Fire-resistant laminate

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: fire-resistant laminate has low combustion heat of ≤3 MJ / kg according to ISO 1716 and due to the multilayer structure has excellent mechanical properties and has extremely good stability in variable climatic conditions (hot / wet / cold / dry). Contains several nonwoven fabrics made of mineral and glass fibres, having different functions and composition. These include high-filled nonwoven fabrics, bridging C-stages and other additives.

EFFECT: production of fire-resistant laminate, used in various fields, where exclusively laminates have been applied up to date in accordance with standard EN 438 and superior.

33 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 9 ex

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a new highly resistant refractory sheet material (laminate), the method of its production and its use.

The level of technology

Know the use of layered pressed panels for indoor and outdoor applications in the construction sector and other areas, both on the surface and in the center of the plates, you can set a variety of properties that meet the highest requirements. A good overview of the desired properties of the plates and the corresponding test methods gives the standard EN 438. The examples described in EN 438 characteristics of the laminate are, in particular, Flexural strength, tensile strength, water absorption in different environmental conditions, fouling, resistance to scratching and abrasion resistance, resistance to water vapor or dry heat.

One of the most important properties of layered pressed panels in the construction industry are their flammable properties. Flammable properties classified in Europe according to EN 13501-1. For non-combustible materials according to ISO 1716 required heat of combustion of the material ≤3 MJ/kg

Modern use of layered pressed panels consist of a fire retardant impregnated with synthetic resins of paper (perhaps also fire-resistant), which is at high pressure and temperature the arts about 150°C is pressed in multi-media to a homogeneous monolithic sheet items.

The classification of these materials is carried out, as described above, according to the standard EN 13501-1, and in the best case you can achieve class B1 (flame retardant). Due to the use of cellulose as a material for the base and synthetic resins as binders Flammability class A ordinary trudnovosplamenjaemy layered pressed plates, corresponding to the prior art, is not reachable.

Fiber cement panels can be represented as a material A2, but they have very low mechanical strength.

Patent application WO 2006/111458 A1 describes a multi-layer plate, and the method of its receipt, and it has a calorific value of ≤3 MJ/kg, measured according to ISO 1716. Plate structure in WO 2006/111458A1 before pressing is described as follows.

This structure comprises a first layer impregnated (decorative) paper, then one or more layers of resin-impregnated of tissue filled with at least one inorganic filler, and the ratio of resin to filler/glass fiber is selected so as to obtain the heat of combustion ≤3 MJ/kg according to ISO 1716. The structure can be made as asymmetric and symmetric with 1 respectively 2 layers of impregnated paper as the top layer.

This structure allows to obtain laminates with calorific value ≤3 MJ/kg according to the but ISO 1716, however, they reveal significant shortcomings in respect of mechanical strength or water resistance, and also in respect of surface quality (gloss, uniformity, smoothness) of the obtained laminates. Fireproof laminates of satisfactory quality, in particular, for applications experiencing high load of the internal parts of buildings and in the outer parts, in this way not to get.

Here comes to the aid of the present invention.

The invention

The challenge the basis of the invention is, in particular, to create a mechanically very stable laminates of exceptional quality, preferably non-flammable laminates, i.e. having a heat of combustion ≤3 MJ/kg, according to ISO 1716, in particular, for use in experiencing heavy load of the internal parts of buildings as well as outside.

According to the invention, this problem is solved by a multilayer structure of a laminate, in particular, according to the characterizing portion of the independent claims, with different layers have different functions. The outer layer, which may consist of impregnated natural and synthetic resins, paper, non-woven fabrics, mats or fabrics, allows to obtain a good surface quality of the laminate. The underlying intermediate layer comprises (i) from a special resin-impregnated "adhesive layer", to the which serves to improve the connection of the intermediate layer to the Central layer or surface layer, and underneath special "amplifying" or "reference" layer with low degree of impregnation of the resin, which makes a decisive contribution to the mechanical properties and mechanical properties of the end plate, or (ii) of the special "amplifying" or "reference" layer with low degree of impregnation, which makes a decisive contribution to the mechanical properties and mechanical properties of the end plate, and below it a special resin-impregnated "adhesive layer", which serves to improve the connection of the intermediate layer to the Central layer or surface layer. The inner, the middle part of the laminate consists of several highly filled Central layers, which give the finished laminate its exceptional stability in variable climatic conditions and humidity.

The laminates according to the invention are distinguished as extremely high mechanical stability and excellent surface quality, and extremely high moisture resistance under changing climatic conditions. Thanks to a very low heat of combustion, they can be used in those application areas where conventional layered pressed panels of cellulose fiber/synthetic resins cannot be used because of their Flammability.

Advantageous improvements of the invention are specified in dependent clauses.

A brief description of h is of Raja

The laminate structure or preform laminate according to the invention can be implemented both symmetric and asymmetric.

