Coal with improved combustion or related

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to use of a salt of iron and an organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms and sulphonic acids to reduce carbon content in fly ash obtained when burning coal. Described is coal treated with said salt of iron and an organic acid. The invention also describes methods of treating and burning coal by adding a salt of iron and an organic acid before or during combustion of coal in a furnace.

EFFECT: reduced content of carbon in fly ash obtained when burning coal in a furnace.

18 cl, 5 tbl, 5 ex

 

The technical FIELD

The present invention relates to a method of improving the combustion of coal and the use of additives to achieve this improvement. In particular, the invention relates to a method of improving the combustion of coal and the use of additives to improve the combustion of coal, reducing the residual carbon content in fly ash.

PRIOR art

Under fly ash in the present description understand the total residue from combustion, including silicon-containing material and carbon.

The decrease in the mass fraction of carbon can also lead to the reduction of weight of fly ash; thus, in some embodiments of the invention, a positive effect can be a decrease in the proportion of carbon in fly ash and the weight of the fly ash produced by burning coal, under the same conditions except for the presence/absence of the composition comprising the additive.

Carbon enters the fly ash as a result of incomplete burning of coal. Fly ash is a waste product, which, depending on its quality, can be valuable. Fly ash with high quality low carbon content can be used as filler for concrete or as an active ingredient of concrete; well ismelin what I fly ash in the presence of water has pozzolanicity activity. She may fully or partially replace Portland cement in concrete. Its presence can increase the durability and suitability of concrete for processing, to reduce the permeability of concrete and lead to savings. Fly ash of low quality with high carbon content bury. Typically, fly ash, used as a component of cement, must contain less than 6% of carbon. Fly ash containing more than 6% of carbon, bury that creates additional costs and environmental problems.

In addition, fly ash with low carbon content easier to dispose of than fly ash with high carbon content, and its easier to catch using electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), which is often used to capture powdered emissions.

There are several ways to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash generated in coal-fired furnaces. One traditional solution is to increase the amount of air supplied into the combustion chamber. Although this method reduces the amount of carbon in fly ash, its use usually leads to undesirable increase in emissions that contains NOx.

Also there is a method of reducing the amount of carbon in fly ash, comprising adding to the coal or in the combustion chamber defined by the output quantities of magnesium or calcium. To achieve sufficient efficiency, the added concentration of such metals must be very high. Unfortunately, large amounts of calcium or magnesium can cause the system to other problems, such as clogging.

Thus, in patent application EP 1498470 AND described the use of supplements containing manganese, to reduce the amount of carbon in fly ash, but this method also has limited application, and manganese can cause poisoning of the nervous system (manganese poisoning, "manganism").

In the patent US 4536372 described method of refining particles of coal to reduce ash content, according to which the coal particles impart hydrophobic properties through the formation of chemical bonds and the graft-polymerization using a water-insoluble organic polymerized monomer in the presence of peroxides. Removal from coal mineral ash and, in particular piriton iron, used wash water, because these components are hydrophilic. Thus, part of the way of quality improvement is a complex deletion piriton iron. In contrast to this method, the present invention involves adding iron compounds.

The reduction in the number of gaseous oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the gaseous products of combustion means combustion lower the oxygen concentrations compared with concentrations used previously, resulting in incomplete burning of coal, which, in turn, leads to an increase of carbon content in fly ash.

To improve the economic significance of fly ash have been proposed options for its treatment, but they were ineffective.

The INVENTION

The present invention is to provide a method for burning coal, which improves combustion, for example, by achieving more complete combustion and/or receiving fly ash with lower carbon content, coal combustion under the same conditions except for the presence/absence of the composition, including additives, are considered in the present description.

It was found that the task can be solved by adding an iron-containing compounds of a certain class.

According to the first aspect of the present invention, a method of burning coal, characterized in that the method comprises adding to the coal, iron compounds, namely, iron salts and organic acids, in which the organic acid is selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms, and sulfonic acids; and the iron salt is added in a furnace for burning or coal before the coal into the furnace for burning.

Preferably the addition of the iron salt is an organic acid reduces the carbon content in fly ash, generated by combustion of coal. Thus, the carbon content in fly ash can be reduced to less than 10%, preferably less than 8%, most preferably less than 6%. In some preferred embodiments, the carbon content in fly ash can be reduced to less than 5%, or even less than 4% (mass of carbon per mass of fly ash).

Preferably the addition of iron salts and organic acids reduces the carbon content in fly ash produced by burning coal, as compared with the carbon content in fly ash obtained from burning coal in the absence of iron salts and organic acids.

Preferably the salt of iron and organic acids reduces the carbon content in fly ash produced by burning coal, by at least 5%, preferably at least 10%, preferably at least 15%, preferably at least 20%, preferably at least 25%, preferably at least 30% (percentage of weight-saving carbon in fly ash compared to the mass of carbon in fly ash in the absence of iron salts and organic acids).

According to the second aspect of the present invention, to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal, the proposed use of iron salts and organic acids (considered the military in the present description).

