Multistage carrier rocket configuration

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering and can be used in carrier rockets.. Proposed rocket comprises head unit with payload, parallel separable rocket stages with multichamber engines with fuel tanks shaped to torus, tapered tail, short central body at first stage, single trough-like nozzle at second stage, bottom part composed of outer and inner cones composed by outer and inner surfaces of short central body shell and inner surface of single trough-like nozzle shell. Fuel tanks and single trough-like nozzle are arranged inside short central body between first-stage tanks.

EFFECT: decreased bottom resistance, higher specific pulse.

5 cl, 9 dwg

 

The invention relates to rocket and space technology and is intended for use in the construction of multistage launch vehicles (LV), providing for the removal of payloads to low earth orbit. More specifically the invention relates to compositions multistage PH, containing United by parallel scheme missile blocks of the first and second stages of RN, equipped with the multi-chamber liquid propellant rocket engines (LPRE) with self-regulated nozzles of internal and external expansion. The invention can be used when creating or upgrading a multi-stage LV with lively marching multi propulsion units (DU) with a Central body (CT) to reduce the base drag on the atmospheric flight of PH and improve high-rise characteristics control the PH (increasing the average trajectory of specific impulse) on the flight stage first and second stages.

Known multi-stage PH (see patent RU No. 2116941)containing United by parallel scheme missile blocks of the first and second stages of PH, and the coaxial module of the first stage is placed connected with its interconnect transition compartment additional fuel tank attached to the fuel compartment of the rocket block of the second stage of the launch vehicle through rasstegivaemoy in flight line with shut-off valve. Rocket blocks first is the first and second stages are connected to nodes of force feedback, located on their lateral surfaces. The invention allows to increase the relative weight of a payload and improve performance of multi-stage PH [1].

Known multi-stage PH (see patent RU No. 2306242), contains a package of two stages as the Central block of the second stage and the four side blocks of the first stage installed in the planes stabilize the PH at an angle to the axis of the block second degree, and also consistently placed third stage and payload, while the units include tanks of fuel components, propulsion and steering LRE installed on each unit, power nodes with ball bearings in the upper part of the blocks in the first stage, the upper power belt on the block of the second stage and the power connection rear of the package, and the block the second stage in the area of location of the oxidizer tank is cylindrical, and in the area of location of the fuel tank has the shape of a truncated cone, rolling in the cylinder [2].

A known arrangement of a multi-stage PH (see patent RU No. 2406660)that the package contains the shared missile units in the Central block of the first and second stages, four side blocks in the first degree block third stage. In the upper parts of tanks of fuel and oxidizer tanks of the side blocks of the first stage in the planes stabilization booster, apowersoft, focused on the Central block of the first and second steps, a set of jet nozzles. Each jet nozzle of a fuel tank equipped with a drain valve. In the tail compartment of the third step on the frame main engine block third stage fixed support, a hinged interacting with combustion chambers, each of which is movable in a single plane parallel to the plane stabilization of the PH, with the possibility of rotation in the tangential direction around the axis of the fixed bearing [3].

Famous projects layouts multi-perspective PH heavy and superheavy class type PH to ensure interplanetary missions [4], using the LV configuration scheme package with parallel arrangement of the multiple first side blocks and the Central block of the second stages of the domestic PH: "Volcano" [5], Yenisei and Angara-A7" [6], "Rus-MT [7], Victoria-K [8], and PH of the US Atlas-5" [9].

Famous projects layouts multistage PH, equipped lively marching multi-control with self-regulated nozzles of internal and external expansion: for example in the lively marching do with DH first steps in a series of projects USA PH type "Nova" [10], as well as in propulsion control with CT J-2T-250k, USA (project Rocketdyne) the second stage of the launch vehicle "Saturn-5" [11].

In the famous draft layouts of existing and prospective megascopic what's the PH of the medium, heavy and super-heavy class [1-9] when the longitudinal separation of the first stage consists of several identical missiles simultaneously, and located around the body of the second stage is symmetrical, so that the resultant of the forces of thrust multi-Doo first stage was directed along the symmetry axis of the second. This scheme allows to operate the engine of the second stage simultaneously with the engines of the first stage, thus increasing the total thrust PH since the start throughout the flight phase of the first stage. When the longitudinal separation on the housing of the second stage of the launch vehicle create power nodes, which are the blocks of the first stage.