In Fig. 1 shows one possible symmetrical structure design according to the invention. Preparation of laminate consists of an outer layer a2, which may optionally apply a protective layer a1. Layer b (adhesive layer) consists of one or more adhesive non-woven materials, applied between the outer layer and a reference layer c. Reinforcing layer c consists of one or more reinforcing non-woven materials. The Central layer d consists of several highly filled textile fabrics, which after pressing, melting together with up - and underlying layers in a monolithic composite material. Between the Central layer d and the reinforcing layer c optional, you can put an additional adhesive layer b (not shown), which consists of one or more adhesive non-woven materials. Since the thickness of the laminate >2 mm, to further improve the mechanical stability can also enter adhesive layers and in the middle part of the laminate.

In addition, Fig. 1 shows as an example of a typical change of mechanical strength, which increases from the middle part of the laminate to the outside. After pressing all the individual layers are inseparable connected to each other.

bject inventions

Thus, an object of the present invention is a laminate, preferably non-combustible, i.e. such that it has a calorific value of ≤3 MJ/kg, according to ISO 1716 containing:

A) located symmetrically or asymmetrically middle part of the matrix that contains:

- 3-17 wt.% the organic binder resin,

- 45-85% wt.% inorganic fillers

- 10-25% wt.% inorganic and/or organic fibers,

moreover, the total amount of organic binder resin, inorganic fillers and fibers is 100%, and the middle portion of the laminate has a multilayer structure, but the Central layers after the final manufacturing of the product are inseparably connected with each other and with lying above and below the functional layer, and, in addition, having

- density of at least 1.70 g/cm3measured according to EN ISO 1183-1:2004, preferably at least 1,80 g/cm3,

- Flexural strength of at least 35 MPa, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 45 MPa,

- modulus of elasticity in bending of at least 7 GPA, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 8.5 HPa,

B) at least one intermediate layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate containing:

(i) at least one anchor is Loy, which is applied on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate, and the support layer includes

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, which has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 5-30 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and

(ii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer and the adhesive layer

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, which has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 40-80 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,

or

(iii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate and the adhesive layer

- contains at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, which has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 40-80 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state B with the adiya's, and

(iv) at least one support layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer and the supporting layer contains

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, which has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 5-30 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,

C) at least one decorative layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the intermediate layer and the decorative layer may be made of a multilayer,

D) optionally, at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer, and

E) optionally, at least one relaxation layer, which is located on facing towards the middle of the laminate side of the decorative layer.

The laminate according to the invention is, in particular, very mechanically stable.

The middle part of the laminate is made of a multilayer, however, after the final fabrication of all Central layers become inseparable from each other and from above - and the underlying functional layers, i.e. they are connected permanently. Proof of layering the Central part of the Oudayas the SJ to obtain microscopic analysis, as well as the dissolution of the composite material mineral acids. Preferably, the middle portion of the laminate contains at least two layers, preferably at least three layers, particularly preferably at least 6 layers, in particular at least 7 layers.

The above laminate, method of its production and its use are an integral part of the invention as described below are used according to the invention for the preparation of laminates, which are valuable intermediates in obtaining the laminates according to the invention.

Thus, the next object of the present invention is the preparation of a laminate, which preferably has a heat of combustion ≤3 MJ/kg, according to ISO 1716 containing:

A) located symmetrically or asymmetrically middle part, that:

- contains at least two layers, preferably at least three layers of mineral substances textile fabrics and textile fabric reinforced binder content of 5-20 wt.%, moreover, these data are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder, and

- soaked from 60 to 90 wt.% compositions for the middle part, containing:

(i) from 1 to 20 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 15 wt.%, in particular, from 8 to 12 wt.%, thermosetting natural and/or iskusstvennymi,

(ii) from 40 to 90 wt.%, preferably from 45 to 80 wt.%, in particular, from 50 to 75 wt.%, inorganic fillers

(iii) from 1 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 4 to 25 wt.%, in particular, from 9 to 18 wt.% water for dilution,

and received by the Central layers are dried to a residual water content of up to 8 wt.%, preferably up to 5 wt.%, and the resin was transferred into a reactive state of B-stage,

B) at least one intermediate layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate containing

(i) at least one support layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate, and the support layer

- contains at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, each with a binder content B-stage 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and

(ii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer and the adhesive layer contains

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on full the EU textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,

or

(iii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate and the adhesive layer contains

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and

(iv) at least one support layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer and the supporting layer contains

at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, each with a content of the binder phase B 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,

C) at least one decorative layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the intermediate layer and the decorative layer may be made of a multilayer,

D) optionally, at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer, and

E) optionally, at least one relaxation layer, which is located on the reverse is to the middle of the laminate side of the decorative layer.

In the following embodiment of the invention the adhesive layer in the above-mentioned laminate or the laminate workpiece may also be a function of the decorative layer, if he applied for pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer. Therefore, the next object of the present invention is a laminate and the laminate workpiece, which contain the above located symmetrically or asymmetrically, the middle part, at least one of the above intermediate layers of the base layer and the adhesive layer, if necessary, perform the function of a decorative layer and, if necessary, contain the above-described protective layer, and if necessary, the above relaxation layer.