According to a third aspect of the present invention, to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal, a coal processed salt of iron and organic acids (considered in the present description).

According to a fourth aspect of the present invention, a method of processing coal to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal, according to which, before or during combustion of the coal is treated by a salt of iron and organic acids (considered in the present description).

According to the fifth aspect of the present invention, the proposed composition of additives, including salt of iron and organic acids (considered in the present description) and dispersing agent.

Discussed below, the preferred features of the invention pertain to method according to the first aspect, and for use according to the second aspect, the coal according to the third aspect, the method according to the fourth aspect and the composition of the additives according to the fifth aspect.

Salt of iron and organic acids may include iron in the following oxidation States: Fe (II) or Fe (III).

Salt of iron, suitable for implementing the present invention is the formate of iron.

The organic acid preferably is carbonophobia, containing 3 or more carbon atoms. Preferred carboxylic acid may contain at least 3 carbon atoms, preferably at least 6 carbon atoms, preferably at least 8 carbon atoms, preferably at least 10 carbon atoms, preferably at least 12 carbon atoms, preferably at least 14 carbon atoms, and most preferably at least 16 carbon atoms.

Suitable carboxylic acid may contain up to 200 carbon atoms, preferably up to 100 carbon atoms, preferably up to 46 carbon atoms, preferably up to 36 carbon atoms, preferably up to 28 carbon atoms, preferably up to 24 carbon atoms, preferably up to 22 carbon atoms, and most preferably up to 20 carbon atoms,

Examples of suitable carboxylic acids include formic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, hexanoic acid, ethylhexanoyl acid, lauric acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, fatty acid, tall oil, oleic acid, polycarboxylic acid, for example, dimers of fatty acids and alciatore acid; and mixtures thereof.

Suitable fatty acids include acids having a saturated or unsaturated carbon chain. Preferred the IRNA acids are saturated or monounsaturated carbon chain.

The organic acid preferably is a sulfonic acid. The preferred sulfonic acid is a compound having the formula R-S(=O)2-OH, in which R represents a hydrocarbon group. Preferred hydrocarbon group is a phenyl group substituted by one or more, preferably one to three, and preferably only one alkyl group; preferably the length of the carbon chain is from 1 to 32 carbon atoms, preferably from 4 to 28 carbon atoms, preferably from 8 to 24 carbon atoms.

Salt of iron and organic acid may be a basic salt, i.e. salt, upon receipt of which is to neutralize the organic acid was used excess iron base.

In another example implementation to neutralize the organic acid is used, the stoichiometric amount of iron-containing base.

The iron salt and the organic acid is preferably included in the composition of additives. The composition of the additives preferably may include a salt of iron and organic acid in a solvent. The solvent preferably is a water or organic solvent, e.g. a hydrocarbon solvent, preferably a petroleum distillate, e.g. the measures benzene, substituted C(1-4) alkyl groups of from 1 to 3. The most preferred solvent is xylene.

Salt of iron and organic acid may include a suitable iron salt and an organic acid, preferably in aqueous solution or in an organic solvent, in completely dissolved form or in the form of a dispersion, for example, Zola. Alternatively, the salt can be present in powder form.

Preferably, the iron salt and the organic acid is added to the coal in a quantity sufficient to obtain a mass ratio (the ratio of the amount of elemental iron to the amount of coal that contains no additives, % mass)of at least 0,0001, preferably at least about 0.001, preferably at least of 0.005, preferably at least to 0.01, more preferably at least 0.02 and more preferably at least 0,04, most preferably at least 0,05.

Preferably, the iron salt and the organic acid is added to the coal, not containing additives, in a quantity sufficient to obtain a mass ratio (the ratio of the amount of elemental iron to the amount of coal, wt%) up to 5, preferably up to 1, preferably up to 0.5, preferably up to 0.2.

The concentration of elemental iron in with the and (salts) iron and organic acids (acid) in the composition of additives is preferably in the range from 1 to 600 g/kg (the mass ratio of elemental iron to the total weight of the composition additives, including iron), preferably from 2 to 400 g/kg, preferably from 10 to 200 g/kg If the composition of the additive is a liquid that preferably, the concentration of elemental iron in the composition of the additives is preferably in the range from 1 to 600 g/l (the ratio of the weight of elemental iron to the total weight of the composition additives, including iron), preferably from 2 to 400 g/kg, preferably from 10 to 200 g/L.

According to the present invention, in addition to iron salts and organic acids may be added one or more additional metal-containing compounds. Examples of additional metal-containing compounds include compounds of alkali metals such as sodium or potassium, compounds of alkaline earth metals such as calcium or magnesium, and transition metals (under transition metal in the present description refers to any element in the d-period of the Periodic system of elements), for example, cerium, manganese, copper or zinc, but also include additional compounds of iron (i.e., compounds of iron, which are not salts of organic acids).

According to the present invention, additional metallsoderjasimi connection may, for example, be an oxide, hydroxide or salt of a mineral or organic acids, for example, a halide, in particular, x is arid or bromide, nitrate, sulfate, carbonate, bicarbonate or phosphate; or it may be metallocen.

