Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles
SUBSTANCE: offered invention "Monolithic rapid coordinate detector of ionising particles" relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of ionizing particles. The goals are achieved at the expense of the use of original circuit of the detector, where bipolar transistors, connected in a circuit with common collector, also due to functionally integrated monolithic design of the detector where the semiconductor substrate, generating the charge carriers, simultaneously appears to be a common collector area of bipolar structures of transistors.
EFFECT: purpose of invention is increase of speed and manufacturability of coordinate detector, that is especially important for creation of new generation of "detectors of trace neutrons" for detection of explosive substances, X-ray scanners for medical, customs and other applications characterised by higher quality of object images, compared with known analogues.
3 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to a semiconductor coordinate detectors (PKD) ionizing particles used in the equipment of nuclear physics, medicine, customs control, etc.
Known electrical circuitry and design of hybrid detectors that contain the detecting matrix consisting of a strip or p-/-"-structures and external reinforcing and coding of electronic devices [1. D. Patti ot ab. "Semiconductor particle detector and method for IIS Manufacture)) Patent no US 6,465,857, Bl Date of patent Oct. 15. 2002; 2. Jan S. Iwanczyk "Semiconductor radiation detector" Patent No. 6,455,858, Date of patent Sep.24. 2002; 3. Jan S. Iwanczyk "Semiconductor radiation detector with internal gain" Patent no US 6,541,836 B2, Date of patent: Apr. 1. 2003; 4. Y. Ikegami, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A (2007), in press.], either monolithic detectors containing pixel matrix based on MOS structures and peripheral reinforcing and encoding electronic devices based on CMOS circuits placed in a single chip - chip [5. Kemmer, J., Lutz, G. (1990) et al.: "Experimental confirmation of a new semiconductor detector principle)) Nucl. Instr. & Meth. A288 (1990) 92-98].
The former have a relatively high cost and a complicated Assembly process, because it requires a large number of connections between the matrix and the external electronics, for example, mega-pixel matrix, their number is 2000.
The latter do not provide the maximum performance of the detectors and get the best quality of a radiation detector, because:
The MOS is tructure pixel matrices have high internal resistance, which leads to the delay of the signals on bit bus matrix;
- design matrix and peripheral electronic circuits monolithic detector significantly different, which complicates the technology of their joint production in a single chip, and most importantly, it leads to deterioration of parameters of the detecting matrix, and hence the entire detector.
The closest in technical essence is coordinate semiconductor monolithic detector on the basis of functionally-integrated bipolar transistor structures [6. Murashev NR. and other "Coordinate-sensitive detector", the patent for invention №2133524 from 20.07.1999,; 7. Murashev NR. and other Coordination detector of the relativistic particles, the patent for the invention №2197036 priority from, 19.02.2000; 8. Murashev V.N., Leguin S.A., Didenko, S. and others, "Integrated cell radiation detector based on the bipolar transistor with mesh base, the patent for invention №2427942 from 08.04.2010,; 9. Vinarski, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26], the electric circuit and which design is chosen as a prototype [6. Murashev NR. and other "Coordinate-sensitive detector", the patent and is finding No. 2133524 from 20.07.1999,; 9. V.N. Murashev, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011, Issue No. 3, s-26].
Electric diagram of the prototype contains a coordinate matrix pixel, consisting of durametric bipolar transistors with a common collector [9. V.N. Murashev, S.A. Leguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physics of radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26], the first emitters of the transistors connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns and bit bus connected to the gates of the MOS transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding CMOS electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj.
The design of the detector prototype [7. Murashev NR. and other Coordination detector of the relativistic particles" patent", No. 2197036 priority from, 19.02.2000; 9. Vinarski, Sahaguin, Ascolano, MN. Orlov, "the manufacturing Technology of coordinate detectors" - problems of atomic science and technology. Series: Physicist and the radiation effects on electronic equipment, 2011., Issue # 3, s-26] consists of a semiconductor substrate 1 of the first conductivity type, which is a common collector region of the bipolar transistors, which are the base region of the pixel matrix of the detector 2 type conductivity, which are areas of the first and second emitter 1 conduction type, which are suitable electrodes, respectively connected to the bit coordinate tyres Xjand Yjthat, in turn, is connected to the gates of the MOS transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, connected by a computer.