Obtaining a laminate according to the invention is carried out by hot pressing of the preform laminate according to the invention, so that the result is a monolithic composite material, in which individual layers are fully or partially melted with higher and lower layers.

Detailed description of the invention

Standing in the basis of the invention the task is, in particular, to obtain a very stable mechanically, preferably non-flammable laminates (heat of combustion ≤3 MJ/kg, according to ISO 1716) excellent quality, in particular, for applications experiencing high load within the indoor parts of the buildings, as well as in the outer parts. This problem is solved by a multilayer laminate structure, which consists of several, but at least four different layers. These layers, which may consist of several styling textile fabrics, have different functions and represent as a whole the essence of the invention. The outer layers give the finished laminate of the exceptionally high mechanical strength. The middle part of the laminate, in particular, its chemical and physical structure, as well as outdoor decorative layers gives the laminate its exceptionally high resistance to alternating extreme climatic conditions.

The principal variants of constructive solutions laminate or preform laminate is symmetric structure, as shown in Fig. 1, and the asymmetric structure. Fig. 1 shows as an example a symmetric structure with the Central part of the laminate (layer d), two intermediate layers on both main surfaces of the middle part, consisting each of two reference layers (c) and two adhesive layers (b), and with external decorative layer (a2). Additionally, the decorative layer can be optional to apply protective layers (a1). In addition, between the middle of the laminate (d) and the base layer (c) may optionally be applied two additional adhesive layer (b) (not shown). When asymmetric the second structure, the number of individual layers and the structure of the layers on both main surfaces of the middle part of the laminate different. In the limiting case, on one main surface may not have coverage. The mechanical strength of the laminate shown increases from the middle part of the laminate to the outside.

Since the thickness of the laminate 2 mm, it is possible to further improve the mechanical stability to enter the adhesive layers and the middle part of the laminate.

Support layer and the adhesive layer, which form the intermediate layer, composed each of one or, preferably, several textile fabrics.

Individual layers or textile fabric is pressed by known methods under the action of pressure and temperature with the finished laminate. Obtaining Central layers is based on the impregnation method of the Central part, which is used in prior art for the standard layered extruded plates, but deviates somewhat from him on certain technological stages. Modifications and deviations from the known from the prior art method of obtaining detailed below.

When selecting source materials for laminate or preform laminate according to the invention need to ensure that the laminate generally has a low heat of combustion according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤3 MJ/kg

When selecting source material for decorative outer layers of the laminate, and inconsequential, in terms of weight, the inner layers, n is tenderly, in addition, to ensure that they have a low heat of combustion according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤ 4 MJ/m2.

1. Definition

1.1. Textile fabric

Under the used textile paintings are referring to all of the structure that is obtained from the fibers and with the help of the technology of formation of flat products are textile fabric. Under fibre-forming materials are meant preferably a ceramic fiber, mineral fiber or fiberglass, and they can also be used as mixtures and mixtures with polymeric fibers and filaments, as well as with natural fibers and carbon fibers. Under textile cloths understood fabrics, styling, Jersey knit stitch, knit machine-knit and non-woven materials, preferably non-woven materials.

Under textile paintings of mineral and ceramic fibers are in the form of materials from silica-alumina, ceramic, dolomite, wollastonite fibers or fibers made of volcanic rocks, preferably basalt, diabase and/or malapira, in particular, of basalt fibers. Diabase and Misafir collectively referred to as paleobotanical, and diabase also like to call Greenstone rock.

1.2. Binder phase B

Some textile fabric provided with a binder phase B. However, they can be the ü optionally equipped with an additional standard binder (plus binder) (preliminary hardening), to provide the strength required for further processing of flat products. As an additional binder suitable chemically stitched and/or thermoplastic binder.

Supplied with a binder phase B textile fabrics by selecting a pre-strengthened such incremental binding. Used binder may be the same or different, but should be selected from the group of binder systems that are compatible with a binder phase B.

Under the binder phase B is understood as a binder, which solidified or hardened only partially, i.e. which are in a state of B-stage and can still be subject to final hardening, for example by additional heat treatment. Such binder-phase is described in detail in US-A-5837620, US-A-6303207 and US-A-6331339. Disclosed is there a binder phase B is also an object of the present description. Under a binder In-phase preferably refers to a binder resin of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde, phenol-melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde resins and mixtures thereof. Preferably this water system. The following preferred binders are binders that do not contain formaldehyde. The binder phase B differ in that they can be subjected to multi-stage curing, i.e. after the first hotwired the treatment or first utverzhdenii they still have sufficient binding action (state (B-stage), so they can be used for further processing. Typically, such binding utverjdayut in one stage, after adding the catalyst at temperatures of about 350°F (177°C).

For the formation of B-stage binder such utverjdayut, if necessary after addition of the catalyst. The content of the curing catalyst is up to 10 wt.%, preferably from 0.1 to 5 wt.% (in the calculation of the total binder content). As the curing catalyst are suitable, for example, ammonium nitrate, and organic, aromatic acids, e.g. maleic acid and p-toluensulfonate acid, since they allow faster to reach the state of B-stage. In addition to ammonium nitrate, maleic acid and p-toluensulfonate acid, as catalyst suitable for all materials that have a comparable acid function. To achieve the B-stage binder impregnated textile fabric is dried under heat so as not achieved full cure. The necessary process parameters depend on the selected binder system.