According to the present invention, along with the iron salt and the organic acid may be added one or more ammonium compounds. Examples of the ammonium compounds include ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts, and mineral or organic acids, for example, ammonium halides, in particular, ammonium chloride or ammonium bromide, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium phosphate.

Used along with the iron salt and the organic acid is one or more of the additional metal-containing compounds may be introduced together with one or more ammonium compounds. In addition, can be added to mixed salts, for example, a mixture of cationic compounds, preferably those listed above (for example, hydrogen phosphate ammonium-sodium), or mixed anionic compounds or compounds of both of these classes.

See the values for the mass of the metal that is added to the particles of coal that is classified as elementary metal (as opposed to compound or complex). If the metal is present in more than one connection, according to the present invention, the metal mass consider the total number of the corresponding metal. As noted above in the description with the joining of iron, unless otherwise noted, definitions are given for the total iron contained in the salts (salts) iron and organic acids (acids). When describing ammonium compounds, values of weight related to the weight of the ammonium cation.

Preferably the total amount of any additional metal-containing compounds present in the composition is sufficient to produce such a mass ratio of these compounds to the amount of coal that does not contain additives, which is from 0.0001 to 5%, preferably from 0.001 to 1%, preferably from 0.001 to 0.5%, preferably from 0.01 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.02 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.04 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.05 to 0.2%. In case of additional iron compounds, these values do not include the weight of iron contained in the salts (salts) iron and organic acids (acids).

Preferably the total amount of ammonium compounds present in the composition is sufficient to produce such a mass ratio of these compounds to the amount of coal that does not contain additives, which is from 0.0001 to 5%, preferably from 0.001 to 1%, preferably from 0.001 to 0.5%, preferably from 0.01 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.02 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.04 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.05 to 0.2%.

Preferably the weight of iron, we use the constituent in the form of salts (salts) iron and organic acids (acids) exceeds the total mass of the other added metal (metals), including iron from other iron compounds.

Along with the iron salt and the organic acid can be added dispersing agent (his presence is mandatory for the fifth embodiment of the invention).

To burn the particles of coal or charcoal particles directed to combustion, can be added dispersing agent; when using iron salts and organic acids, together with dispersing substance good results have been obtained. Salt of iron and organic acid and a dispersing agent can be introduced into a composition of additives. This does not exclude separate add them.

Preferably the total number of dispersing substances, if any, is added, sufficient to obtain the mass ratio of dispersing agent to the amount of coal that does not contain additives, which is from 0.0001 to 5%, preferably from 0.001 to 1%, preferably from 0.001 to 0.5%, preferably from 0.01 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.02 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.04 to 0.2%, preferably from 0.05 to 0.2%.

You can use any suitable dispersing agent.

Suitable dispersing agents may include alkoxysilane fatty amines or their derivatives; alkoxysilane polyamine; alkanesulphonic acid; arylsulfonate the acid; sarcosinate; modified simple esters of carboxylic acids; esters of phosphoric acid; carboxylic acids and their derivatives; alkyl phenol-aldehyde resin; hydrophilic-lipophilic vinylic polymers; resins based on alkyl substituted phenol derivative polyethylenepolyamines and formaldehyde; alcylaryl connection; alkoxysilane amines and alcohols; imine; amides; zwitterionic compounds; esters of fatty acids; lecithin and its derivatives; and derivatives of alkyl substituted succinic anhydride and succinamide.

Preferred dispersing agents, which can be used according to the present invention are molecules comprising alkyl groups, preferably alkyl groups containing at least 8 carbon atoms and a polar functional group selected from, for example, sulfonic acid groups, phosphonic acid groups, carboxylic acid groups, amines, amides, imides, alcohols and esters. Also suitable compounds, including aromatic fragments. Part of the molecule can be, for example, connected polyalkoxyalkyl fragment, carbonate groups, imine or amide groups.

Suitable compounds include polymeric or oligomeric compounds. The most suitable are polymeric or oligomeric compounds, Lucaya hydrophobic functional group and a hydrophilic functional group.

Suitable nitrogen-containing dispersant substances comprise the reaction product Alliluyeva agent derived from a carboxylic acid and an amine or amine reaction product with formaldehyde and optionally substituted phenol.

Preferred dispersing substances include phenolic resin.

According to one aspect, the phenolic resin is a compound having the Formula I

in which:

m is at least 1; n is at least 1; a single or each R1selected from alkyl groups, aromatic groups and heterocyclic compounds, and

in which

cycle And can optionally contain substituents selected from the group comprising HE, gidrolabilna group, occipitocervical group, -CN, -NO2, -SO3H, -SO2H, -COOH, -COOR4, -NH2-The other5, -SO2NH2, -SO2-The other6, CONH2, CONHR7, SH and halogen; where each of R4, R5, R6and R7independently selected from hydrocarbonrich groups.

In one of the preferred aspects of m is greater than 1. In one preferred aspect, m is from 1 to 50, for example, from 1 to 40, 5 to 30 or 10 to 20. In a preferred aspect, m is from 11 to 15.

n can be equal to any suitable integer. For example, n may be 1 to 10, for example, from 1 to 8, 1 to 5 or 1, 2 or 3. Preferably n is 1.