Known link multi-stage LV with lively marching multi-Doo and large transverse sizes of packages of missile units and tail motor compartments [1-9] have large values of ground resistance at atmospheric flight PH, and low values of the high-rise characteristics (average trajectory of specific impulse) of each of the control of the first and second PH levels.

The occurrence of benthic resistance when using the known configurations of multi-stage PH due to the irreversible transformation of the in-flight portion of the kinetic energy of the PH in the heat of education at the tail end PH of the separated flow and the eddies, and in a supersonic flow with established and tail shock waves. Wrapping LV external flow, separated from the surface of the body, intensively mixed with air in a stagnant zone at the bottom of the tail engine compartment, pulling and sucking away a part of the air stagnation zone, in which there is a vacuum.

The aim of the present invention is to reduce the base drag at large transverse dimensions of the packages missile units PH and improve high-altitude performance (increase in the average trajectory of specific impulse) multi-Doo first and second stage of the launch vehicle with a rocket engine.

The purpose of the invention is achieved in that the layout of the assembled missile units of the first and second stages of PH on the parallel scheme contains the basic elements of design-layout scheme, consisting of a combined power structures of the two main multi-Doo first and second stage of the launch vehicle with rocket engines that are equipped with shortened CT with short nozzles of internal and external expansion, and collected from the rocket blocks the bottom part of the PH made in the form of external and internal truncated cones formed by the outer surface of the shell shortened CT and the inner surface of the shell of a single Poppet nozzle round or flat shape. While fuel tanks of missile units and single disc nozzle of the second stage booster is aspolozhena in the inner cavity shortened CT between tanks rocket blocks in the first stage of the launch vehicle so in the bottom part of the PH the lower edge of the outer and inner truncated cones coincide.

The invention is illustrated by the drawings in Fig.1-9.

In Fig.1 shows the side view of the lower part of the well-known link multi-stage PH "Volcano" in the design proposed as example, which is modified using the proposed invention, containing connected by a parallel circuit of a cylindrical rocket blocks of the first 1 and second stages PH 2.

In Fig.2 presents a photograph of a General view of the model layout of the modernized project PH "Volcano" (Fig.1), equipped as an example of a multi-chamber rocket engine with self-regulated nozzles of internal and external expansion, containing connected by a parallel circuit of a cylindrical rocket blocks of the first 1 and second stages of PH 2, with the third stage 8 and the head part 9.

In Fig.3 presents a view And (bottom) at the bottom part of the layout multistage PH in Fig.1 and 2 in the form of a combined outer truncated cone (shell CT 3 do the first stage PH 1) and the inner truncated cone (single disc nozzle 4 do the second stage PH 2). The combustion chambers 6 and 7 do the first 1 and second stage 2 installed symmetrically to the longitudinal axis LV.

Upgraded using the proposed invention, the layout of many who stepped PH "Volcano" (Fig.1-3) the package contains a shared missile units in the form of eight lateral blocks in the first stage of the launch vehicle 1, fixed in planes stabilize the PH in the Central block of the first and second stages of PH, with a single multi-Doo with a shortened Central body 3 of the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 and a single disc nozzle 4 at the second stage the PH is 2.

In Fig.4 shows the side view of the overall layout perspective multistage PH in the design proposed as example, which United in a parallel circuit missile racks with trowymi tanks of the first stage PH 1 with cylindrical tanks second stages of PH 2, with the head part 9 and a payload of 10 under the fairing arched form 11.

On the section b - B of aerodynamic models of PH (pictured in Fig.4) shows a side view cut1/4design of PH obtained with frontal and profile clipping planes design layout schemes PH in Fig.5.