The lower limit temperature can be influenced by the duration of the curing or addition of a larger amount or more of an acid curing agent.

The application of binder phase B on the textile fabric can be conducted using known is erodov. Along with spraying, application and indentation, a binder can be applied also by coating or by using a rotary nozzle use. In addition, it is also possible covering of foam.

2. The middle part of the laminate

Under the middle part of the laminate in the case of symmetric laminates are understood to be internal, as in an asymmetric one-sided laminates, usually lying outside the Central layers (layer d in Fig. 1). Makes sense also asymmetric laminates in the center of the middle part (not shown), which have special properties.

The middle part of the laminate in the workpiece consists of several Central layers and a Central layer highly suitable minerals textile fabrics with very low content of resin. At the same time as supporting materials for the Central layers are used in a particular high-volume textile fabrics. These planar structures in the impregnation process is impregnated with highly minerals thermosetting natural or preferably modified with synthetic resins (composition for the middle part). The special structure of used textile fabrics, extremely low viscosity and very high content of solids in the composition for impregnation contribute to this disproportionately in the high absorption of the binder textile cloths. Formed in this full of flat product by controlled heat treatment is transferred to the reactive transition state (B-stage binder resin), which allows the storage of this intermediate product, even in a few months, before pressing in the actual laminate. The Central layers or middle portion of the laminate after this controlled heat treatment have a residual water content of up to 8 wt.%, preferably up to 5 wt.%. Preferably, the middle part in the gathering of the laminate contains at least 6 of the Central layers, in particular at least 7 of the Central layers. The upper limit for the number of Central layers is determined by the intended use or purpose. In principle, this upper limit has no limits, but for practical reasons favorable showed himself to be an upper limit to 30 of the Central layers.

Determination of the residual water content is carried out by sampling and drying at 165°C in a drying oven until constant weight of the sample.

Depending on the selected textile fabrics, during the extrusion of the billet to the finished laminate they can completely or partially disintegrate, i.e. forming a textile fabric fibers are distributed in the matrix of mineral filler and finally the cured binder.

In the result, the pressing forms the middle part of the laminate, contains:

- 3-17 wt.% the organic binder resin,

- 45-85 wt.% inorganic fillers and

- 10-25% wt.% inorganic and/or organic fibers,

moreover, the amount of the contents of the organic binder resin, inorganic fillers and fibers gives 100%.

Educated middle portion of the laminate has:

- density of at least 1.70 g/cm3measured according to EN ISO 1183-1:2004, preferably at least 1,80 g/cm3,

- Flexural strength of at least 35 MPa, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 45 MPa,

- modulus of elasticity in bending of at least 7 GPA, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 8.5 HPa.

2.1. The structure of the middle part in the preparation of a laminate and the laminate

Depending on the requirements to the finished laminate in relation to thickness, weight and mechanical strength, the middle part of the laminate in the workpiece consists of 2-50, preferably 2-30 layers of textile fabrics, filled with the composition for the middle part, transferred to the B-stage and at least partially dried.

Preferably, the middle portion of the laminate in the workpiece contains at least 2 of the Central layer, preferably at least 3 of the Central layer, particularly preferably at least 6 of the Central layers, in particular at least 7 of the Central nervous system, the x layers. The upper limit for the number of Central layers is determined by the intended use or purpose. In principle, this upper limit has no limits, but for practical reasons favorable showed himself to be an upper limit to 30 of the Central layers.

The ratio of the weight of textile fabrics to the mass of the solid content in the composition for the middle part preferably lies in the range from 1:3 to 1:9, particularly preferably from 1:4.5 to 1:6.

Since the thickness of the laminate 2 mm, it is possible to further improve the mechanical stability to enter adhesive layers in the middle part of the laminate.

When selecting source materials for the middle part of the laminate to ensure that after processing the laminate as a whole have a low heat of combustion according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤3 MJ/kg

After pressing the preform laminate in the finished laminate above the middle part of the laminate is, as described above, in a modified form. Textile fabrics getintegervalue, fully or partially, i.e. fibers, forming a textile fabric, were distributed in the matrix.

2.2. Textile fabrics (Central layers)

Under textile cloths used for the middle part of a laminate or preform laminate are preferably non-woven materials from Mineralnyye, which are formed of filaments, i.e. continuous fibers or staple, or cut fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, the fibers used according to the invention the non-woven materials made of mineral fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven mineral fiber contains a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the mineral fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 8 to 15 microns.

As textile fabrics of glass fibres are preferred, in particular, non-woven materials. They are formed from filaments, i.e. infinitely long fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention a non-woven fiberglass material contains a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 10 to 21 microns.

Suitable fiberglass include fiberglass, which were obtained from A glass, glass, E glass, S glass, C glass T or glass R.