Design, for example, silicon detector complex, because it contains is difficult to be implemented, even on silicon, peripheral CMOS circuits, and they are made of process operations (high-temperature thermal annealing and so on), resulting in a decrease of the lifetime of minority charge carriers in the substrate, and hence the degradation parameters of the detecting matrix.
However, it should be noted that it is technically impossible the realization of the detector in the same substrate of, for example, of gallium arsenide containing matrix bipolar structures with a common header and electrically insulated from it field-effect transistors of the peripheral circuits.
The technical result is that the present invention is to improve performance, reducing the size of the matrix, improving technology and simplifying the design of the integrated circuit coordinate detector.
It is known that the quick scheme is a scheme of the signal amplifier (power), implemented by bipolar transistors with a common collector - emitter-follower (for example, in schemes ECL or BI-CMOS logic and. etc). Therefore, this monolithic integrated circuit is of the highest possible performance.
The technical result improved performance is achieved by the fact that the circuit matrix of the detector coordinate bus Xjand Yjmatrix pixel connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.
The technical result - the reduction in size and simplification of the matrix, which is suitable for some applications, for example "line scanner", is achieved by the fact that in the electric circuit of the detector (which is a limiting case of the matrix consisting of one row) coordinate bus Yjmatrix pixel connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits, and the only coordinate bus X1- to the data bus Q.
It should be noted that in cases where do not require the tsya information about quantum energy (it is known in advance) electric circuit rulers of the detector and the design can be further simplified and reduced to be a string in pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate tires Yjwhich are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.
Technical result - improving technology and the simplification of the structure of the monolithic integrated circuit of the detector, bit coordinate bus Xjand Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, the collector is the common collector region formed by the substrate 1 of the first conductivity type.
The difference between the claimed design from the well-known integrated circuits is that the transistors of the matrix and the peripheral transistors form a single functionally-integrated array of identical bipolar transistors (connected in the circuit emitter follower)performed for one simple technology, it does not require additional complex and "messy" process operations for forming, for example, CMOS circuits.
The achievement of the declared objectives is especially important to create a new generation matrix "detectors labeled neutrons for detection of explosives [10. Bystritsky, V. M. et al., DViN - stationary setup for identification of explosives, JINR Commun. El8-2007-142. Dubna, 2007; Pysics of Particles and Atomic Nuclei, Letters. 2008, Vol.5, No. 5, pp.743-751] and improve the quality of image lines scanners x-rays for medical devices and custom applications.
The present invention is illustrated drawings
Figure 1 shows the electrical circuit of the detector. It contains the pixel matrix durametric transistors - T1the first emitters that are connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns Yjthat bit coordinate bus lines Xjand column Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar peripheral transistors - T2the collector, which is connected to the common power bus (+Vdd), and the emitters corresponding to the address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj.
Fig.2 shows the structure of a detector.
It contains a semiconductor substrate - 1 (n) conductivity type, which forms the area of the collectors of the bipolar transistors of the matrix - T1and peripherals - T2where are the areas of the bases - 2 of the second p-type conductivity, which are respectively the field emitters - 3 of the first (n) - type conductivity, which are the respective electrodes 4 connected to the corresponding bit bus - 5, which connect the s electrodes databases peripheral transistor 6, the electrode 7, the emitters of which are connected respectively to the address bus - 8. The structural elements of the detector - emitters bit bus, isolated by dielectrics - 9, 10, and on the reverse side of the substrate is contact n+the layer 11.
Monolithic integrated circuit high-speed coordinate detector of ionizing particles is as follows.
When passing through substrate - 1 ionizing particle (see Fig.3 (a), for example, relativistic electrons or alpha particles, along its track formed electron-hole pairs that are collected by the field mainly in the space charge region (SCR)formed in the region of the p-n junction of the collector-base of transistor matrix T1when applying to the collector relative to the emitter positive voltage+Vdd, and partly in the quasi-neutral region (CNA).
Educated ionizing particle electron-hole pairs are separated by the field and constitute the primary ionization current collector p-n junction (Iand), which is amplified bipolar transistor structure (pixels) in the tens to hundreds of times, forming currents of the first and second emitters.
These currents act on the corresponding j-bit pixels tyres Xjand Yjin the base of the respective peripheral amplifying bipolar transistor - T2that, in St. the first phase, quickly amplify the signal and encode it in binary address code row and column pixels, which got ionizing particle.
The magnitude of the ionization current, and therefore allocated ionizing particle energy can be measured external, in relation to integrated circuit of the detector, the amplifier in the circuit of the collector detector, 3, B.