In Fig.5 presents a view And (bottom) at the bottom part of the layout perspective multistage PH in the form of a combined outer truncated cone (round shell CT 3 do the first stage PH 1) and the inner truncated cone (round single disc nozzle 4 do the second stage PH 2) in Fig.4, and tapering tail to reduce drag coefficient on active atmospheric flight RN. The combustion chambers 6 and 7 do the first 1 and vtorostepenny 2 installed symmetrically to the longitudinal axis of PH similar composition PH in Fig.3

In Fig.6 shows a General side view of the reusable layout perspective multistage PH in the design proposed as an example of the reusable space transportation system (MRCs)containing United by parallel scheme saved cylindrical rocket blocks of the first 1 and second stages of PH 2, with the head part 9.

In Fig.7 shows a General top view of the layout MRCs in Fig.6.

In Fig.8 presents a view And (bottom) Fig.6 and 7.

In Fig.9 shows an enlarged image of Fig.8 composition PH type A (bottom), which shows the type And marching multi-control with self-regulated nozzles external and internal expansion, as well as on the bottom part of the composition a PH in the form of a combined outer flat truncated cone (flat pin CT 3 do the first stage PH 1) and the inner flat truncated cone (flat single disc nozzle 4 do the second stage PH 2). The combustion chambers 6 and 7 do the first 1 and second stage 2 installed symmetrically to the longitudinal axis LV, and symmetrically relative to the axis of the flat single disc nozzle 4 and the flat truncated CG 3.

In Fig.1-9 shows: fuel tanks rocket first stage blocks PH 1; fuel tanks missile units of the second stage PH 2; the truncated CG 3 the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 and a single disc nozzle 4 (round shape on the Phi is .1-5 and the flat form of Fig.6-9) LRE multi do the second stage PH 2; the lower edge 5 at the bottom shortened CT 3 and single disc nozzle 4 (round shape in Fig.1-5 and flat shapes in Fig.6-9); primary shortened nozzle rocket engine combustion chambers 6 in Multicam remote second stage PH 2; primary shortened nozzle rocket engine combustion chambers 7 in multi-Doo first stage of the launch vehicle 1; the upper (third) level of PH (or upper stage) 8; the head 9 with a payload of 10 and Radome 11.

In Fig.6-9 shows the elements of MRCs: straight wing 12 in the starting configuration, which is located along the body of the module of the first stage PH 1; the upper keel 13 to provide directional stability, controllability and balancing relative to the vertical axis of the block and the horizontal stabilizer 16 to provide longitudinal stability rescued module of the first stage PH 1; wing 14 and the upper keel 15 reusable block of the second stage PH 2.

The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that:

1. The layout of the multi-stage PH (Fig.1-9) contains the head 9 with a payload of Radome 10 and 11 connected nodes of the power connection with parallel-arranged shared missile units levels 1 and 2, equipped with multi-remote control with fuel tanks, cropped CT 3 at the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 and a single disc nozzle 4 on the second level, PH 2, characterized in that the bottom part of the PH is performed as in asnago and internal truncated cones (pins) round or flat form, educated outer surface of the shell conical or flat shortened form CT 3 and the inner surface of the shell conical or flat shape single disc nozzle 4, fuel tanks and a single disc nozzle of the second stage of the launch vehicle 2 is located in the inner cavity shortened CT 3 between the tanks of the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 so that the bottom part of the PH the lower edge of the outer and inner truncated cones 5 are the same, and both shells have the same round or flat shape tapered structural members shortened CT 3 and single disc nozzle.

2. The layout of the multi-stage PH (Fig.6-9) under item 1, characterized in that the bottom part of the PH made in the form of external and internal truncated cones flat shape (Fig.8-7), and the internal cavity is shortened CT and the inner space between the blocks of the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 is made in the profile flat pin CTS, and both shells have a flat shape of the pin is tapered structural members shortened CT 3 and single disc nozzle 6.

3. The layout of the multi-stage PH (Fig.4 and 5) under item 1, characterized in that the missile units of the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 is equipped with fuel tanks in the shape of a torus, in which is placed the missile units of the second stage 2, the bottom part of the PH (Fig.5) made in the form of external and internal truncated cones all forms is, and the internal cavity is shortened CT 3 and missile units of the second stage 2 is located inside the torus tanks of the first stage PH 1 coaxially round the pin CT 3, and both shells are round pin tapered structural members shortened CT 3 and single disc nozzle 6.

