Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.

EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.

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The invention relates to a semiconductor coordinate detectors (PKD) ionizing particles used in the equipment of nuclear physics, medicine, customs control, etc.

Known electrical circuitry and design of hybrid detectors that contain the detecting matrix consisting of a strip or p-/-"-structures and external reinforcing and coding of electronic devices [1. D. Patti ot ab. "Semiconductor particle detector and method for IIS Manufacture)) Patent no US 6,465,857, Bl Date of patent Oct. 15. 2002; 2. Jan S. Iwanczyk "Semiconductor radiation detector" Patent No. 6,455,858, Date of patent Sep.24. 2002; 3. Jan S. Iwanczyk "Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain" Patent no US 6,541,836 B2, Date of patent: Apr. 1. 2003; 4. Y. Ikegami, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (2007), in press.], either monolithic detectors containing pixel matrix based on MOS structures and peripheral reinforcing and encoding electronic devices based on CMOS circuits placed in a single chip - chip [5. Kemmer, J., Lutz, G. (1990) et al.: "Experimental confirmation of a new semiconductor detector principle)) Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A288 (1990) 92-98].

Disadvantages

The former have a relatively high cost and a complicated Assembly process, because it requires a large number of connections between the matrix and the external electronics, for example, mega-pixel matrix, their number is 2000.

The latter do not provide the maximum performance of the detectors and get the best quality of a radiation detector, because:

The MOS is tructure pixel matrices have high internal resistance, which leads to the delay of the signals on bit bus matrix;

- design matrix and peripheral electronic circuits monolithic detector significantly different, which complicates the technology of their joint production in a single chip, and most importantly, it leads to deterioration of parameters of the detecting matrix, and hence the entire detector.

The closest in technical essence is coordinate semiconductor monolithic detector on the basis of functionally-integrated bipolar transistor structures [6. Murashev NR. and other "Coordinate-sensitive detector", the patent for invention №2133524 from 20.07.1999,; 7. Murashev NR. and other Coordination detector of the relativistic particles, the patent for the invention №2197036 priority from, 19.02.2000; 8. Murashev V.N., Leguin S.A., Didenko, S. and others, "Integrated cell radiation detector based on the bipolar transistor with mesh base, the patent for invention №2427942 from 08.04.2010,; 9. Vinarski, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26], the electric circuit and which design is chosen as a prototype [6. Murashev NR. and other "Coordinate-sensitive detector", the patent and is finding No. 2133524 from 20.07.1999,; 9. V.N. Murashev, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011, Issue No. 3, s-26].

Electric diagram of the prototype contains a coordinate matrix pixel, consisting of durametric bipolar transistors with a common collector [9. V.N. Murashev, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26], the first emitters of the transistors connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns and bit bus connected to the gates of the MOS transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding CMOS electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj.

The design of the detector prototype [7. Murashev NR. and other Coordination detector of the relativistic particles" patent", No. 2197036 priority from, 19.02.2000; 9. Vinarski, Sahaguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physicist and the radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26] consists of a semiconductor substrate 1 of the first conductivity type, which is a common collector region of the bipolar transistors, which are the base region of the pixel matrix of the detector 2 type conductivity, which are areas of the first and second emitter 1 conduction type, which are suitable electrodes, respectively connected to the bit coordinate tyres Xjand Yjthat, in turn, is connected to the gates of the MOS transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, connected by a computer.

Disadvantages

Design, for example, silicon detector complex, because it contains is difficult to be implemented, even on silicon, peripheral CMOS circuits, and they are made of process operations (high-temperature thermal annealing and so on), resulting in a decrease of the lifetime of minority charge carriers in the substrate, and hence the degradation parameters of the detecting matrix.

However, it should be noted that it is technically impossible the realization of the detector in the same substrate of, for example, of gallium arsenide containing matrix bipolar structures with a common header and electrically insulated from it field-effect transistors of the peripheral circuits.

The technical result is that the present invention is to improve performance, reducing the size of the matrix, improving technology and simplifying the design of the integrated circuit coordinate detector.

It is known that the quick scheme is a scheme of the signal amplifier (power), implemented by bipolar transistors with a common collector - emitter-follower (for example, in schemes ECL or BI-CMOS logic and. etc). Therefore, this monolithic integrated circuit is of the highest possible performance.

The technical result improved performance is achieved by the fact that the circuit matrix of the detector coordinate bus Xjand Yjmatrix pixel connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.

The technical result - the reduction in size and simplification of the matrix, which is suitable for some applications, for example "line scanner", is achieved by the fact that in the electric circuit of the detector (which is a limiting case of the matrix consisting of one row) coordinate bus Yjmatrix pixel connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits, and the only coordinate bus X1- to the data bus Q.

It should be noted that in cases where do not require the tsya information about quantum energy (it is known in advance) electric circuit rulers of the detector and the design can be further simplified and reduced to be a string in pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate tires Yjwhich are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.

Technical result - improving technology and the simplification of the structure of the monolithic integrated circuit of the detector, bit coordinate bus Xjand Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, the collector is the common collector region formed by the substrate 1 of the first conductivity type.

