Device and method for isomerisation of flow of carbohydrates
SUBSTANCE: device contains the first drier and the second drier, adapted for the reception of a gaseous flowing medium, containing, at least, one reagent. The first drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the first mode of drying the flowing medium, which contains, at last, one reagent, and the second drier is made with a possibility of functioning in the second mode, under conditions of carrying out regeneration by means of a regenerating agent. it also contains a reaction zone, connected by means of the first pipeline to the first drier for the reception of the gaseous flowing medium, which contains, at least, one reagent; and a system of replacement of a regenerating agent in the direction from top to bottom, adapted for the supply and regulation of consumption or reduction of pressure of a part of the said gaseous flowing medium into the second drier, removal of the replaced regenerating agent from the second drier and technological operations, which are performed downstream, to minimise disturbances in the implementation of the said operations.
EFFECT: application of the claimed invention makes it possible to minimise disturbances in carrying out operations downstream.
10 cl, 2 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The present invention relates to an apparatus and method for isomerization of the flow of hydrocarbons.
The level of technology
Isomerization of light paraffins in many cases provide for increasing the octane number of gasoline. Typically, such methods isomerization is performed with a separate light fractions of hydrocarbons. As an example, the isomerization of butane, or pentane and/or hexane (hereinafter may be called for short the isomerization of pentane-hexane) is conducted with the aim of improving the quality of gasoline in a separate device for isomerization. Typically, the isomerization of butane and pentane-hexane is carried out in a process of liquid/steam or steam phase in a fixed bed of catalyst. In the reactor can do the feedstock of light paraffins, mixed with gas containing significant amounts of hydrogen.
When isomerization of butane or pentane-hexane water is a harmful substance, which can reduce the service life of the catalyst in the reactor. Therefore, it is desirable to remove the water before rich hydrogen gas and/or paraffin feedstock will be available in the reactor. Therefore, usually as a source of raw materials, and the specified gas to remove water is passed through a separate apparatus for the dehydration (drying).
In many of the cases, two desiccant is used by placing them in series or parallel with the alternate operations of regeneration, regardless of whether the processed fluid medium gas, rich in hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon containing butane or pentane and butane. Accordingly, one dehumidifier can operate, while the other desiccant may be in regeneration mode. At the final stage of regeneration of the desiccant may be a gaseous regenerating agent, if the dryer is designed for drying gas, or liquid regenerating agent, if the desiccant is a desiccant hydrocarbons. Depending on the hydrocarbon fraction, which is subjected to isomerization, regenerating agent may include, mainly, the isomerized product, such as isobutane or at least one product from isopentane and isohexane (which hereinafter may be called the isopentane-isohexane); or regenerating agent may include a mixture of one or more different compounds with branched-chain, compounds are of normal structure and cyclic compounds. In another example, as a rule, regenerating agent blow away (wash away) from the dryer before the regenerated desiccant actuate or as you enter the desiccant in action. Regenerating agent can be removed from the system as a pure stream.
Gaseous regenerating agent with whom to give malfunctions placed downstream technological devices. In particular, gaseous regenerating agent can cause a drop in temperature of the reaction as this regenerating agent replaces the hydrogen used in the reactor, and violates the molar ratio of hydrogen:hydrocarbon in the reactor. In addition, normally gaseous regenerating agent has a greater molecular weight than the gas rich in hydrogen. As a result, the replacement of gas rich in hydrogen, can disrupt the processes regulating the gas flow, namely the flow rate of feed (hydrogen) gas, and upset the regulation of the pressure in a distillation column, which is usually used below in the direction of flow from the reactor. Thus, there is a need to mitigate the above undesirable effects the regeneration of the desiccant gas in order to prevent disruption of the functioning of the apparatus below the stream.
One example embodiment of the invention may be setup for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6. Installation can contain the first desiccant and the second desiccant adapted to receive a fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and a reaction zone, a chamber connected with the first desiccant for receiving the fluid from the containing a series, at least one reagent, and a built also with the second desiccant for receiving a regenerating agent. Usually the first dehumidifier operates in the first mode for dewatering fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and the second dehumidifier operates in the second mode, during regeneration with a regenerating agent. Regenerating agent can pass through removal system (by displacement) regenerating agent is performed in the direction from top to bottom, designed to regulate the flow of regenerating agent discharged from the second desiccant.
Another example embodiment of the invention may be a method for regenerating at least one desiccant installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6. The method may include the regeneration of at least one desiccant containing regenerating agent, the displacement of regenerating agent, at least one drier for a certain period of time, and the output of the remote by pushing regenerating agent from the process to minimize disturbances during technological operations downstream.
Another example embodiment may be a way of regenera the AI, at least one zone of the drying installation for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons. The method may include the displacement of the used regenerating agent, rich in C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, at least one drying zone for a certain period of time, using dehydrated fluid environment containing reagent to minimize violations when conducting one or more transactions below along the flow path, and the output is driven from the desiccant regenerating agent from the process.