4. The layout of the multi-stage PH (Fig.6-9) under item 2, characterized in that the two outer and one Central inner truncated cone flat shape at the bottom of PH (Fig.7) are designed as integral parts of the saved elements of the multi-Doo reusable rocket blocks in the first 1 and second 2-speed transmission, equipped with wings 12 and 14 for return to earth using glide missile units 1 and 2.

5. The layout of the multi-stage PH (Fig.4 and 5) under item 3, characterized in that the outer truncated cone pin CT 3 round shape at the bottom of PH (Fig.5) is made coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the missile unit of the first stage 1, having a tapering tail portion of the conical shape to stabilize the passive flight when returning to earth with the use of aerodynamic quality after separation from the second stage PH 2 and flight in the atmosphere with the center of pressure above the center of mass of the missile unit of the first stage 1, which is shifted to the bottom edge of the pin CT.

Operates layout multistage PH following the last is successive.

In the initial position PH, filled with propellant components (MCT), is in the upright position in the starting system.

The starting of main multi-remote control of missile units of the first and second stages of the PH is carried out from the Ground. The proposed scheme provides maximum run the initial tagavoranist and the greatest probability of a successful start, as it allows to stop the run off all motors or to re-start in the event of an emergency shutdown of one engine or will be observed deviations in the control.

The start of the PH is carried out without holding the trigger device. After achieving total traction control, equal to the mass of LV, begins the ascent PH.

Do the first stage creates the main external flow of gases from the primary shortened rocket engine combustion chambers 7 with short CG 3 the first stage of the launch vehicle 1, and do the second step creates the internal flow of gases from the primary shortened rocket engine combustion chambers 6 single disc nozzle 4 multi-control the second stage of the launch vehicle 2. Each of the two streams after separation from the lower edge CT 3 and single disc nozzle 4 provides the total reversal of the gas flow is strictly on the vertical axis of symmetry of the entire layout of a two-stage PH. The total thrust vector control of the first and second stage of the launch vehicle is on the same axis as the velocity vector LV flight.

At the bottom of PH, made in the form of external and internal truncated cones, the profiles of the outer surface of the shell shortened CT 3 and the inner surface of the shell of a single Poppet nozzle 4 provides the estimated mode of the automatic regulation during acceleration of internal and external flows of gases in the composite nozzle unit with a shortened CTS.

The formation of the outer and inner annular streams of gases escaping from the rocket engine combustion chambers with CT 3 and single disc nozzle 4 having a circular shape (Fig.1-5). Of rocket engine combustion chambers with CT 3 and single disc nozzle 4 having a flat shape (Fig.6-9) expiring two external and two internal flow will create four flat gas flow, the symmetric axis of the velocity vector LV flight.

After the start of the rise of PH boosters of the block of the second stage can move in different modes from 70% to 100% of rated thrust. These modes will allow you to save fuel second stage and to increase the payload mass.

Flight control is provided by the throttling of symmetrical combustion chambers control the first and second stages. Combustion chamber fixed. Control points in the plane of the pitch and yaw are due to throttling and forcing reciprocating engines. The control channel pulls the roll is steering thrusters, spaced pairs of nozzles in different directions on the frame of the engine compartment.

To limit the velocity head at the flight of the first stage of the launch vehicle provides the ability to simultaneously throttling the combustion chambers control the first and second stages in the zone of passage of the maximum speed of the stream.

In the end, multi-Doo first stage of the launch vehicle off of the combustion chamber rocket engine 7 with shortened CT 3 and missile units 1 are separated from the second stage of the launch vehicle. Multicam do the second stage of the launch vehicle 2 continues autoregulation and single disc nozzle 4.

Rocket block of the first stage of the launch vehicle 1 has a speed at the moment of separation from the Central block of the second stage 2 of about 1.9 km/s, close to the same speed side blocks as part of Energia (1.8 km/s), which provides the possibility of their salvation [5].

After dialing a preset speed RN is full off control of the second stage 2.