The difference between the claimed design from the well-known integrated circuits is that the transistors of the matrix and the peripheral transistors form a single functionally-integrated array of identical bipolar transistors (connected in the circuit emitter follower)performed for one simple technology, it does not require additional complex and "messy" process operations for forming, for example, CMOS circuits.

The achievement of the declared objectives is especially important to create a new generation matrix "detectors labeled neutrons for detection of explosives [10. Bystritsky, V. M. et al., DViN - stationary setup for identification of explosives, JINR Commun. El8-2007-142. Dubna, 2007; Pysics of Particles and Atomic Nuclei, Letters. 2008, Vol.5, No. 5, pp.743-751] and improve the quality of image lines scanners x-rays for medical devices and custom applications.

The present invention is illustrated drawings

Figure 1 shows the electrical circuit of the detector. It contains the pixel matrix durametric transistors - T1the first emitters that are connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns Yjthat bit coordinate bus lines Xjand column Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar peripheral transistors - T2the collector, which is connected to the common power bus (+Vdd), and the emitters corresponding to the address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj.

Fig.2 shows the structure of a detector.

It contains a semiconductor substrate - 1 (n) conductivity type, which forms the area of the collectors of the bipolar transistors of the matrix - T1and peripherals - T2where are the areas of the bases - 2 of the second p-type conductivity, which are respectively the field emitters - 3 of the first (n) - type conductivity, which are the respective electrodes 4 connected to the corresponding bit bus - 5, which connect the s electrodes databases peripheral transistor 6, the electrode 7, the emitters of which are connected respectively to the address bus - 8. The structural elements of the detector - emitters bit bus, isolated by dielectrics - 9, 10, and on the reverse side of the substrate is contact n+the layer 11.

Monolithic integrated circuit high-speed coordinate detector of ionizing particles is as follows.

When passing through substrate - 1 ionizing particle (see Fig.3 (a), for example, relativistic electrons or alpha particles, along its track formed electron-hole pairs that are collected by the field mainly in the space charge region (SCR)formed in the region of the p-n junction of the collector-base of transistor matrix T1when applying to the collector relative to the emitter positive voltage+Vdd, and partly in the quasi-neutral region (CNA).

Educated ionizing particle electron-hole pairs are separated by the field and constitute the primary ionization current collector p-n junction (Iand), which is amplified bipolar transistor structure (pixels) in the tens to hundreds of times, forming currents of the first and second emitters.

These currents act on the corresponding j-bit pixels tyres Xjand Yjin the base of the respective peripheral amplifying bipolar transistor - T2that, in St. the first phase, quickly amplify the signal and encode it in binary address code row and column pixels, which got ionizing particle.

The magnitude of the ionization current, and therefore allocated ionizing particle energy can be measured external, in relation to integrated circuit of the detector, the amplifier in the circuit of the collector detector, 3, B.

Figure 4 shows the electric circuit of the detector. It consists of a single line, coordinate bus Yjwhich are connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits, and coordinate bus X1- to the data bus - Q.

This electric circuit works in a similar way, however, in this case, the magnitude of the ionization current is measured in the data bus - Q, which is precisely due to the smaller influence of the leakage currents of the transistors of the matrix and does not require external power signal.

Fig.5 shows the electrical circuit of the detector containing the string pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate bus Yjwhich are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.

This electric circuit works the same way.

The example specifically the implementation.

The detector can be performed by standard techniques used in the fabrication of bipolar integrated circuits, which consists in performing the following technological operations:

a) formation of n+- contact region to the collector - 11, for example, by diffusion of phosphorus into the back side of the silicon wafer 1 with a resistivity ρv~5 kOhm·cm;

b) oxidation of the silicon surfaces and formation of the oxide is 10 boxes for the base regions 2 by using a photolithography process, forming areas of the base by implantation of boron atoms with subsequent annealing and justify basic impurities in the depth of the substrate;

C) deposition of the polycrystalline silicon layer 4 on the surface of the plate with subsequent implantation into it, for example, atoms of arsenic, thermal annealing and justify arsenic from the polysilicon into the substrate, i.e. the formation of the field emitter and conducting photolithography on the polysilicon for forming the areas of the emitters 3 and the electrode of the emitter - 4;

g) deposition of 2nd dielectric layer 9, the formation therein of contact Windows, the deposition of aluminum - 10 and forming by photolithography ohmic contacts to the matrix: the emitters of the pixels 4, the collector - 11 and the base is 6.

1. Monolithic high-speed coordinate detector of ionizing particles, the electric circuit which will win the coordinate matrix of pixels, consisting of durametric bipolar transistors with a common collector, the first emitters of the transistors connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns Yjthat are connected to the transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj, characterized in that the coordinate bus Xjand Yjmatrix of pixels connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.

2. The detector according to claim 1, characterized in that the design contains a semiconductor substrate 1 of the first conductivity type, which is a common collector region of the bipolar transistors, which are the base region of the pixel matrix of the detector 2 type conductivity, which are areas of the first and second emitters of the 1st conduction type, which are suitable electrodes, respectively connected to the bit coordinate tyres Xjand Yjthat, in turn, is connected to the transistor amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand with albrow W jwhen this bit coordinate bus Xjand Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, the collector is the common collector region formed by the substrate on the 1st conductivity type.

3. The detector according to claim 1, characterized in that it consists of one row of the pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate bus Yjthat are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.



 

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