The surface is Rhasta density of textile fabrics is from 80 to 250 g/m 2preferably from 100 to 200 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without a binder. Used textile fabric reinforced with a chemical binder and usually contains 5-20 wt.% chemical binder, preferably a fully crosslinked melamine or urea binder, in particular, 7-15 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder calculated on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder.

Porosity used textile fabrics is at least 500 l/m2sec, preferably 1000-3000 l/m2sec. The porosity or air permeability of textile fabrics was measured according to DIN EN ISO 9237.

Textile fabrics can be obtained by any known method. In the case of tissue they are preferably obtained by a dry method or a wet-laying.

The above-mentioned preferred ranges for the length of the fibers, the diameter of the fibers, the surface density, binder and porosity can be easily combined independently from each other, thus each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

2.3. Composition for the middle part

Textile fabrics in the middle part in the preparation of laminates contain the following thermosetting reactive resin, fillers, far the worse additives and auxiliary substances (hereinafter referred to as a unit of composition for the middle part).

Under the proposed invention is a composition for the middle part there is a mixture of the following detailed basic substances. The mixture can be obtained by any known method of homogenization. The mass ratio of certain basic substances of the composition for the middle part is decisive as to its workability in the production process and its function in the final product, and it is given in the following table 1. The data in table 1 are indicated in weight percent based on the whole composition.

Table 1
ComponentPreferred
the range of contents
Especially preferred
the range of contents
Reactive base resin2-15%8-12%
Inorganic fillers45-80%50-75%
Water (more dilution)4-25%9-18%
Volatile adjuvants for impregnation0-15%4-10%
Remedy for water retention0-6%0.2 to 3%
Inorganic pigments0-10%
The water-repellent agent0-15%0,2-4%

The amount shown in table 1 components always gives 100%.

Listed in table 1, the preferred ranges of the respective components can be easily combined independently from each other, thus each possible combination of the respective components is definitely understood as an integral part of the present description.

Physical data that are important for further processing of the composition for the middle part (the impregnation process, obtaining the average of the laminate), described in the following table 2. Data on solid substances are given in wt.% of the total weight of the composition for the middle part.

Table 2
PhysicalThe preferred rangeEspecially preferred range
Density1.3 to 2.0 g/cm3 1.4 to 1.8 g/cm3
Solids55-80%63-75%
Viscosity100-500 MPa·s120 to 200 MPa·s

Listed in table 2, the preferred ranges for the density, viscosity and solids content can be easily combined independently from each other, thus each possible combination of ranges of density, viscosity and solids content definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

Composition for the middle part according to the invention differs in that it has a particularly low viscosity, preferably 100-500 MPa·s, particularly preferably 120 to 200 MPa·s, measured at 25°C. and a solids content of preferably 55-90 wt.%, particularly preferably 63-75 wt.%.

The low viscosity of the composition for the middle part is crucial for its application to phase the introduction of non-woven material. A particularly high content of solids is advantageous for energy-saving drying in obtaining the average of the laminate.

The above preferred ranges of the components, the physical data for the composition for the middle part and the viscosity can be easily combined independently from others who ha thus, each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

2.3.1. Reactive base resin

As a reactive base resin for the Central layers are in principle suitable all natural or synthetic thermosetting resins and mixtures. The preferred synthetic resin from the group thermoreactive stitched systems, valid combinations of several different resin systems.

As a binder are suitable, in particular, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea resins as well as mixtures thereof. Especially preferred nizkokontsentrirovannye obtained under alkaline catalysis aqueous phenolic resole and their mixtures with nitrogen-containing resins based on formaldehyde.

Used phenolic resole differ from other possible binders for its pronounced hydrophobic characteristics in dry condition. This property provides an advantageous contribution to the exceptionally high stability of the laminate according to the invention in variable climatic conditions, particularly moisture.

The molar ratio of phenol to formaldehyde in used according to the invention the resin is preferably from 1:1 to 1:2.5 and particularly preferably from 1:1.4 to 1:2. As is utilizatorul apply amines, hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. Preferably used sodium hydroxide. The concentration of catalyst is from 5 to 200 mmol per mole of phenol, preferably from 10 to 60 mmol per mole of phenol.

Used according to the invention phenolic resins are water or water-methanol system, the solids content of the resin 35-80%, preferably 45-70%. The methanol content is 0-20%, preferably 5-15%. The water content is 20-65%, preferably 25-40%. The solubility of the used resins water is from 1:0.5 to 1:4, preferably from 1:0.8 to 1:2 in mass. The viscosity of the base resin, measured on a rotational rheometer Brookfield at 25°C is 50-2000 MPa·s, preferably 100-300 MPa·S.

The above preferred ranges for the base resins can freely be combined independently of each other, thus each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

2.3.2. Fillers

As fillers fit all non-combustible inorganic fillers, and their particle size should be chosen so as to ensure the introduction of the binder system, and impregnated textile fabric. Suitable fillers are, in castnet is, mineral fillers, preferably all carbonates of alkali metals in their various natural and artificial forms, magnesium hydroxide, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, talc, titanium dioxide, all silicates of natural and synthetic origin, and mixtures thereof.