Thus, disclosed herein embodiments can minimize violations in the operations below in the direction of flow from a zone of drying fluid by displacement of the used regenerating agent from the zone of drying and remote regenerating agent from the process. System displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction is used to displace used regenerant agent using dehydrated fluid medium.
Used in the present description, the term "stream" can mean a stream containing molecules of different hydrocarbons, such as alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes and alkynes with normal unbranched chain, branched or cyclic who, and not necessarily other substances, such as gases, for example hydrogen, or impurities, for example, heavy metals, and compounds of sulfur and nitrogen. The specified stream may also contain aromatic or not aromatic hydrocarbons. In addition, the hydrocarbon molecules can be abbreviated designated as C1, C2, C3..., JV, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule. In addition, the term "hydrocarbon SP-SP+1", for example hydrocarbons, C5-C6"may mean at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6.
Used herein, the term "area" can refer to a certain area containing one or more units and/or one or more subbands. Equipment may constitute one or more reactors or reactor, heaters, separators, heat exchangers, piping, pumps, compressors and regulators. In addition, equipment such as the reactor, a desiccant or tank may also contain one or more zones or subzones. It should be understood that each zone can contain a larger number of pieces of equipment and/or containers than shown in the figures.
Used herein, the term "system displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction"generally means a device consisting of elements that minicamera, directly or indirectly regulate the flow or reduce the pressure of the fluid flowing in the newly regenerated drier in the downward direction. In General, this system displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction reduces the flow of a fluid medium, for example, in the pipeline, compared with the case of absence of such system, and can control the flow of fluid, and not to interrupt the flow of fluid. An example embodiment of such a system to displace regenerating agent in the downward direction may serve as at least one conduit located upstream from the desiccant, is equipped with at least one regulating valve or restrictive orifice (valve provides an additional benefit as they are able to gradually increase or decrease the flow rate, while bounding the hole that does not provide), and preferably, at least one flow indicator, and one or more pipelines, situated downstream from the desiccant, each of which is equipped with at least one valve. An example embodiment of the above system will be described in more detail below.
Used herein, the term "device for moving fluid" generally means a device for transporting fluid the environment. Such devices are pumps that are used, usually for liquids, and compressors are commonly used for gases.
Used herein, the term "rich" can generally mean the content in the stream, at least 50% and preferably 70% (molar content) connection, or a connection class.
Used herein, the term "mainly" can generally mean at least 90%, preferably 95%, and optimally 99% (molar content) compound or class of compounds in a stream.
Used herein, the term "absorption" can refer to the ability to retain the material in the layer containing the absorbent and/or adsorbent, due to chemical or physical interactions between matter such as water, and a layer, and includes, but is not limited to absorption and/or adsorption. Removal of substances from the adsorbent can be referred to here as "desorption".
Used herein, the term "used regenerating agent" can refer to a regenerating agent, which has already been used for drying or desorption or which has been passed through one or more technological devices or pieces of equipment, such as a dehumidifier. Used regenerating agent may contain or may not contain desormiere substance, such as water, but it is not excluded, is then used regenerating agent is a processing unit, once placed inside the unit work item, for example a molecular sieve, was regenerated.
Used herein, the term "coupled" may mean that two elements are directly or indirectly articulated, bonded, connected, joined or formed together as a single unit by means of chemical or physical means, using technological processes, such as stamping, casting or welding. In addition, two elements can be connected with the third element, such as a fastening element, such as a screw, pin, clip or rivet; or by using an adhesive or solder.
Brief description of drawings
Fig.1 - schematic diagram of typical installation process for the isomerization of fluid.
Fig.2 - schematic diagram of typical apparatus for drying a gaseous fluid medium.
In Fig.1 shows the installation of 100 for isomerization stream of hydrocarbons. In General, this facility 100 may receive the fluid containing at least one regenerating agent 110, passing through the pipeline 210 or lines of pipe 410. Normally fluid 110 can be a liquid stream of hydrocarbons in the pipeline 210 or rich in hydrogen gas in the pipeline 410. Liquid flow of hydrocarbons can be stream rich in coal is hydrogen, C4, for example Bhutan, if the installation 100 is setup for the isomerization of C4 hydrocarbons. Alternatively, the liquid flow of hydrocarbons can be rich in hydrocarbons, C5-C6, such as pentane-hexane, if the installation 100 is a unit for isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. Typical installation of both types are disclosed, for example, in source: Nelson A. Cusher, UOP Butamer Process and UOP Penex Process of the Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes, Third Edition, Robert A. Meyers, Editor, 2004, p.9.7-9.27. However, in some embodiments installation 100 can also be used for the simultaneous isomerization of flow of one or more of butane, one or more of pentane and one or more hexanol. It should be noted that isomerization reactions include those in which the quality of raw materials, mainly used normal paraffins and isomerization product - branched paraffins, and also such that as the source of raw materials, mainly used branched paraffins, and as a product of isomerization of normal paraffins. In other words, the liquid flow of hydrocarbons can be rich in isobutane or branched hydrocarbons C5-C6. Other isomerization reactions carried out with the participation of hydrocarbons, C4, or C5-C6, are also within the scope of the present invention.