Figure 4 shows the electric circuit of the detector. It consists of a single line, coordinate bus Yjwhich are connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits, and coordinate bus X1- to the data bus - Q.
This electric circuit works in a similar way, however, in this case, the magnitude of the ionization current is measured in the data bus - Q, which is precisely due to the smaller influence of the leakage currents of the transistors of the matrix and does not require external power signal.
Fig.5 shows the electrical circuit of the detector containing the string pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate bus Yjwhich are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.
This electric circuit works the same way.
The example specifically the implementation.
The detector can be performed by standard techniques used in the fabrication of bipolar integrated circuits, which consists in performing the following technological operations:
a) formation of n+- contact region to the collector - 11, for example, by diffusion of phosphorus into the back side of the silicon wafer 1 with a resistivity ρv~5 kOhm·cm;
b) oxidation of the silicon surfaces and formation of the oxide is 10 boxes for the base regions 2 by using a photolithography process, forming areas of the base by implantation of boron atoms with subsequent annealing and justify basic impurities in the depth of the substrate;
C) deposition of the polycrystalline silicon layer 4 on the surface of the plate with subsequent implantation into it, for example, atoms of arsenic, thermal annealing and justify arsenic from the polysilicon into the substrate, i.e. the formation of the field emitter and conducting photolithography on the polysilicon for forming the areas of the emitters 3 and the electrode of the emitter - 4;
g) deposition of 2nd dielectric layer 9, the formation therein of contact Windows, the deposition of aluminum - 10 and forming by photolithography ohmic contacts to the matrix: the emitters of the pixels 4, the collector - 11 and the base is 6.
1. Monolithic high-speed coordinate detector of ionizing particles, the electric circuit which will win the coordinate matrix of pixels, consisting of durametric bipolar transistors with a common collector, the first emitters of the transistors connected to the bit coordinate bus lines Xjand second emitters, respectively, to the bit coordinate tires columns Yjthat are connected to the transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand columns of Wj, characterized in that the coordinate bus Xjand Yjmatrix of pixels connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.
2. The detector according to claim 1, characterized in that the design contains a semiconductor substrate 1 of the first conductivity type, which is a common collector region of the bipolar transistors, which are the base region of the pixel matrix of the detector 2 type conductivity, which are areas of the first and second emitters of the 1st conduction type, which are suitable electrodes, respectively connected to the bit coordinate tyres Xjand Yjthat, in turn, is connected to the transistor amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits connected to a corresponding address bus lines Zjand with albrow W jwhen this bit coordinate bus Xjand Yjconnected to the bases of the respective bipolar transistors of the peripheral amplification and coding of electronic circuits, the collector is the common collector region formed by the substrate on the 1st conductivity type.
3. The detector according to claim 1, characterized in that it consists of one row of the pixel odeometer transistors, the emitters of which are connected to the coordinate bus Yjthat are respectively connected to the bases of bipolar transistors with a common collector amplifier and peripheral coding of electronic circuits.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to physics and semiconductor device engineering, particularly crystalline silicon-based solar cells. The crystalline silicon-based solar cell consists of p- and n-type conductivity regions, electrodes for the p and n regions, wherein according to the invention, a diffraction grating is formed on the front surface of the crystal, said diffraction grating having a period equal to the wavelength of radiation quanta, the energy of which is equal to the band gap of the crystal.
EFFECT: invention reduces the absorption depth of solar radiation quanta, reduces optical and electrical losses and increases efficiency of conversion and enables to produce ultra-thin crystalline solar cells.
SUBSTANCE: system of agricultural field microclimate control comprises wind-protective and snow-retaining elements located on the edge of the field, a water reservoir made along the edge of the field from the side of most probable entry of dry wind. On opposite sides of the water reservoir along the field the vertical blinds are placed with the height of at least half the width of the water reservoir, mounted with the ability of rotation about the vertical axis and inclination in the vertical plane. The bottom of the water reservoir can be coated with impervious material, the water sprayers can be mounted along the water reservoir, and the sources of energy for the water sprayers the system can be provided with one or more wind-driven power-plants and solar batteries.