R1can be an unbranched or branched alkyl group.

According to one aspect, R1preferably represents C1-C200alkyl group, preferably C1-C150alkyl group, preferably C10-C100alkyl group, preferably C1-C80alkyl group, preferably C1-C50alkyl group, preferably C1-C20alkyl group, preferably5-C20alkyl group, preferably5-C15alkyl group, preferably C6-C12alkyl group, preferably7-C11alkyl group, preferably8-C10alkyl group, more preferably9alkyl group.

According to one aspect, R1represents a branched alkyl group, preferably3-6branched alkyl group, for example, tert-butyl.

According to one aspect, R1represents an unbranched alkyl group.

In one preferred aspect, R1is a Deputy located in the para-position relative to the OH group.

In one preferred aspect, g is the SCP (CH 2)nis a Deputy located in the ortho-position relative to the OH group.

Specialist in the art should understand that each of the "parts" (parts of molecules) of the Formula I can contain one or more additional substituents. "Links", presented in Formula I, independently from each other may have substituents. As mentioned above, the cycle may be optionally substituted by groups selected from-OH, hydrocarbonrich groups, oxyhydrogen groups, -CN, -NO2, -SO3H, -SO2H, -COOH, -COOR4, -NH2-The other5, -SO2NH2, -SO2-The other6, CONH2, CONHR7, SH and halogen; and each of R4, R5, R6and R7independently selected from hydrocarbonrich groups. In a preferred aspect, at least one of the links has no substituents. In another more preferred aspect, each of the links has no deputies.

Preferably during combustion of the coal is in the form of particles, the average size of which is determined at screening, is in the range from 1 to 1000 μm, preferably from 10 to 170 μm, preferably from 30 to 110 μm.

If the salt of iron and organic acids are added before entering into the furnace for combustion, it can be added to the coal before it enters the combustion chamber, for example, may be added to the coal, located in the same condition in which it was produced, or coal, intermediate or milled form, representing the average between the state in which the coal was mined and crushed state; or salt can be added to the mill, fine grinding, in which the coal is ground into particles; or salt can be added in the supply pipe, through which particles are transported into the oven.

If the connection is iron added to the furnace for combustion, it is preferably added during the first half of the combustion process, more preferably, essentially, at the beginning of combustion.

The composition includes a salt of iron and organic acid containing composition additives may be introduced in a way, for example, by using a reciprocating positive-displacement pump, or a worm device, or a spray device.

The invention is applicable to coal of any type, including so-called low-grade coal (such as lignite, often containing high concentrations of sulfur, and polivitaminny coal black lignite), often containing a high concentration of water), and high-quality coal (for example, bituminous coal and anthracite).

The invention is applicable to the combustion system of any type, for example, to systems containing finely divided fuel, fluidized layers or not odigie layers, for example, to mechanical furnaces.

Below the invention is described in more detail using the non-limiting examples.

INFORMATION. CONFIRMING the POSSIBILITY of carrying out the INVENTION

In the examples, the burning of coal was estimated as the value part of this sample, burned for a specified period of time. This value was evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) using analyzer TGA provided by Texas Instruments, model Q5000. This sample of coal particles with a known average size, which in all cases was in the range of 35-150 μm was heated to 50°C and kept for a short period of time, for 2-3 minutes, to remove moisture; the temperature was raised to 1050-1100°C at 150°C per minute in a nitrogen atmosphere to remove volatile sample components; then left to cool to 525°C. After approximately 20 minutes after the start of the procedure was achieved, the temperature of 525°C; at this temperature was carried out by the entering air, and fire fuel. The burning was performed for a further 80 minutes. Throughout the period of combustion, the temperature was maintained equal to 525°C.

Obtained using TGA profile of weight loss is usually as follows: (1) first, there is a small loss of mass due to evaporation of water; then (2) as p is increasing the temperature to 1050-1100°C, there has been substantial loss of mass due to the loss of volatile compounds, after which the system is allowed to cool to 525°C for approximately 10 minutes; then (3) there is a gradual loss of mass caused by the burning of carbon in coal. The loss of mass during the implementation phase (3) will follow a parabolic curve and by the end of the burning weight loss becomes almost full and becomes asymptotic in nature. In practice, essentially all of the carbon can be burned out of any sample, if a suitable combustible mixture and sufficient duration of combustion. Under the selected conditions, the complete combustion of carbon in the characteristic pattern can be expected after approximately 80-100 minutes of burning. The detection point, which is essentially complete combustion, it was difficult because of the asymptotic nature of the weight loss at the end of combustion. Thus, to obtain reliable results the measurements were carried out from the beginning of combustion to achieve 90% mass loss; that is, to achieve 90% mass loss of carbon. Samples with less burn-out up to 90%, burn more quickly, and therefore it can be expected that they will burn more complete combustion in coal-fired power plants, and will have less residual carbon content in fly evils is.

In all the examples below, the amount of the addition represents the mass of an elementary metal, expressed as the mass percentage of the mass of raw coal containing no additives.