Supramania the following disclosure of the invention, the term "liquid hydrocarbon" and "regenerating agent" may refer to a generalized and need to understand that they are applicable, for example, to install for the isomerization of C4 hydrocarbon or installation for the isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. As an example, the flow of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon, may be subjected to isomerization reactor for isomerization of C4 hydrocarbons and a product containing isomerized hydrocarbons C4, can be used as a regenerating agent in the isomerization of C4. Similarly, the flow of hydrocarbons, rich in hydrocarbons, C5-C6, can be Samaritan in the reactor for isomerization of hydrocarbons, C5-C6, and a product containing samaritane hydrocarbons, C5-C6, can be used as a regenerating agent in the isomerization of hydrocarbons C5-C6. However, within the scope of the present invention remains the flow of regenerating agent, abstracted from one or more places of the implementation of the isomerization process, for example from the area of fractional separation of dehumidifiers or possibly even at the location external to the isomerization process. As a regenerating agent can be used, for example, nitrogen from a source external to the isomerization process.
Installation 100 may contain one or more zones 150 drying, for example an area of 250 drying (dehydration) of the liquid and an area of 450 gas drying, and one the or more locations of the technological operations 160, downstream, such as the reaction zone 170 and area 180 fractionation. Area 250 dehydration of liquid can be formed in the first device 200 for draining the fluid, and the area 450 for drying gas may be formed in the second device 400 for draining the fluid. The apparatus 400 is described in more detail below. Area 250 dehydration fluid can be liquid flow of hydrocarbons from the pipeline 210 and area 450 dehydration can take a gas rich in hydrogen from the pipeline 410. Although the figure is not shown, you must understand that for the transportation of liquid flow of hydrocarbons and gas, rich in hydrogen may be used in equipment for handling a fluid medium, such as pumps and compressors, respectively. Alternatively, other fluid medium may have sufficient pressure, and therefore the use of such equipment is not required. After passing zones 250 and 450 drying the liquid flow of hydrocarbons and gas, rich in hydrogen can be merged lower in the flow direction of the flow from areas 250 and 450 drying, for example in the reaction zone 170.
One or more devices 160, placed downstream, can be separated with the formation of the reaction zone 170, which may contain the first reactor 172 and the second reactor 174 placed in series with the pen the first reactor 172, and zone 180 fractionation, which can be placed one or more distillation columns 192. Although the figure shows only the first reactor 172 and the second reactor 174, it should be understood that the reaction zone 170 may also contain other equipment or devices, such as one or more heaters, compressor recycle gas separation capacity and additional reactors. Alternatively, the reactor 172 and 174 may be included in one operation. The stream resulting from the reaction zone 170 may flow through the pipe 176 to the zone 180 fractionation.
Area 180 fractionation may contain one or more distillation columns 192. Although in Fig.1 shows one distillation column 192, installation can be used two or more distillation columns arranged in series and/or parallel. Distillation column 192 can produce one or more products 182 separation, as for example, the first product consisting of one or more gaseous products sent, for example, combustible gas by pipeline 184, and a second or isomerized product transported by pipeline 186. Some portion of the second product can be designated by a pipe 188 and use avana as a regenerating agent. Used regenerating agent can be returned back to the isomerized product flowing in the pipe 190, as will be describe below. The combined stream may be directed into the storage tank isomerizing product in a distillation column or other technological device.
In Fig.2 shows a device 400 for the dehydration of gaseous fluid. The specified device for drying a gaseous fluid may be used for drying a gas stream, for example a gas stream rich in hydrogen. Typically, a device 400 for drying a gaseous fluid medium contains at least one desiccant 454, one or more valves 460, the system a and 465b displacement regenerating agent from the top down and the heater 510. Usually, at least one drier 454 includes a first desiccant 456 gas and the second desiccant 458 gas. These dehumidifiers 456 and 458 can be placed in the zone 450 gas drying, shown in Fig.1. In addition, each drier 456 and 458 may contain molecular sieve, which is the absorption and/or adsorption of water and other undesirable chemical compounds, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, and to establish appropriate internal zone or sub-zone drying. In General, each drier 456 and 458 run the t in the first mode, dehydration rich in hydrogen passing through the drier, and in the second mode to regenerate the desiccant. These dehumidifiers 456 and 458 can be placed sequentially and regenerated alternately when running other desiccant.
One or more valves 460 may include a valve 462, valve 464, valve 466, valve 468, valve 470, valve 472, valve 474, valve 476 valve 478, valve 480, valve 482, valve 484, valve 475 and valve 498. Various combinations of valves 460 can be opened and closed in order to direct the process flow for implementing the first and second mode of operation of the dryers.