EFFECT: increase in the degree of protection of the field due to reducing the rate and temperature of dry wind and increase in moisture content of the surface air layer, as well as the reduction of energy consumption through the use of natural energy sources.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a LED module. A module consists of several LEDs installed on a printed circuit board with the LEDs having respectively the so-called layup with a lens by which the respective LED extends beyond the printed circuit board plane, the LEDs are connected respectively with an element for the input of optical radiation of a light guide body and the respective luminous flux of matched LEDs is emitted outside from the LED module by means of respectively matched element for luminous flux input. At least one passive LED which can be activated if one of LEDs fails is provided on the printed circuit board for LEDs in order to achieve homogeneous appearance. The luminous flux emitted by these passive LEDs enters the luminous flux input element of the respective LED and is emitted outside by the luminous flux input element.
EFFECT: development of a LED module consisting of several LEDs set on a printed circuit board, failure of some LEDs is not seen from outside due to the "input" of the luminous flux, emitted by the passive LED, into the luminous flux input element of the failed LED.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor devices, particularly polymer solar cells. Disclosed is a polymer solar cell having, arranged in series: a supporting base in the form of a transparent polymer photoluminescent substrate, a transparent anode layer, a photoelectrically active layer and a metal cathode layer, wherein the polymer photoluminescent substrate consists of an optically transparent polymer containing a luminophore, selected from luminophores of general formula (I), where R is a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical from said series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from said series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3.
EFFECT: high efficiency and simple technique of producing flexible polymer solar cells.
8 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.
EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optoelectronic devices. The semiconductor photoelectric generator has a transparent protective coating on a working surface on which radiation is incident and photoconverter sections optically connected by a transparent sealant with the protective coating. The photoconverter sections are inclined towards the working surface at an angle φ=5-50°. Flat mirror reflectors are mounted between the photoconverter sections with an angle of inclination towards the working surface of the generator of ψ=5-50°. The mirror reflectors and the photoconverter sections are in form of a periodic saw-tooth corner structure. The photoconverter sections have a double-sided working surface and the mirror reflectors have a double-sided reflecting surface.
EFFECT: high illumination and electric power per unit surface area of the photoconverters.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hybrid photosensitive circuit includes a diamond matrix photodetector, indium columns and a silicon multiplexer with sensitive sites arranged thereon in a staggered manner in form of a rectangular matrix and the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns. The matrix photodetector includes a diamond plate and an upper flat electrode lying thereon, as well as lower electrodes of sensitive elements of the matrix photodetector, the number of which is equal to the number of indium columns lying under the diamond plate. On the lower side of the diamond plate there are boron-doped sites arranged in a staggered manner; upper contact surfaces of odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected to the lower surface of the diamond plate, and the upper contact surfaces of the odd or even lower electrodes are galvanically connected the boron-doped sites. Lower contact surfaces of lower electrodes are galvanically connected through indium columns to sensitive elements of the silicon multiplexer.
EFFECT: expanding the detected radiation range 75-fold owing to simultaneous recording of the image in the ultraviolet and infrared spectrum.
SUBSTANCE: method for analogue-to-digital conversion of optical radiation involves converting the radiation into photocurrent; integrating the photocurrent over the exposure time into an electric charge which changes the initial charge input before exposure; converting the resultant charge into signal voltage; comparing the signal voltage with a reference voltage and switching the comparator as the comparison result; generating binary signals, modulated on the time of switching relative the initial time; generating digital codes based thereon; storing the digital codes and successively sending said codes to outputs, wherein the initial charge is input into the switched conductivity diode by applying a voltage corresponding to the initial charge in the forward direction at the rate of change which causes injection of minority carriers, which does not exceed the level of triggering the switching diode into the conducting state, and the reference voltage applied is the corresponding sampling voltage at a variation rate sufficiently high to cause injection of minority carriers, needed for triggering thereof upon reaching voltage corresponding to the resultant charge, with given accuracy. The device which realises this method has one or more photosensitive cells connected to address and signal lines, each cell having series-connected photodetector, initial charge input circuit, charge converter for converting the charge generated by the photodetector signal, in addition to the initial charge, into output voltage of the photodetector, a comparator which converts the difference between the output voltage of the photodetector and a reference voltage into a digital cell signal, a circuit for reading the digital cell signal through address and signal lines, a circuit for generating cell signal codes, random access memory for storing digital codes, a circuit for reading cell signal digital codes on one or more outputs of the photodetector. In a cell, the photodetector, the initial charge input circuit, the charge converter and comparator are in form of a tunnel switching electrode in a MIS (metal, insulator, semiconductor) structure, one of the leads of which is connected to the address line and the other to the signal line.
EFFECT: high spatial resolution with high equivalent quantum efficiency.