In the following Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weight listed for Fe, Ca, Ce and Mg represent the masses of elements, Fe, Ca, Ce and Mg, respectively. It is assumed that Tallat iron is Tallat iron (III).

Example

To evaluate the effect of adding additives series, each of which included a salt of iron and organic acids in various concentrations, on the combustion of a sample of anthracite coal, PBX No 3, applied techniques TGA. Properties of coal PBX No 3 were as follows: Moisture - 6-10%; volatile compounds 23.4 per cent; Ash - 16,9%; Sulfur - 0,6%; heat of combustion - 24,87 MJ/kg, total.

Salt of iron included the main Tallat iron in an aromatic solvent. Each of the salts of calcium, magnesium and cerium consisted of a mixture of salts With10-24fatty acids, alkylbenzenesulfonic acids and6-10organic acids in aromatic solvent. Additive And represented a dispersing agent comprising nonylphenolethoxylate resin with a molecular weight Mn 2680, in a hydrocarbon solvent.

The results are presented in Table 1. The positive effect is obvious when 90% combustion. The results show positive the initial effect from the use of iron salts and fatty acids and additional positive effect from the use of iron salts in combination with other metal salts or dispersing agent.

Table 1
The time of burning (EAP) up to 90% for coal PBX No 3 (38-53 μm)
wt%, the added metal
% Fe% Ca% Ce% Mg% Additives AndEAP @90% (min)% improvement
42,8(initial value)
0,0736,015,89
0,1231,725,93
0,20 30,129.67 per
0,130,0520,053,27
0,040,0825,141,36
0,070,040,0221,7at 49.30

The example In

To evaluate the effect of adding additives series, each of which included the main Tallat iron, in various concentrations, on the combustion of different coal samples PBX No 3, applied techniques TGA. Properties of coal PBX No 3 are listed in Example A. Used the same salt of individual metals and dispersing agent as in Example A.

The results are presented in Table 2. In this example, the positive effect is visible already at 90%combustion.

Table 2
The time of burning (EAP) coal PBX No 3 (38-53 μm) up to 90%
wt%, the added metal
% Fe% Ca% Ce% Mg% Additives AndEAP @90% (min)% improvement
33,5(initial value)
0,060,0222,333,43
0,060,03a 21.535,82
0,0630,68,65
0,070,0222,134,03
0,070,0419,840,90
0,0724,825,97
0,040,0126,620,60
0,030,0328,415,2

The example

To evaluate the effect of adding additives series, each of which included the main Tallat iron, in various concentrations, on the combustion of different coal samples PBX No 3, applied techniques TGA. Properties of coal PBX No 3 are listed in example a, except that the particles had the another size (53-75 µm). Used the same salts of other metals and dispersing agent as in Example A, with the addition compounds of copper, copper oxychloride). The results are presented in Table 3. In this example, the positive effect is visible already at 90%combustion.

Table 3
The time of burning (EAP) coal PBX No 3 (53-75 µm) up to 90%
wt%, the added metal
% Fe% Ca% Ce% Mg% Additives AndOxychloride of copperEAP @90% (min)% improvement
51,20(initial value)
0,070,040,02 0,0928,0045,31
0,030,080,010,0931.90 beef37,70
0,120,050,0921,5058,01
0,050,030,020,3323,0055,08
0,020,060,010,3323,7053,71
0,080,050,3315,4069,92

Example D

The use of iron in image quality is as additives to various coals investigated by the method, described above in Example C. the composition of iron represented the main Tallat iron. The added concentration of the main tallate iron, the type of coal and the results are presented in Table 4.

Table 4
The study materialThe time of a burn-out up to 90% (min)% improvement
Coal Reitspruit - without additives37,0(initial value)
Coal Reitspruit + Fe (0.05% wt.)36,02,7%
Coal Prokopyevsk - without additives43,0(initial value)
Coal Procopius + Fe (0.05% wt.)39,09,3%
Coal Chang Yan - without additives23,0(initial value)
Coal Chang Yan + Fe (0.05% wt.)18,519,5%

Procopius coal was obtained from Procopius Central Russia. Coal Chang Yn was obtained from China.

Improved significantly in each case.

Example F

The use of iron compounds as additives for coal PBX No. 3 described in the Example, investigated by the method described above in Example A. the Type of additives that are added concentration and the results are presented in Table 5.

Table 5
Connection ironThe added amount of Fe (wt. -%)The time of a burn-out up to 90% (min)Reduction of time of a burn-out (%)
- (charcoal)-34,0(initial value)
Formate, iron (III)0,2929,513,2
Acetate of iron (II) (comparison)0,3232,64,1
The main Tallat iron0,1827,718,5

1. The use of iron salts and organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids, containing them 3 or more carbon atoms, and sulfonic acids, to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal.

2. The use according to claim 1, in which the carboxylic acid is a C12-24carboxylic acid.

3. The use according to claim 1, in which the iron salt and the organic acid is produced by neutralization of the corresponding organic acid with excess of the corresponding iron base.