The use of the invention in rocket technology allows you to:

1. To ensure the increase in the relative mass of the payload in the prospective multi-stage PH and improve their performance in comparison with the prototype by reducing the base drag and improve high-altitude performance multi-Doo.

2. To reduce losses total thrust a lot of amarnah do with large transverse dimensions of existing projects PH with parallel arrangement of the missile units of the first and second stages by reducing the base drag on the atmospheric flight RN. For example, if you offer to implement the invention in the creation of promising local PH heavy and superheavy class type "Yenisei and Angara-A7" [6], "Rus-MT [7], Victoria-K [8], and PH of the US Atlas-5" [9].

3. Be improved by automatic regulation of the two supersonic gas flow (external thread of the rocket engine combustion chambers with short DH and internal flow of a single Poppet nozzle) high-rise properties (increase of average trajectories of specific impulse) LRE each of the multi-Doo existing and future projects PH with parallel arrangement of the missile units of the first and second stages with a single nozzle unit multi-Doo at the stage of their collaboration PH in flight.

4. To ensure reusability saved items Multicam do with reusable rocket stages first and second stages, equipped with wings to return to earth using glide missile units, equipped composed of two parts aerodynamic nozzle flat composite shortened CT first stage and a single flat disc nozzle on the second level.

5. To ensure reusability saved items multi-Doo reusable rocket module of the first stage, equipped for the TP is recorded on the land using glide missile unit, equipped trowymi tanks and aerodynamic nozzle with a circular truncated CG having a tapering tail portion of the conical shape to stabilize and stability of passive flight when returning to earth after separation from the second stage of the launch vehicle and flight in the atmosphere forward CG with the center of pressure, which is shifted to the bottom edge of the pin CG above the center of mass of the missile unit of the first stage.

Sources of information

1. Multi-stage PH (patent RU№2116941), 10.08.1998.

2. Multi-stage PH (patent RU №2306242), 10.01.2006.

3. The layout of the multi-stage PH (patent RU №2406660), 20.12.2010.

4. I. Black. Boosters to return to the moon. "News of cosmonautics. No. 01, 2006.

5. B. I. Gubanov. "Triumph and tragedy "Energy". Reflections chief designer. N. Novgorod: publishing house. Near, 1998, on the website http://vvwvv.buran.ru/htm/gubanov.htm

6. Family of launch vehicle "Angara", on the website of the FSUE "GKNPTs name M. C. Khrunichev") http://www.khrunichev.ru/main.php?id=44

7. Heavy booster "Rus-M". Production of missiles in Russia. Aviation and space on the website http://www.nemiga.info/discovery/rossiya/raketa-rus.htm

8. Century Degtyarev and other "Victoria-" the third coming of the super-heavy? "News of cosmonautics. No. 05, 2006.

9. Booster "Atlas-5", article on the website http://space.skyrocket.de/doc_lau/atlas-5.htm

10. Encyclopedia Astronautics, Encyclopedia Astronautica, Nova article on the website http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/nova.htm

11. O LearyR.A., Beck J. E. Nozzle Design article in the journal Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's engineering journal of power technology, 1992, article on the website http:/www.pwrengineering.com/articles/nozzledesign.htm

1. The layout of the multi-stage booster that contains a headunit with a payload of connected nodes of the power connection with parallel-arranged shared missile units of speed, equipped with multi-motor installations with fuel tanks, shortened the Central body at the first stage booster and a single disc nozzle at the second stage booster, characterized in that the bottom part of the rocket is made in the form of external and internal truncated cones formed by the outer surface of the shell shortened the Central body and the inner surface of the shell of a single Poppet nozzles, and fuel tanks and a single disc nozzle of the second stage of the launch vehicle is located in the internal cavity of the shortened Central body between the tanks of the first stage booster so that the bottom part of the rocket the lower edge of the outer and inner truncated cones coincide.

2. The layout of the multi-stage booster under item 1, characterized in that the bottom part of the rocket is made in the form of external and internal truncated cones flat shape, and an inner cavity shortened Central is the main body and the inner space between the blocks of the first stage booster is made in the profile of the prongs of the Central body.