9 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light-emitting module has a semiconductor light-emitting device and a thermal switch which is designed to protect the light-emitting device from overheating. At high temperature the junction of the device may reach a critical level causing catastrophic breakdown of the device. According to the invention, the thermal switch is designed to shunt the semiconductor light-emitting device. This is especially advantageous since the thermal protection offered by the switch correlates directly to the temperature of the device in operating conditions.
EFFECT: light-emitting module provides thermal protection which is controlled and adapted to junction temperature of the semiconductor light-emitting device.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of measuring parameters of infrared matrix photodetectors operating in accumulation mode. The method of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of photosensitive cells of matrix infrared photodetectors involves installing placing a photodetector at a given distance from the radiating surface of an extended black body, setting a first given radiant temperature of the black body and recording the value of signals of all photosensitive cells at zero accumulation time and a given accumulation time. A second radiant temperature of the black body is then set, said second radiant temperature being different from the first by a given value δT, and values of signals of all photosensitive cells are recorded at given accumulation time; values of quantum efficiency and dark currents of photosensitive cells are automatically calculated based on three measured arrays of signals.
EFFECT: enabling automation of the method of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector, enabling reduction of the time for measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector, and enabling increase in reliability of measuring quantum efficiency and dark current of a photodetector.
2 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: semiconductor detector for detecting neutron-accompanying charged particles in a neutron generator with a static vacuum comprises a semiconductor detecting element placed in a dielectric housing, closed on both the side of the charged particle stream and the opposite side by metal layers electrically connected to current terminals, wherein the dielectric housing is made of vacuum-tight material with gas desorption capacity of no more than 5·10-8 mbar·cm-2·s-1, the detecting element is in form of a heterostructure which includes a substrate made of silicon carbide of the type n+6H-SiC, on which an expitaxial layer of silicon carbide of the type n-6H-SiC is grown, provided on the side opposite the substrate with a rectifying layer in the form of a Schottky barrier.
EFFECT: high radiation resistance of the semiconductor detector and efficiency of detecting neutron-accompanying charged particles.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of intensity of a dose of gamma-radiation of a nuclear power plant under conditions of a background noise from high-energy charged particles comprises a metal body-collimator, inside of which there are two parallel silicon plates, the outlets of which are connected to a circuit of anticoincidence, at the same time with the purpose to expand the energy range of recorded gamma-quanta to 10 MeV between plates of the silicon there is a filter from tungsten alloy for absorption of secondary electrons arising during interaction of gamma-quanta with the metal body-collimator.
EFFECT: expanded energy range of recorded gamma-quanta to energies specified for radiation of a nuclear power plant.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to sort diamonds by electrophysical properties includes preliminary polarisation of diamonds, subsequent heating with permanent speed and registration of currents of thermally stimulated depolarisation, preliminary polarisation of the diamond is carried out by radiation with X-ray at temperature of 70-90°C in the electric field, after radiation the diamond is cooled in the electric field to room temperature, afterwards they start heating and measurement of currents of thermally stimulated depolarisation, those diamonds are recognised good, in which values of current peaks in maxima at 130-170°C and 190-230°C is below the threshold value.
EFFECT: increased yield of good instruments.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: x-ray detector and its pixel circuit allow to cover a wide dynamic range using automatic selection of the sensitivity setting in each pixel, thus providing improved signal to noise ratio at all exposure levels. This invention describes several approaches to provide automatic sensitivity selection in the pixels. This ensures that weak signals are stored in a small capacitor or read out with a high sensitivity with corresponding good signal to noise ratio, while stronger signals are stored in larger capacitors or are read out with lower sensitivity so that no information is lost.
EFFECT: higher flexibility of the dynamic range.
9 cl, 20 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor coordinate detectors of radiation particles. A MOS-diode cell of a solid radiation detector comprises a MOS-transistor, a bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage and an output bus. The MOS-transistor is a depleted transistor of n (p) conductivity type (i.e. has an inbuilt channel), at the same time its gate area is connected to the common power supply bus, a drain - to the output bus, and the gate is connected to an anode (cathode) of the diode and to the first output of the resistor, the diode cathode (anode) is connected to the bus of high positive (negative) power supply voltage, the second output of the resistor is connected to the bus of negative (positive) shift voltage. Also a structure (a functionally integrated structure) of the MOS-diode cell of the solid radiation detector is proposed.
EFFECT: increased quality of detection.