In one example embodiment, the system displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction, including parts a and 465b, may contain such equipment, as an indicator 496 flow control valve 498, pipeline 430, valve 464, valve 475 and pipeline 477. The indicator 496 flow may be in communication with the control valve 498, and the indicator 496 flow control valve 498 and valve 464 can be connected to the pipeline 430, forming, thus, part a system. The heater 510 may include a steam heater 514 and superheater 518.
In one embodiment, the regeneration gas, for example gas, rich in hydrogen, is usually injected through the pipeline 410. In this example, the desiccant 458 who operate in the first mode - mode of draining the fluid, while the drier 456 is in the second mode to the regeneration mode. In this case, the gas may flow in the pipe 410 and pass through the valve 478 and 480 in the first desiccant 458, and valves 474 and 476 may be closed. Usually when conducting gas drying in the dehydrator 458 valves 466 and 470 are also closed. After that, the dried gas can be transported through the valves 472 and 468 and through the first pipe 420 into the reaction zone 170, as shown in Fig.1.
All this time the second drier 456 gas is in the regeneration mode. Typically, the regeneration is a multi-stage process that uses liquid regenerating agent coming from the pipe 188, shown in Fig.1, which can be routed to the heater 510. In the process of regeneration regenerating agent may be gradually heated with the steam heater 514 and then using both the first heater 514 and superheater 518 as long as the regenerating agent will not be heated to a temperature sufficient to deformirovaniya water from the molecular sieve. Usually regenerating agent flows through the steam heater 514, superheater 518 and then by pipeline 488 passing through the valve 482 comes up gas drier 456. Regenerating agent may sequentially pass through ossiter, the valve 484 and pipeline 508 before it is cooled using, for example, cooling water heat exchanger and is returned to the pipeline 190, shown in Fig.1. With the valves 462, 475, 474 and 476 are normally closed.
Then regenerating agent may be slowly cooled by pre-shutdown superheater 518, but at the same time continue the evaporation and heating of the regenerating agent in the steam heater 514 and the continuous passage of regenerating agent through the drier 456. Thus, the drier 456 and associated equipment can be cooled at a slow temperature decrease. At the end of the regeneration process in the drier 456 is usually used regenerating agent in the form of a gas.
After completion of the regeneration process used regenerating agent can be removed from the drier 456 through the open valve 475 and pipeline 477 using system a and 465b displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction. When using a part of the dry gas rich in hydrogen by pipeline 420 is passed through the indicator 496 flow control valve 498, open valve 464, pipeline 430 and open valve 462. When using 465b superseded by regenerating agent is passed through the valve 475 and output from the process pipeline 477. In the stamping used regenerating agent to carry out so, to minimize irregularities in the conduct of one or more operations downstream, in particular in the reaction zone 170 and 180 fractionation. For example, the control valve 498 can be calibrated to regulate the flow rate of the drained gas, rich in hydrogen. This flow rate can be calculated based on the desired period of time to ensure complete removal of the used regenerating agent without conducting operations with excessive loss of time and there has been no disruption in the operations below in the direction of flow. In addition, the opening of the control valve 498 can be controlled so that the flow of dry gas in the pipeline 430 was increased gradually to achieve a given flow rate. In this case, a gradual increase of the flow rate of dry gas in the pipeline 430 helps to avoid violations in the operations downstream, for example in the reaction zone or in the zone of the fractionation. Upon expiration of a predefined period of time required to displace a regenerating agent, can be produced by switching operations by closing valves 464 and 475, opening valve 466, 474, 476 and closing valve 468, 472, 478 and 480, so that the drier 456 provided drainage gas. At this stage, the desiccant 458 is in the mode of the regeneration. In addition, at the end of the stage of removing the used regenerating agent consumption of dry gas in the pipeline 430 can be gradually reduced with the regulating valve 498 in order to minimize violations in the operations below in the direction of flow.
Although there is described the processes of drying and regeneration of the respective dryers 458 and 456, it should be understood that they can be used for additional piping and/or valves, so that each drier 456 and 458 can function as modes of drying and regeneration, and a serial connection. As an example, dehumidifiers 456 and 458 after regeneration can be included in the sequential mode of operation, for example, so that the drier 456 functioned delayed in time with respect to the desiccant 458.
Without further careful study is that the specialist in the art can, using the preceding description, utilize the present invention in its entirety. Disclosed above preferred specific embodiment, therefore, should be interpreted only as illustrative and in no way limiting the rest of the description.
In the above description, all of the temperature is given in degrees Celsius and all proportions and percentages are expressed in mo is s, if not specified otherwise.
From the above description, the specialist in the art can easily set the essential features of the invention without going beyond the scope and essence of the invention to make various changes and modifications of the invention in order to adapt it to different contexts and use cases.