The preferred fillers are potassium carbonate of natural origin with an average particle diameter of from 1 to 100 μm, particularly preferably from 2 to 20 μm. Especially preferred powdered chalk natural origin. Due to the geometry of its particles (soft agglomerated rounded particle size of the primary crystallites 1 μm), chalk is particularly well suited for obtaining low viscosity compositions, even at high filler content. It has a very positive effect on the viscosity of the composition for the middle part, and even when the filler content >75% receive low viscosity, easily absorbable composition for the middle part, which is important for laminate according to the invention and especially the process of obtaining the average of the laminate. This is a special property of the composition for the middle part allows you to enter her in the described textile fabrics, in particular, non-woven materials at high production rates.

The above-mentioned preferred ranges for fillers can freely be combined independently researched the Simo from each other, thus, each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

2.3.3. Supplements

As environments suitable for dilution water, and miscible with water, solvents, particularly alcohols. This is beneficial when mixed with water, the solvents have a vapor pressure at 20°C higher than water.

Particularly preferred media for dilution with water and methanol.

Preferred and particularly preferred of these elements are described in table 1 in the string "Water" and "Volatile adjuvants for impregnation".

As auxiliary substances for fluid retention and impregnation of nonwoven materials suitable substances, similar to those used in paper industry to obtain a coating paints. Preferred as obtained artificially polar polymers, such as polyvinyl alcohols, and modified natural polymers based on cellulose and starch and their aqueous solutions, and bentonite. Particularly preferred aqueous solutions of low molecular weight carboxymethylcellulose. Preferred and particularly preferred contents of these substances are listed in table 1 in the line "Tool to hold the water."

As auxiliary substances DL the additional improve the moisture resistance of the middle part of the laminate can be applied to the water-repellent agent. The term repellent in the context of the present invention include all natural and artificially derived compounds, which give the final product (the middle part of the laminate) expressed apolar and hydrophobic properties. Preferably used a water-repellent agent are branched and non-branched, fluorinated and non-fluorinated long-chain parafinovogo hydrocarbons, fats, oils, waxes, silicone resin. All these compounds can be used according to the invention in their pure form, as well as a suspension or emulsion in water, as well as mixtures. Especially preferably for additional waterproofing middle part of the laminate are applied silicone resin. Preferred and particularly preferred content of these auxiliary substances are listed in the "water-repellent agent" in table 1.

To paint the middle part of the laminate can be used pigments and dyes of any kind. Staining the middle part of the laminate has the advantage that damage to the edges of the laminate due to the planned (sawing, milling) and unintentional mechanical stress (shock) less striking, and the laminate, in addition, has excellent visual characteristics. It is preferable to paint the middle part of the applied metal is oakside pigments, particularly preferably pigments based on iron oxide. Preferred and particularly preferred content of these excipients are described in table 1 in the row "Inorganic pigments".

The above-mentioned preferred ranges for the additives can freely be combined independently of each other, thus each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges definitely is understood as an integral part of the present description.

2.3.4. The impregnation method

For the introduction song for the middle part of the textile fabric can be used all known from the prior art methods. Particularly suitable impregnation of textile fabrics composition for the middle part by dipping and subsequent removal of excess composition rollers or doctor dispensers as it is known from the prior art for paper impregnation upon receipt of compressed laminated plates in a horizontal or vertical units used for impregnation. Thus, it becomes possible simple fine adjustment of the final weight of the Central layers, as well as the exact weight ratio between the textile cloths and composition for the middle part. The average composition of the laminate should be set so as to achieve adequate and uniform impregnation of the textile fabric. In addition, sootnoshenie settled between combustible and non-combustible substances in the middle of the laminate is selected to get in the final product is very low calorific value according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤3 MJ/kg

Drying textile fabrics, filled with material for the middle part, is carried out by conventional methods by controlled heat treatment. In this case, as in the process of impregnating the base paper for laminated pressed plates sewn binding only partially and thereby enters the reactive transition state, which allows you to store this intermediate product before pressing the laminate in a few months.

The accurate adjustment of the reactivity of the transition state is carried out through the measurement taken from the prior art parameters to obtain layered pressed plates: applied weight, formula, residual moisture, extrusion/current. The Central layers or middle portion of the laminate after this controlled heat treatment have a residual water content of up to 8 wt.%, preferably up to 5 wt.%. Determination of the residual water content is carried out by sampling and drying at 165°C (drying oven) until constant weight of the sample.

3. Support layer

The supporting layer is referred to as textile fabrics, which are on both sides of the middle part of the laminate (for symmetric laminates) or on one side of the middle part of the laminate (asymmetric laminates) Fig. 1, c). This layer consists of a special textile fabrics with low impregnated with resin, which are used for leveling uneven structures inside the laminate and dramatically increase the strength and mechanical properties of the laminate. For the reference layer applied binder, which can translate into a state of B-stage.