8 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multi-element semiconductor detector for detecting alpha-particles in a static vacuum neutron generator, having a detector housing, a semiconductor crystal wafer placed perpendicular to the stream of alpha-particles and detecting elements with electric contacts and current leads placed on both sides of the semiconductor crystal wafer. The semiconductor crystal wafer is configured to accommodate on both its sides all detecting elements with electric contacts and current leads, and is mounted around the periphery of a ceramic wafer, at whose centre there is an opening through which alpha-particles fall on the detecting elements; the ceramic wafer is mounted on a chassis, also having an opening through which alpha-particles fall on the detecting elements; the detecting elements are in form of strips made on the semiconductor crystal wafer by ion implantation, and electric contacts are made by sputtering metal onto the detecting elements. The strips of detecting elements on the same side of the semiconductor crystal wafer are parallel to each other and perpendicular to strips of detecting elements on the other side of the semiconductor crystal wafer.
EFFECT: high reliability and sensitivity of the detector.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: detector module (301) for detecting electromagnetic radiation (106) contains material (332) meant for converting incident electromagnetic radiation (106) into electric charge carriers, a charge-accumulating electrode (331) meant for accumulating the converted electric charge carriers, a screening electrode (334, 335) meant for creating a capacitor with the charge-accumulating electrode (331), and an evaluation circuit (312-315) which is electrically connected to the charge-accumulating electrode (331) and meant to evaluate electromagnetic radiation (106) based on the accumulated electric charge carriers.
EFFECT: high detector sensitivity.
19 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: computer tomography system includes an X-ray source (108) which rotates around the viewed region (116) and directs X-rays through the viewed region (116). At least one detector (112) with finite energy resolution detects the directed X-rays. At least one detector (112) with finite energy resolution includes a plurality of subdetectors (204). Each of the plurality of subdetectors (204) is associated with one or more different energy thresholds. Each of the energy thresholds is used to count the number of incident photons based on the corresponding energy level. The reconstruction system (136) reconstructs photon counts in order to form one or more images of the object located in the viewed region (116).
EFFECT: improved image reconstruction.
19 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: X-ray Si and Ge detectors lying one directly behind the other are used to detect radiation. The thin (about 0.5 mm) Si detector is closer to the source of ionising radiation and functions as the main detector of incident radiation with energy of up to 10 keV and as a photon detector of K photo-loss of the Ge detector at low energy of the primary radiation.
EFFECT: invention enables suppression of the K photo-loss peak of the Ge detector, preservation of the high probability of detecting a photon at the total absorption peak, which is characteristic for the Ge detector for photons with energy higher than 30 keV.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fluorescent ceramic material Gd2O2S:Pr with very short afterglow contains ≤1 million parts by weight europium from Gd2O2S, and from ≥0.1 to ≤100 million parts by weight cerium from Gd2O2S, where content of cerium is higher than content of europium with ratio of europium to cerium between 1:10 and 1:150. To obtain fluorescent ceramic material, powder with particle size of 1-20 mcm is used and hot pressing is carried out in one direction at temperature 1000-1400°C and/or pressure of 100-300 MPa. The material is then annealed in air at temperature 700-1200°C for 0.5-30 hours. Before annealing in air, the material can be annealed in a vacuum at temperature 1000-1400°C for 0.5-30 hours. The obtained material is characterised by afterglow greater than 0 parts per million for 0.5 seconds but not more than 80 parts per million for 0.5 seconds, and transmission of 10-70% with intrinsic emission wavelength equal to approximately 515 nm and layer thickness of 1.6 mm.
EFFECT: invention can be used in making X-ray detectors, computer tomography detectors and detectors for portable electronic signal conditioners.
10 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: nuclear physics; recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator.
SUBSTANCE: proposed semiconductor detector that can provide for recording charged-particle associated neutrons in static-vacuum neutron generator at recording speed of up to 107 particles per second has semiconductor recording element disposed in insulating case closed both on charged-particle flow end and on opposite end with metal layers electrically connected to current leads; current lead on charged-particle flow end is made in the form of stiff metal hold-down plate with holes opposite sensing zone of semiconductor recording element attached to insulating case; current lead connected at opposite end is made in the form of stiff metal plate pressed by means of spring-loaded member to semiconductor recording element; insulating case is made of vacuum-tight material of gas desorption capacity not over 5 x 10-8 millibar per cm-2 per sec-1; case may be made of ceramics.
EFFECT: enhanced recording speed.
2 cl, 3 dwg