1. Device for displacing the regenerating agent of the desiccant containing:
the first desiccant and the second desiccant adapted to receive a gaseous fluid containing at least one reagent, the first desiccant is configured to operate in the first mode, the drying fluid medium containing at least one reagent, and the second desiccant configured to operate in the second mode, during regeneration with a regenerating agent;
reaction zone chamber connected by a first pipe to the first desiccant for receiving gaseous fluid containing at least one reagent; and
system displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction, which is adapted to supply and regulate the flow or pressure reduction part of this gaseous fluid to the second desiccant, remove superseded by regenerating agent from the second drain is I and process operations running downstream, to minimize violations when performing these operations.
2. Installation under item 1, in which the system displacement regenerating agent in the downward direction contains:
a second pipeline for messages of the second drier with the first pipeline, the second pipeline is equipped with a flow indicator, a restrictive orifice or control valve (shutoff) valve;
the third pipeline connected to a second dryer and is equipped with a valve, with
the second pipe is connected with the second desiccant at position a, and the third pipe is connected with the second desiccant in the position that provides the opportunity displacement regenerating agent from the second desiccant in the downward direction.
3. Installation under item 1, in which the reaction zone contains at least one reactor for isomerization of C4 hydrocarbon or at least one reactor for isomerization of hydrocarbons C5 and/or C6.
4. Installation under item 1, additionally containing
the fractionation zone containing one or more distillation columns in order to stream resulting from the reaction zone, and the production of one or more separated products; and
supply at least some part of one of the separated products as regenery the ith agent, in at least one of the first and second dryers.
5. Installation under item 1, in which the first and second dehumidifiers contain molecular sieve.
6. The way isomerization stream of hydrocarbons rich in a C4 hydrocarbon and/or rich in at least one of the hydrocarbons C5 and C6, including:
feeding the dried gaseous feedstock rich in hydrogen, and drained of hydrocarbons in the area of conducting isomerization reactions and diversion of the flow of the isomerized product;
supply of part of the dried gaseous feedstock through the regenerated desiccant from top to bottom to displace used regenerant agent of the regenerated desiccant in the direction from top to bottom;
conclusion ousted used regenerating agent of the isomerization process.
7. The method according to p. 6, further including:
drying gas flow of the feedstock in the first drier to obtain a dried gaseous feedstock rich in hydrogen; and
the regeneration of the second desiccant.
8. The method according to p. 6, in which the rate specified part of the dried gaseous feedstock that is sent through the regenerated desiccant gradually increased to a predetermined value using a control valve.
9. The method according to p. 8, in which a predefined RA is the speed is low enough so that in order not to disrupt the operation of the reaction zone, and in which these stages feed and output continue for a period of time sufficient to displace regenerating agent of the desiccant.
10. The method according to p. 9, additionally including a gradual reduction of the specified portion of the dried gaseous feedstock supplied through the regenerated desiccant, after a period of time sufficient to displace regenerating agent of the desiccant.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of separating an isopentane-pentane-hexane fraction during an isomerisation process, consisting of a first fractionation column for preparing material, from which the ballast product contained in the material is separated with the distillate. The residue from the bottom of the fractionation column is taken for conversion of pentanes and hexanes into isomers in an isomerisation reactor. Isomerisation products are fed into a second fractionation column for debutanisation, from where butane is removed from the top of the column and the isomerisation product is removed from the bottom of the column, said product containing reaction isomers obtained during the reaction, which are fed for separation into a third fractionation column for depentanisation, from which isopentane, recycled pentane and a hexane fraction are successively removed from the top. The recycled pentane is returned into the isomerisation reactor. The method is characterised by that the starting material used is a 75-85°C fraction of straight-run gasoline, and the ballast product removed from the top of the first fractionation column is isopentane contained in the material; reaction isopentane is removed from the top of the third fractionation column for depentanisation as a distillate or with the first side cut. Excess butane is removed as the distillate. Pentane is removed with the second side cut of the depentanisation column and fed into the isomerisation reactor as a recycle stream. A mixture of isohexane and normal hexane is removed from the bottom of the depentanisation column and then fed as material into an additional fourth fractionation column for deisohexanisation, from which the isohexane fraction is removed with the distillate and recycled hexane is removed with the side cut and then fed for re-conversion into the isomerisation reactor, and higher-boiling components are removed with the residue.
