display surface;
the detector image made with the possibility of visualization of infrared radiation in a narrow range of angles relative to the normal to the display surface, thus rendering infrared radiation includes a reflection from one or more objects located on the surface of the display or its vicinity;
the emitter vision system which has a capability of emitting infrared radiation to illuminate one or more objects; and
pervious to visible and infrared light pipe having opposing upper and lower surfaces and is configured to receive infrared radiation from and what locates vision system, conduct of infrared radiation by total internal reflection from the top and/or bottom surfaces and projecting infrared radiation on one or more objects outside of a narrow range of angles relative to the normal to the surface of the display.

2. The system under item 1, in which the light guide is made in the form of a layer between forming the image display layer and the surface of the display.

3. The system under item 1, in which forming the image display layer deposited between the light guide and the display surface.

4. The system under item 1, in which the emitter vision system contains a set of infrared emitters placed along one or more edges of the light guide.

5. The system under item 1, in which the light guide is wedge-shaped and has opposite first and second boundary surfaces of unequal height, adjacent to the upper and lower surfaces, and in which infrared radiation from the emitter vision system is carried out from the first boundary surface toward the second edge surface, hits the upper or lower surface with a subcritical angle of incidence and refracted out of the light guide to illuminate mentioned one or more objects.

6. The system under item 1, in which the light guide is a plate and has opposite first and second creevy the surface is almost the same height, adjacent to the upper and lower surfaces, and the scattering layer is located parallel to the upper and lower surfaces, and in which infrared radiation from the emitter vision system is carried out from the first boundary surface in the second direction, interacts with the scattering layer scatters outward from the light guide to illuminate mentioned one or more objects.

7. The system under item 6, in which the scattering layer contains a number of light-scattering elements distributed over a three-dimensional volume on the fiber or in it.

8. The system under item 6, in which the scattering layer contains a number of light-scattering elements arranged in a two-dimensional surface on the fiber or in it.

9. The system under item 6, in which the intensity of the scattering light scattering layer increases with increasing distance from the emitter of the vision system.

10. The system under item 9, in which the intensity of light scattering increases continuously with increasing distance from the emitter of the vision system.

11. The system under item 9, in which the opposite collimating optical means introducing infrared radiation in opposite edges of the light guide and in which the intensity of the scattering light scattering layer is weaker near opposite edges and stronger in the middle part of the light guide.

12. The system under item 1, in which the CBE is the gadfly contains a layer of reflective and transmissive filter, located parallel to the scattering layer and the scattering layer, the opposite surface of the display, with a layer of filter is more reflective and less transmissive for radiation with large angles of incidence than for radiation with smaller angles of incidence, and with a layer of filter is more reflective and less transmissive to infrared light than to visible light.

13. The system under item 12, in which the filter layer contains one or more of the interference filter, dichroic filter and pleated filter.

14. The system under item 1, additionally containing a computer, configured to transmit the display data forming the image display layer and receiving the image data from the image detector, and the computer reacts to the situation referred to one or more objects on the display surface or near it, and at increasing or decreasing the area of contact between the said one or more objects and the display surface.



 

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