3.1. Textile fabrics (support layer of the intermediate layer)

Used textile fabrics for existing in the intermediate layer of the reference layer are preferably non-woven materials, in particular, non-woven materials made of mineral fibers, which are formed of filaments, i.e. continuous fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, the fibers used according to the invention the non-woven material made of mineral fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven mineral fiber contains a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

Textile fabrics for the reference layer, in particular, non-woven materials may also contain a mixture of organic, polymeric fibers and filaments, natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

The average diameter of the mineral fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 MK is, particularly preferably from 8 to 15 microns.

From fiberglass textile fabrics particularly preferred nonwoven materials. They are formed from filaments, i.e. the continuous fibers (endless fibers) or from a staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, of the fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention fiberglass non-woven material comprises a mixture of endless fibers and staple or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 10 to 21 microns.

Suitable fiberglass contain fiberglass, which were obtained from A glass, glass, E glass, S glass, C glass T or glass R.

Optional, textile fabric provides additional reinforcement to increase the strength and mechanical properties. Preferably, this includes strengthening strengthening of longitudinal threads or strengthening of installation, i.e. in the textile fabric are entered reinforcing threads. As a reinforcing filaments preferred glass filaments or rovings which have been introduced in the textile fabric as a bundle of parallel filaments or in the form of laying optical fibers.

The surface density of textile fabrics for the reference layer is from 140 to 60 g/m 2preferably from 200 to 300 g/m2and these figures are based on a flat product without binder phase B. Textile fabric contains 5-30 wt.% the binder phase B, preferably 15-25 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage.

The above-mentioned preferred ranges for the length of the fibers, the diameter of the fibers, the surface density and the content of the binder can be easily combined independently from each other, thus each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges or embodiments definitely understood as an integral part of the present description.

3.2. Binder phase B

Textile fabrics for the reference layers provided with a binder phase B. Textile fabric (support layer) preferably contains no incremental binding. Optional, textile fabric can contain a maximum of 5 wt.% incremental binding.

Textile fabric used for the layers in the preform laminate, preferably contains at least one binder in the state of B-stage, but in the finished laminate it finally overiden.

The surface density of textile fabrics for the reference layer is from 140 to 600 g/m2preferably the t 200 to 300 g/m 2moreover , these values are calculated on a flat product without binder phase B. Textile fabric contains 5-30 wt.% the binder phase B, preferably 15-25 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage.

Textile fabric can be obtained by any known method. If the tissue is preferably a dry method or a wet-laying.

4. The adhesive layer in the intermediate layer

The adhesive layer in the intermediate layer represent textile fabrics, which are on or under the above reference layer (Fig. 1, b). These layers consist of special textile fabrics, strongly impregnated with resin, which serves to increase adhesion between the outer layers of the laminate and the other lying within the layers. The essential function of these layers is the alignment of structural inhomogeneities inside the laminate, so that they do not penetrate to the surface of the laminate and could not degrade the surface. In addition, these layers make a significant contribution to the strength of the laminate as a whole, in the enhancement of the mechanical performance and durability of the laminate to the loads, and also serve to protect other lying inside the layers from moisture. Textile fabric adhesive layer contains a binder phase B. It is in the gathering of the laminate in the situation of the Institute B-stage, and in the finished laminate is finally utverzhdennym.

The adhesive layer due to the dynamic nature of the flow binding lamination creates gradients of the binder in the design. The upshot is improved connection of the individual layers of the laminate on its boundary surfaces and, thereby, excellent mechanical properties of the laminate.

4.1. Textile fabric (adhesive layer of the intermediate layer)

Under textile cloths used for existing in the intermediate layer of the adhesive layer are preferably in the form of nonwovens, in particular, non-woven materials made of mineral fibers, which are formed of filaments, i.e. continuous fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, the fibers used according to the invention the non-woven material made of mineral fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven mineral fiber contains a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the mineral fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 8 to 15 microns.

Textile fabrics for the adhesive layer, in particular, non-woven materials can also contain mixtures with organic and, polymeric fibers and filaments, natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

Among textile fabrics of glass fibers are particularly preferred nonwoven materials. They are formed from filaments, i.e. infinitely long fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, of the fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven fibers comprises a mixture of continuous and staple or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 10 to 21 microns.

Suitable fiberglass include fiberglass, which were obtained from A glass, glass, E glass, S glass, C glass T or glass R.

The surface density of textile fabrics for the adhesive layer is from 25 to 500 g/m2, preferably from 30 to 70 g/m2and these figures are based on a flat product without binder phase B, but available if necessary incremental binding. Textile fabric contains 40-80 wt.% the binder phase B, preferably 50-65 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage.

The above site is citicoline ranges for the length of the fibers, the diameter of the fibers, the surface density and the amount of insertion of the binder can be easily combined independently from each other, thus each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges or embodiments definitely understood as an integral part of the present description.

4.2. Binder phase B (adhesive layer)

Textile fabrics for adhesive layers provided with a binder phase B. in Addition, they preferably have a standard binder for pre-hardening to provide a flat product strength required for further processing. The content of the additional binder (plus binder) is a maximum of 35 wt.%, preferably from 7 to 27 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight only textile fabrics, without binder.

Textile fabric used for the layers in the preform laminate, preferably contains at least one binder in the state of B-stage, but in the finished laminate it finally overiden.