EFFECT: use of the present method enables to cut the amount of energy spent in the isomerisation process on producing isoparaffins, widens the range of products and provides flexibility of the process and purity of the end products.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing alkylbenzine via alkylation of isobutane with olefins in a catalytic reactor at high temperature and pressure, where isobutane is fed into the top section of the reactor then successively passed through all sections with a catalyst, and olefin-containing material is distributed into several streams, the number of which is equal to the number of catalyst sections and then simultaneously fed into the section containing catalyst in parallel streams in order to conduct an alkylation reaction. A hydrocarbon stream containing unreacted isobutane and reaction products is divided into two streams: a vapour stream obtained by evaporating isobutane, which is then condensed and taken for recycling, and a liquid stream which is the reaction product coming from the reaction system or partially taken for recycling. Temperature and pressure in each reactor section is kept so as to ensure an equilibrium vapour-liquid state of the mixed hydrocarbon stream passing through the reactor. The olefins used in the method are C2-C4 olefins. The number of sections ranges from 2 to 10. Before entering the section containing catalyst, the olefin-containing stream is mixed with isobutane in ratio of 1:(250÷1000), and 50-99.9 wt % vapour stream from the overall stream coming out of the last reactor section is taken for recycling.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the cycle length of the catalyst and reduce power consumption.
4 cl, 8 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: at the first step, raw material containing at least one fatty acid, having 8-26 carbon atoms, is esterified with at least one fatty alcohol having 8-26 carbon atoms to obtain esters, at the second step, the obtained esters are hydrogenated to fatty alcohols, at the third step, the obtained fatty alcohols are dehydrogenated to alpha-olefins, at the fourth step, the alpha-olefins are oligomerised to oligomers which are then hydrogenated at the fifth step. The invention also relates to polyolefin base oil or a base oil component obtained using the described method.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain branched saturated hydrocarbons from renewable sources.
15 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a mixture of isoalkanes as oil bodies for cosmetic or pharmaceutical agencies, whose 1H-NMR-spectrum in the region of a chemical shift δ of from 0.6 to 1.0 ppm relative tetramethylsilane, has a surface integral of from 25 to 70% of the total integral surface. The mixture, which has density from 0.7 to 0.82 g/cm3, contains not less than 70 wt % alkanes with 8-20 carbon atoms, and the fraction of side chains with alkyl groups which have 2 or more carbon atoms is less than 20% of the total number of branching sites and is free from squalane. The invention also relates to a method of preparing said mixture, as well as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical agent based on said mixture and a hair cosmetic agent also based on said mixture.
EFFECT: improved method.
24 cl, 2 tbl, 809 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing mixtures of aliphatic alcohols containing glycerin in amount of 27-86 wt % via a cross-condensation reaction at temperature 300-350°C, inert gas pressure 1-5 MPa, specific speed of feeding the mixture of aliphatic alcohols per catalyst 0.4-0.8 dm3/h dm3 cat, where the catalyst used is tungsten oxide, rhenium oxide, deposited on γ-aluminium oxide, with the following ratio of components, wt %: tungsten oxide 1.2-6.7, rhenium oxide 0.9-1.3, γ-aluminium oxide - the rest.
EFFECT: use of present method increases output of alkane hydrocarbons and lowers output of gaseous products.
4 cl, 5 tbl, 12 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heterogeneous catalytic conversion of organic compounds, specifically to catalytic conversion of a mixture of aliphatic alcohols to a mixture of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons, particularly C5-C8 hydrocarbons. Described is catalyst for synthesis of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons based on γ-aluminium oxide, distinguished by that, the catalyst contains tungsten oxide and rhenium oxide with the following ratio of components, in wt %: tungsten oxide 1.2-6.7; rhenium oxide 0-1.3; γ-aluminium oxide - the rest. Described also is a method for synthesis of alkane-olefin hydrocarbons with an even or combined even and odd number of carbon atoms through cross-coupling reaction of ethanol or its mixture with aliphatic alcohols in the presence of the said catalyst.
EFFECT: described catalyst enables to increase output of C5-C8 olefin-alkane fractions to 45% and reduce output of gaseous C1-C2 products to 30-35% with 85-95% conversion of initial alcohols.
5 cl, 5 tbl, 3 dwg, 9 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of processing products of fermentation of plant biomass to alkane hydrocarbons of the C4-C10 fraction through cross-condensation in the presence of a Fe2O3-MgO/Al2O3 and a Pt/Al2O3 catalyst in ratio Fe:Mg:Pt=13:2:1, at temperature 320-370°C, argon pressure 1-5 MPa and specific feed rate of starting material onto the catalyst equal to 0.4-0.8 dm3/h·dm3 catalyst.
EFFECT: use of the method reduces gas formation and increases output of saturated hydrocarbons.
1 cl, 9 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing a mixture of C4-C16 isoalkanes by bringing aliphatic alcohol - ethanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol in an inert gas medium at 300-420°C, pressure 30-80 atm, bulk speed 0.2-0.8 h-1, into contact with a catalyst composition, which contains a hydride phase of an iron-titanium intermetallic compound, modified with group IV-VII metals, aluminium-platinum catalyst and a transition metal oxide, characterised by that, the transition metal oxide used is magnesium oxide in mass ratio 10:1:(0.8-1.2).