4. The use according to claim 1, in which the iron salt and the organic acid include a salt of iron and organic acids in completely dissolved form or in the form of a dispersion, for example, Zola, or in powder form.

5. The use according to claim 1, in which the iron salt and the organic acid is added to the coal in a quantity sufficient to obtain a mass ratio (the ratio of the amount of elemental iron contained in the iron salts and organic acids, to the amount of coal that contains no additives, % mass.), of at least 0,0001.

6. The use according to claim 1, in which the iron salt and the organic acid is added to the coal in a quantity sufficient to obtain a mass ratio (the ratio of the amount of elemental iron contained in the iron salts and organic acids, to the amount of coal that contains no additives, % mass.), the value of which is up to 5.

7. The use according to claim 1, in which at burning coal nah is implemented in the form of particles, an average size of from 1 to 1000 μm; salt of iron and organic acids are added to the particles of coal in the combustion chamber, or added to the coal before the coal in the combustion chamber; adding produce coal, which is in the same condition in which it was produced, or coal, intermediate or milled form, representing the average between the state in which the coal was mined and crushed, condition, or adding produce to the mill fine grinding, in which the coal is ground into particles; or add produce in the supply pipe, through which particles are transported into the oven.

8. The use according to claim 1, additionally comprising adding a dispersing substances, preferably in a total amount sufficient to obtain mass relationship, comprising from 0.0001 to 5%, in terms of coal, not containing added.

9. Application under paragraph 8, in which the dispersing agent is a phenolic resin which is a reaction product of phenol and aldehyde, preferably formaldehyde.

10. The use according to claim 1, further comprising applying one or more additional metal-containing compounds selected from compounds of alkali metals, compounds of alkaline earth metals and connect the developments of transition metals (including additional compounds of iron).

11. The use according to claim 1, further comprising applying one or more ammonium compounds.

12. The use according to claim 1, in which the carbon content in fly ash reduced to a level of less than 10%, preferably less than 6%.

13. Coal processed iron salt and an organic acid selected from iron salts and polybasic carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms, and iron salts, and sulfonic acid, to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal.

14. Coal according to item 13, further processed dispersing agent.

15. Carbon 14, where the dispersing agent is selected from alkoxycarbonyl fatty amines or their derivatives; alkoxycarbonyl polyamines; alkanesulphonic acids; arylsulfonic acids; sarcosinates; modified ethers of carboxylic acids; esters of phosphoric acid; carboxylic acids and their derivatives; alkyl phenol-aldehyde resins; hydrophilic-lipophilic vinylic polymers; resins based on alkyl substituted phenol derivative polyethylenepolyamines and formaldehyde; alcylaryl compounds; alkoxycarbonyl amines and alcohols; Eminov; amides; zwitterionic compounds; esters of fatty acids; lecithin and its derivatives; and derivatives of alkyl substituted succinic anhydride and with whom kinamed.

16. Coal indicated in paragraph 15, where the dispersing agent is a phenol-formaldehyde resin.

17. The method of processing coal to reduce the carbon content of the fly ash produced by burning coal, which prior to or during combustion of the coal is treated with iron salt and an organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms, and sulfonic acids.

18. The method of burning coal, characterized in that for reducing the carbon content in fly ash obtained by burning, the method includes adding to the coal, iron compounds, namely, iron salts and organic acid selected from formic acid, carboxylic acids containing 3 or more carbon atoms, and sulfonic acids, and salt add iron in a furnace for burning or coal before the coal into the furnace for combustion.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to modifier of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning, in particular, wood, natural gas, coal, mazut and other hydrocarbons in power boilers, in closed or open chambers, characterised by the fact that said modifier contains from 10 to 30 wt % of water, from 20 to 80 wt % of at least one aliphatic alcohol, from 5 to 15 wt % of carbamide or its derivatives, selected from alkyl urea of type R1R2N(CO)NR1R2, where R1, R2 are similar or different and represent C1-C6 alkyl groups, and from 5 to 15 wt % of monoacetylferrocene. Object of invention also includes method of modifying process of burning said types of fuel and application of fuel burning modifier. Modifier can also be applied as catalyst in power boilers, for afterburning of soot, furnace gases and other admixtures, present in combustion chamber.

EFFECT: claimed invention makes it possible to increase output of solid, liquid and gaseous fuel burning.

10 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing a carbon suspension in aqueous copper acetate solution in weight ratio C : H2O : Cu(CHCOO)2-H2O = 1 : 10…15 : 0.25…0.30, heating to 90...100°C, adding aqueous sodium hydroxide solution to the carbon suspension with weight ratio of copper acetate to sodium hydroxide Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O : NaOH = 1 : 1.05…1.2 for 20…30 minutes, adding aqueous solution of a surfactant - octyl phenyl ether of polyethylene oxide to carbon of 0.005…0.02 : 1. The mixture is then held while stirring for 10…15 minutes and then cooled to 25…30°C, followed by filtration, washing with water and drying at temperature of 90…100°C to constant weight.

EFFECT: invention enables to modify the surface of carbon with copper oxide with maximum output.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: average size of particles of fuel improving agent is within range of 1-100 mcm. Invention is related to method of pozzolana production by heating of the target fossil fuels in furnace of fuel improving agent.