3. The layout of the multi-stage booster under item 1, characterized in that the missile units of the first stage booster is equipped with fuel tanks in the shape of a torus, in which is placed the missile units of the second stage, the bottom part of the rocket is made in the form of external and internal truncated cones round shape, and an inner cavity shortened the Central body and missile units of the second stage are located inside the torus tanks of the first stage booster coaxially round the Central pin of the body.

4. The layout of the multi-stage booster on p. 2, characterized in that the outer and inner truncated cone flat shape in the bottom part of the rocket is made in the form of component parts saved items multi-motor installations reusable rocket stages first and second stages, equipped with wings to return to earth using glide missile units.

5. The layout of the multi-stage booster on p. 3, characterized in that the outer truncated cone pin Central body round shape at the bottom of the rocket is made coaxial with the longitudinal axis of the missile unit of the first stage having a tapering tail portion of the conical shape to stabilize the passive flight when returning to earth is the use of aerodynamic quality after separation from the second stage of the rocket and flight in the atmosphere with the center of pressure above the center of mass of the rocket block first degree, which is shifted to the bottom edge of the pin Central body.



 

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FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; adapters for group launch of spacecraft.

SUBSTANCE: proposed adapter has body consisting of two parts: one part is made in form of load-bearing body with platform for placing the spacecraft on one end and with attachment frame on other end; other part is made in form of load-bearing ring secured on payload frame and provided with attachment frame. Attachment frames of load-bearing body and load-bearing ring are interconnected by means of bolted joints fitted with two rubber washer shock absorbers each; one of them is mounted between surfaces of attachment frames to be coupled and other is mounted between opposite surface of attachment frame of load-bearing body and metal washer laid under bolt head. Diameter of metal washer exceeds diameter of rubber washer shock absorber; spacecraft attachment units are secured on platform of load-bearing body by means of bolted joints with rubber washer shock absorbers mounted between platform surfaces to be coupled and spacecraft attachment units.

EFFECT: reduction of dynamic vibration and impact loads due to extended range of varying dampening properties of adapter.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: future space engineering; interstellar flights.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method is based on use of reactive thrust of spacecraft rocket engines in their maneuvering in gravity field of black hole. Kerr (rotating) black hole, i.e. its ergosphere may be selected for the purpose. Several separate spacecraft are directed in succession to gravity field of black hole ensuring stable exchange of information among them (for example, by radio or light channel). Provision is made for acceleration of spacecraft to relativistic speeds and obtaining information on effect of such speeds and accelerations on physical processes, equipment and living beings (at safe flying out of sphere of influence of black hole), as well as verification of theories of black holes.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; upper stages of launch vehicles injecting payloads from reference orbit into working orbits.

SUBSTANCE: proposed cryogenic stage includes cruise engine, oxidizer tank, toroidal fuel tank, inter-tank compartment, truss for connection with payload and truss for connection with launch vehicle. Toroidal fuel tank is made in form of lens in cross section with bottoms changing to frames. Tank is coupled with said trusses and inter-tank compartment through outer frame forming load-bearing system for taking-up external inertial loads.

EFFECT: reduction of total longitudinal clearance and mass of cryogenic stage; increased zone of payload under launch vehicle fairing.

1 dwg

FIELD: rocketry and space engineering; scientific and commercial fields.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes placing payloads on injection facility, launching the launch vehicle, separation of injection facility from launch vehicle and injection of injection facility into geocentric orbit where said payloads are separated from injection facility. Main payload is placed on injection facility directly of body of accompanying payload; this body combines its functions with functions of main load-bearing member of adapter system for placing the main payload. After separation of injection facility from launch vehicle, additional acceleration of injection facility is performed and injection facility is injected into reference orbit and then it is shifted to geocentric orbit where main and accompanying payloads are separated. Accompanying payload is separated from injection facility after main payload is at safe distance without waiting for complete turn of main payload. Spacecraft in facility injecting the artificial satellites into geocentric orbit are placed in succession on injection facility beginning with lower one. Main payload in form of one or several spacecraft is placed on body of lower spacecraft through separation device. Body of lower spacecraft combines its functions with functions of adapter load-bearing member for placing the main payload.