EFFECT: catalyst used in the method is highly active for a long period of time and the given method also widens the raw material base of aliphatic alcohols used.
1 cl, 7 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of polymerisation of raw material flow containing C5-C6 hydrocarbons, which includes: loading of hydrogen and raw material, containing at least, normal C5-C6 hydrocarbons into isomerisation zone and contacting of hydrogen and raw material with isomerisation catalyst in conditions that favour increase of degree of hydrocarbons branching in raw material flow and ensuring formation of outgoing flow from isomerisation zone, which contains, at least, butane, normal pentane, normal hexane, methylbutane, dimethylbutane, methylpentanes and hydrocarbons which have seven or more carbon atoms, isomerisation conditions including temperature from 40° to 235°C and pressure 70 kPa abs. to 7000 kPa abs; passing outgoing flow from isomerisation zone through deisohexanizer zone in order to divide it into four flows, flow outgoing from upper part of deisohexaniser zone, containing, at least, butane, first side flow from deisohexaniser zone, containing, at least, methylbutane and dimethylbutanes, second side flow from deisohexaniser zone, containing, at least, methylpentanes and normal hexane, and lower flow from deisohexaniser zone, containing, at least, hydrocarbons, consisting of seven and more carbon atoms; and supply of first side flow from deisohexaniser zone into zone of isomerizate stripping in order to separate upper flow from isomerisate desorber which contains, at least, butane, from product flow from zone of isomerisate stripping, containing methylbutane and dimethylbutanes.
EFFECT: application of claimed method allows to reduce capital outlays and reduce cost of energy supply due to excluding of column-stabiliser.
9 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of producing branched olefins involves dehydrogenation of an isoparaffin composition, containing 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms, on a suitable catalyst. The above mentioned isoparaffin composition contains paraffins with 7 to 35 carbon atoms. These paraffins, or at least part of their molecules, are branched. The average number of branches per paraffin molecule ranges from 0.7 to 2.5, and the branches include methyl and, optionally, ethyl branches. The above mentioned isoparaffin composition is obtained through hydroisomerisation of paraffin, and the above mentioned branched olefins contain 0.5% quaternary carbon atoms or less. The paraffins are produced using Fischer-Tropsch method. The invention also relates to the method of producing a surface active substance from olefins, obtained using the method described above.
EFFECT: improvement of operational characteristics.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 11 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of isomerising normal butane containing initial material, containing at least 50 wt % normal butane to an isomerate which contains isobutane, involving: (a) isomerisation of the initial material under isomerisation conditions, involving presence of isomerisation catalyst, until an output isomerisation stream is obtained, containing normal butane, but with less concentration than in the initial isomerisation material; (b) distillation of at least part of the output isomerisation stream until a low-boiling fraction is obtained, containing isobutane and light paraffins, where at least 80 wt % of the low-boiling fraction is isobutane, and a high-boiling fraction, containing normal butane and at least 10 wt % isobutane; (c) bringing at least part of the fraction containing normal butane from stage (b) into contact with medium at the retentate side of a permeation-selective membrane, with efficiency index of flow of C4 permeate equal to at least 0.01 and pressure difference between media on both sides of the membrane, which allows for obtaining a retentate fraction containing at least 80 wt % isobutane, and for obtaining a permeate fraction at the permeate side, after passage through the membrane, with high concentration of normal butane; and (d) tapping off retentate fraction from stage (c).
EFFECT: simplification of method.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: organic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to obtaining branched alkanes with general formula CnH2n+2, where n = 4-10. CCI4 is gradually added to a mixture of hexane, triethylaluminium - Et3Al and a catalyst - PdCl2, in an argon atmosphere at atmospheric pressure and temperature of 10-60°C for a period of 0.5-2 hours. The molar ratio of hexane: Et3Al : CCl4 : PdCl2 is 75:10:20:0.1.
EFFECT: obtaining of a mixture of branched alkanes with high output.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a family of aluminosilicate zeolites, a method of producing zeolites and a method of converting hydrocarbons. Described is a novel family of microporous crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites, having a space frame of at least tetrahedral AlO2 and SiO2 units, wherein the empirical composition of the zeolite in anhydrous state is expressed by the following formula:
EFFECT: said zeolites are characterised by a unique X-ray diffraction pattern and composition, and have catalytic activity for carrying out various hydrocarbon conversion processes.
10 cl, 5 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing base oil which involves bringing C10+ hydrocarbon material into contact with a catalyst and hydrogen in isomerisation conditions to obtain base oil. The catalyst contains a molecular sieve, having the topology of a MTT structure and crystallite diameter from 200 to 400 Å in the longest direction, at least one metal selected from a group consisting of Ca, Cr, Mg, La, Na, Pr, Sr, K and Nd, and at least one group VIII metal. The invention also relates to versions of a method for deparaffination of hydrocarbon material, using a similar catalyst.
EFFECT: use of the present invention enables to obtain a product with improved viscosity index at lower flow temperatures.