EFFECT: increasing combustion efficiency and decreasing carbon content in ash and in consequence in result of combustion useful material is obtained instead of waste.

16 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method for reduction of hazardous emissions from burners with flame combustion that includes supply of absorbent to burner and collection of used absorbent; the method is distinguished by absorbent delivery into flue gases formed in the post-flame area in quantity of 5-7% of fuel consumption.

EFFECT: reduction of hazardous emissions into atmosphere, in particular sulphur oxides, and improvement of operating economy and reliability of a boiler unit.

1 cl, 1 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.

4 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the method for obtaining briquetted solid fuel, which can reduce the cost of briquetting at maintaining the strength of briquetted product. Mixed oil that contains heavy oil and oil-solvent, and porous coal having moisture content of 30 to 70 wt %, is mixed so that a suspension is obtained. Suspension is dehydrated by heating so that dehydrated suspension is obtained. Oil-solvent is extracted from dehydrated suspension so that the residue is obtained. The residue is heated, and oil-solvent is extracted in addition from the residue so that modified coal is obtained. Moisture is introduced to modified coal so that wet modified coal with moisture content of 3-10 wt % is obtained. At the stage of moisture introduction, crushed porous coal with moisture content of 30 to 70 wt % is mixed with modified coal. Then, wet modified coal is briquetted under pressure.

EFFECT: reduction of briquetting cost at maintaining the briquette strength.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of intensifying fuel oxidation in combustion systems involves increasing the rate of oxidation, raising oxidation temperature and/or increasing the rate of increase of oxidation temperature. The method involves adding a catalytic additive to an oxidant and/or fuel before or during the fuel oxidation process, where the catalytic additive is a solid substance, its solution or suspension, or a liquid substance or its emulsion, in form of a separate catalytic substance or a catalytic mixture of substances. The catalytic substance or at least one of the substances in the catalytic mixture contains at least one functional carbonyl group and has in the infrared spectrum at least one intense absorption band in the region from 1550 to 1850 cm-1. Said catalytic substance or at least one substance in the catalytic mixture is selected from: monocarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; dicarboxylic acids and anhydrides thereof; carboxylic acid salts; dicarboxylic acid salts; carboxylic acid amides; dicarboxylic acid amides; carboxylic acid anilides; dicarboxylic acid anilides; carboxylic acid esters; dicarboxylic acid monoesters or diesters; carboxylic acid imides; dicarboxylic acid imides; carbonic acid diamide; acyclic and cyclic carbonic acid esters; urethanes; aminocarboxylic acids whose molecules contain amino groups (NH2 groups) and carboxyl groups (COOH group); peptides and proteins whose molecules are built from a-amino acid residues linked by peptide (amide) bonds C(O)NH. The catalytic additive is added in amount of 0.0000001-01 wt %. The fuel used is solid, gaseous or liquid fuel selected from AI-92 petrol, diesel or masout.

EFFECT: faster fuel oxidation, high oxidation temperature, higher rate of increase of oxidation temperature, higher enthalpy of combustion products, more complete fuel combustion, fewer solid deposits on engine parts, reduced harmful emissions with exhaust gases, reduced fuel combustion.

5 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg, 9 ex

Mixed fuel // 2460762

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: mixed fuel includes lignin and hydrogen in the weight ratio of lignin to hydrogen of 9:1 to 1:9, mainly of 2:1 to 1:3.

EFFECT: more complete combustion of lignin; reduction of ash content of fuel.

1 cl

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: method for improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke is implemented by spraying at temperature of not less than 20°C onto blast-furnace coke lumps of 2-20% water solution of sodium, potassium or calcium pentaborate, which contains 0.1-0.2 wt % of non-ionic surface active substance in the form of mono- and/or dialkyl ethers of polyethylene glycol in the quantity providing the content of surface active substance in coke of 0.0035-0.0070 wt %; at that, content of dry pentaborate of one of the above metals in coke is 0.09-0.68 wt %.

EFFECT: improving qualitative indices of blast-furnace coke owing to decreasing reactivity index and increasing its strength value.

1 cl, 25 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method of reduction of cohesive properties of slag and/or its adhesion ability to surface of a furnace chamber and thus reducing degree of contamination. The above method involves combustion of slag-forming coal in combustion zone; coal with increased iron content exceeding approximately 15% is used considering weight of ash and expressed as Fe2O3 and/or calcium content exceeding 5% considering weight of ash and expressed as CaO, at total excess oxygen; removal of gaseous combustion products through heat-exchange equipment under conditions providing cooling of the slag formed at fuel combustion; and introduction to combustion zone of the furnace chamber till contact with the above heat-exchange equipment, to gaseous combustion products of aqueous aluminium trihydroxide in the amount, with drop size and in the concentration forming nanoparticles with the size of less than 200 nm in hot gaseous combustion products, which are optimum to reduce contamination degree and to improve friable properties of the obtained slag. The invention also refers to a method for removal of slag deposits from a furnace chamber and a furnace chamber cleaning and maintenance method.