EFFECT: increased mass ratio of launch vehicle and injection facility; extended functional capabilities.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: space engineering; spacecraft for descent in atmosphere of planet.

SUBSTANCE: proposed spacecraft has case with foldable wings and/or stabilizers provided with deployment mechanisms. In folded state at deceleration of spacecraft in atmosphere, said wings and/or stabilizers are covered with separable frontal heat shield which is oval in shape in projection on plane perpendicular to longitudinal axis of spacecraft. Side surfaces of tail section of spacecraft case with wings and/or stabilizers (and some other members) may be covered with separable aerodynamic flaps which form conical surface. After deceleration at initial stage of descent, shield is separated and wings (stabilizers) deploy to working position. Proposed spacecraft has high aerodynamic properties and is provided with reliable protection against aerodynamic and thermal loads at deceleration at high supersonic flight speeds.

EFFECT: low cost of servicing.

4 cl, 13 dwg

Settlement in space // 2264330

FIELD: construction of large-sized structures in space; space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed settlement includes production, living and auxiliary rooms built from lightened modules which are combined in single complex of cylindrical shape with tunnel located along its main longitudinal axis. Said tunnel is embraced by three bodies: main body, body of communication chambers and body of transfer chamber. Pressurized passages are provided between these chambers. Gravitational drive mounted on tunnel is used for rotating the complex in order to form artificial gravity in all rooms. Facing secured on outer surface of guards is used for protection against adverse effect of space. Guards of main body are made from torous members assembled from enlarged space building modules. Main body may be provided with hollow longitudinal and radial stiffening members fastened together and secured to said torous members and to tunnel.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumption and time required for assembly of space structure.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes joint assembly of payload and launch vehicle for forming space launch vehicle which is equipped with apogee stage with solid-propellant engine plant. Carrier-aircraft is coupled with space launch vehicle and launch vehicle is raised by this aircraft to preset altitude, then launch vehicle is separated and solid-propellant engine plants of three boost stages are started in succession; launch vehicle is injected into preset near-earth orbit and payload is separated from launch vehicle at preset point of trajectory in preset direction. In the course of flight of launch vehicle upon discontinuation of operation of engine plants of boost stages and completion of first boost leg, ballistic pause is performed at motion of space launch vehicle over ballistic trajectory at climbing the required altitude of orbit. Upon completion of ballistic pause at second boost leg engine of apogee stage is started and space launch vehicle is injected into preset near-earth orbit at respective velocity increment and compensation of error during operation of boost stages. Aircraft rocket space complex includes 1st class aerodrome, carrier-aircraft and space launch vehicle. Masses of boost and apogee stages are selected at definite ratio. Provision is made for transportation container for delivery of space launch vehicle to aerodrome. Telemetric information measuring and tracking points are located on aeroplanes; they are made in form of mobile radio unit for reception of external information.

EFFECT: reduction of distance from launch site of space launch vehicle to point of separation of payload.

18 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: space engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes transportation of space launch vehicle to launching position, preparation for launch, raising the space launch vehicle to preset altitude by carrier-aircraft, separation from carrier-aircraft, stabilization of space launch vehicle and starting the engine plant of first boost stage. Space launch vehicle is transported to launching position in transportation-and-operation container. Then, container is transferred by means of crane to erection trolley, detachable compartments are dismantled and space launch vehicle is transported to carrier-aircraft. Space launch vehicle is secured to carrier-aircraft by means of locks of carrier-aircraft. Space launch vehicle is equipped with boost stages with solid-propellant engine plants, stabilization unit and units for attachment of launch vehicle to carrier-aircraft. It is also equipped with separable tail fairing and lattice stabilizers made in form of cylindrical panels which are secured on it. After bringing the space launch vehicle to preset altitude, locks of carrier-aircraft are opened by command and lattice stabilizers of tail fairing are opened simultaneously. After preset pause, before separation of space launch vehicle, tail fairing with lattice stabilizers is separated from space launch vehicle. Proposed method makes it possible to reduce launch mass and ensure stabilization on flight leg of safe distance from carrier-aircraft till moment of start of 1st stage engine plant.

EFFECT: extended field of application.

7 cl, 5 dwg

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