30 cl, 6 ex, 3 tbl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isomerisation catalysts. Described is a catalyst for isomerisation of light gasoline fractions, which contains tungsten-coated zirconium dioxide with platinum and aluminium oxide additives, with the following ratio of components in wt %: ZrQ2=65.1-76.3; WO4 2-=23.4-32.1; Al2O3=0.1-2.6; Pt=0.2, production of which involves precipitation of zirconium hydroxide from zirconyl chloride solution with ammonia solution, separating and washing the precipitate from chloride ions, drying, depositing tungstate anions, drying and calcining, followed by saturation with chloroplatinic acid solution, drying and calcining the catalyst.
EFFECT: catalyst having high catalytic activity is obtained.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cobalt complex with a modified phthalocyanine ligand which is covalently bonded with silica gel and has the following general formula: , where: R=Cl, NHAlk, NAlk2, n = 5-7, M = Co. Also disclosed is a method for valence isomerisation of quadricyclane in norbornadiene in the presence of the complex.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a cobalt complex with a modified phthalocyanine ligand, which can be used as a heterogeneous catalyst having high activity and high stability.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 29 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of converting cis-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene to trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, involving: a) feeding the starting material into a reactor, said material containing cis-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene and b) bringing said starting material into catalytic reaction conditions which are effective for converting at least part of said cis-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene in said material to trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene, wherein said conditions involve action on said material of a catalyst based on a metal selected from a group consisting of halogenated metal oxides, Lewis acids in form of metal halides, zero-valence metals and combinations thereof at reaction temperature from about 25°C to about 600°C.
EFFECT: achieving high degree of conversion and high selectivity of said reaction.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing 4-(4-alkylcyclohexyl)benzaldehyde or 4-(cyclohexyl)benzaldehyde, which can be used in chemical products used in materials for electronic equipment, including liquid crystals, and for pharmaceutical and agrochemical application. The invention also relates to versions of a method of producing 4-(trans-4-alkylcyclohexyl)benzaldehyde and a method of producing (trans-4-alkylcyclohexyl)benzene. The method of producing 4-(4-alkylcyclohexyl)benzaldehyde or 4-(cyclohexyl)benzaldehyde involves formylation of a benzene derivative of formula (1a) with carbon monoxide in the presence of hydrogen fluoride and boron trifluoride where R1 denotes an alkyl group containing 1-10 carbon atoms or a hydrogen atom. The hydrogen fluoride is used in amount of not less than 3 moles but not more than 20 moles, and boron trifluoride is used in amount of not less than 1.1 moles but not more than 5 moles per mole of the benzene derivative of formula (1a), and formylation is carried out at temperature from -50°C to 30°C.
EFFECT: invention enables selective synthesis of desired products with high purity.
10 cl, 15 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isomerisation of xylenes, involving: (a) feeding a stream of naphtha into a hydrofining zone, in which the naphtha stream comes into contact with a hydrofining catalyst under hydrofining conditions to obtain a hydrofined stream of naphtha; (b) feeding the hydrofined stream of naphtha into a reforming zone in which the said hydrofined naphtha comes into contact with a reforming catalyst under reforming conditions to obtain a stream of a reforming product containing aromatic compounds, and in which gases and C4-hydrocarbons and lighter hydrocarbons obtained in the reforming zone give out a stream of reforming product which is significantly free from gases and C4-hydrocarbons and lighter hydrocarbons; and (c) feeding the stream of reforming product and the exhaust stream from the isomerisation zone, independently or in form of a combined stream, into a zone for fractionation of reforming products using a distillation column to obtain initial material containing benzene, toluene and C5-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons, and a stream rich in xylene an heavier hydrocarbons; (d) feeding the initial material containing benzene, toluene and C5-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons into an extractive distillation zone and separation of the stream of a bottom product of aromatic hydrocarbons containing benzene and toluene, a lateral stream of aliphatic hydrocarbons containing C7-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons and a stream of an overhead fraction of aliphatic hydrocarbons containing C5-C7-aliphatic hydrocarbons; (e) processing the lateral stream of aliphatic hydrocarbons containing C7-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons to form a lateral stream of aliphatic hydrocarbons significantly free from the solvent and containing C7-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons; (f) adding hydrogen into the lateral stream of aliphatic hydrocarbons significantly free from the solvent and containing C7-C8-aliphatic hydrocarbons, and into a non-equilibrium stream of xylene, involving contact between a non-equilibrium mixture of xylenes and an isomerisation catalyst in the isomerisation zone under isomerisation conditions and formation of an exhaust stream containing para-xylene from the isomerisation zone. The invention also relates to versions of the method of producing benzene and para-xylene from naphtha.
EFFECT: use of disclosed methods enables production of aromatic hydrocarbons while saving capital and lowering operational costs and improving investment profitability.
17 cl, 1 dwg