EFFECT: effective slag control; higher operating efficiency of a furnace chamber.

8 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: polyalkenamine compositions, intended for fuel or oil additive, method for production of such additives, as well as formulation of fuel and formulation of oil, additives set, and application of such compositions as an additives, particularly as an additive for fuel cleanability improvement in injection systems of combustion engines with forced ignition. Polyalkenamine composition include at least one polyalkenamine in solvent, chosen from the group, containing components L1 and L2 mixture, where L1) represents at least one n- or iso-C10-C14-paraffin, and L2) represents at least one C10-C14-naphthene, L1 to L2 proportion being from 10:90 to 90:10.

EFFECT: improvement of polyalkenamine composition processing characteristics.

18 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: liquid fuel combustion methods.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydrocarbon fuel additives, to a fuel composition, and to a method improving combustion of fuels. Additive, as well as fuel composition, includes manganese-containing organometallic, alkali metal compound, and magnesium-containing compound.

EFFECT: reduced amount of solid carbon particles by 39% and loosened slag.

28 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry of metalloorganic compounds.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a composition that comprises one or some compounds of the formula (I): X-Y (I) wherein X means group of the formula (II): Y means group of the formula (III): wherein each A and B means independently unsubstituted or substituted aromatic carbon ring or unsubstituted or substituted aromatic heterocyclic ring; group or each group Z represents independently unsubstituted or substituted bivalent hydrocarbyl group; n means 0 or a whole number from 1 to 10. Also, invention relates to using such compounds in recovering gas black-traps in combustion systems, such as engines with spontaneous ignition as result of high degree of compression.

EFFECT: valuable technical properties of compositions.

42 cl, 16 tbl, 7 ex

The invention relates to an additive for improving the properties of heavy oils and heavy oils containing them

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a poly(hydroxycarboxylic acid) amide salt derivative of formula (III), a lubricant composition and a fuel composition containing a poly(hydroxycarboxylic acid) amide salt derivative and use of the poly(hydroxycarboxylic acid) amide salt derivative. In general formula (III) [Y-CO[O-A-CO]n-Z-R+]m pXq-, Y is hydrogen or an optionally substituted hydrocarbyl group, A is a divalent optionally substituted hydrocarbyl group, n ranges from 1 to 100, preferably from 1 to 10, m ranges from 1 to 4, q ranges from 1 to 4 and p is an integer provided that pq=m; Z is an optionally substituted divalent bridge group which is bonded to a carbonyl group through a nitrogen atom, R+ is an ammonium group and Xq- is an anion which does not contain sulphur, selected from a group consisting of OH, phenolate groups, salicylate groups, oleate groups and combinations thereof.

EFFECT: reduced phosphorus volatility of the lubricant composition.

12 cl, 2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for control of by-products or pollutants produced from fuel combustion, which include combustion of fuel containing a dispersion, which includes a mixture of at least two or at least three metal-containing compounds, in which every metal has medium extent of oxidation +2 or higher, at least one surfactant and at least one organic medium, in which metal-containing compounds are evenly dispersed. The ratio of components in dispersions is as follows, in wt %: mixture of metal-containing compounds - 40-65, at least one surfactant - 5-25, at least one organic medium - balance. The invention also relates to a fuel composition including fuel and the specified dispersion, containing a mixture of at least two metal-containing compounds, and to the fuel dispersion containing at least three metal-containing compounds, at least one surfactant and at least one organic medium in the specified ratios.

EFFECT: usage of dispersions makes it possible to reduce amount of many pollutants released during fuel combustion.

19 cl, 1 tbl, 21 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.

4 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: use of dialkylpolyglycol ethers of polyoxymethylene of general formula RO (CH2CH2O)n(CH2O)m(CH2CH2O)nR, wherein R is an alkyl, n assumes a value from 1 to 3 and m equals 1, as a diesel fuel additive for reducing emission of solid particles with exhaust gases in self-ignition engines. The dialkylpolyglycol ether of polyoxymethylene is present in amount less than about 15 vol. %. The diesel fuel contains up to 10 vol. % fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or is a pure FAME biodiesel fuel or a synthetic diesel fuel.

EFFECT: compounds have relatively high volatility, which increases the fraction of the combustion mixture and, consequently, provides uniform combustion with low emission of solid particles in the engine.

10 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to use of lubricating oil in a diesel engine. Described is use of lubricating oil in a diesel engine, which is equipped with a regenerating trap for suspended particles of exhaust emissions, where the lubricating oil contains a base oil component with paraffin content of more than 80 wt % with more than 98 wt % content of saturated hydrocarbons and contains several isoparaffins having n, n+1, n+2, n+3 and n+4 carbon atoms, where n can range from 15 to 40, and a method of operating a diesel engine equipped with a trap for suspended particles of exhaust emissions, which involves lubricating the diesel engine with said lubricating oil.

EFFECT: reduced frequency of cleaning up traps for suspended particles, reduced NOx emissions and, consequently, low power consumption.

8 cl, 5 tbl, 1 ex, 3 dwg

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