The surface density of textile fabrics in the adhesive layer is from 25 to 500 g/m2, preferably from 30 to 70 g/m2and these figures are calculated on a flat product without binder phase B, but available if necessary incremental binding. The text is the emotional canvas contains 40-80 wt.% the binder phase B, preferably 50-65 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage.

Preferably, the total surface density (the sum of individual textile fabrics used for the adhesive layer) textile fabrics at least 20% lower than the total surface density of textile fabrics used for the reference layer.

Textile fabric can be obtained by any known method. If the tissue is preferably a dry method or a wet-laying. Due to the better quality of the surface is the preferred method of wet-laying.

Depending on the requirements of the laminate in respect of mechanical properties, the adhesive layer consists of 1-2 styling textile fabrics on the surface of the base layer (i.e. symmetric structure of 2-4 styling).

5. The decorative layer

The outer layers (a2 in Fig. 1) are used for optimization of the surface, including surface quality and color solutions. At the same time as the outer layer (a2 in Fig. 1) can be any of the types of paper and textile fabrics (non-woven materials, fabric)impregnated natural and synthetic resins. The paper is suitable, in particular, Kraft paper, decorative paper, base paper for printing, the paper overla is, silk paper, made of cotton raw materials or paper recycling. In addition, the decorative layer may contain certain functional materials, which can include optical effects.

When selecting source materials for decorative outer layers of the laminate to ensure that they have a low heat of combustion according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤4 MJ/m2.

5.1. Decorative paper

In one preferred embodiment, is applied absorbent decorative paper. This decorative paper known in the prior art the production of layered pressed plates, it is plain or provided with a decorative print. The surface density of the decorative paper is from 25 g/m2to 140 g/m2preferably from 60 to 120 g/m2. High adsorption capacity necessary for rapid and uniform impregnation used for this binder B-stage.

5.2. Textile fabrics (decor)

In the following preferred embodiment for the decorative layer is applied textile fabric, in particular a fabric or non-woven materials.

In one preferred form of implementation of the decorative layer is a nonwoven material made of mineral or glass fibers. Nonwoven mineral is different fibers may be formed from filaments, i.e. continuous fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, the fibers used according to the invention the non-woven material made of mineral fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven mineral fiber contains a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the mineral fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 8 to 15 microns.

From fiberglass textile fabrics particularly preferred nonwoven materials. They are formed from filaments, i.e. infinitely long fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, of the fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention fiberglass non-woven materials contain a mixture of continuous fibers, staple, or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 10 to 21 microns.

Suitable fiberglass include fiberglass, which were obtained from A glass, glass, E glass, S glass, C glass T or glass R.

Textile fabrics of mineral and/or Steklovolokno is h, in particular, non-woven materials of these substances may also have a seal. The numbering of the textile fabric can be hold by known methods.

Textile fabrics for the decorative layer, in particular, non-woven materials can also contain a mixture of organic polymer fibers and filaments, natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

5.3. Binder phase B for decorative paper

As a binder phase B for decorative paper is a great binder and curing systems known from the prior art to obtain a layered pressed panels.

5.4. Binder phase B (decor) - other textile fabrics

Textile fabrics to provide a decorative layer of binder phase B. Preferably they are equipped with an additional binder, to provide the strength required for further processing flat products. The content of the additional binder (plus binder) is a maximum of 30 wt.%, preferably from 7 to 27 wt.%.

Textile fabric used for the decorative layer in the preparation of the laminate, preferably contains at least one binder in the state of B-stage, but in the finished laminate is finally utverzhdennym.

The surface density of textile fabrics for decorative layer is from 30 d is 250 g/m 2preferably from 40 to 70 g/m2and these figures are flat product without binder phase B, but with optionally available extension binder. Textile fabric contains 30-70 wt.% the binder phase B, preferably 50-60 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder.

Textile fabric can be obtained by any known method. If the tissue is preferably a dry method or a wet-laying.

5.5. Functional materials (decor)

In addition to these distinctive features, the decorative layer according to the invention can also be equipped with functional materials. For this purpose, the functional material is deposited on the upper side of the textile fabric, provided with a binder phase B, or introduced in textile fabric.

Under used according to the invention the functional material we are talking about fire resistant tools, materials for the control of electrostatic charge, the materials for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the materials to improve the strength, wear and surface roughness, in particular, organic or inorganic pigments, in particular, coloring pigments, eye-catching pigments or conductive pigments or part of the Ah.

In one embodiment, the method of incremental binding type for fixing a functional material on a textile cloths. This preferably is selected the same binder (binder phase B), what is available in textile fabrics. The content of the functional material is subsequently applied.

Under fire retardant means mean inorganic flame retardant tools, organophosphorus flame retardant tools, fire tools based on nitrogen or intumescent fire retardant means. Applicable also halogenated (brominated and chlorinated) fire retardant means, but they are less preferred due to their evaluation as dangerous. Examples of such halogenated flame retardant funds are polybrominated diphenyl ethers, for example, DecaBDE, tetrabromobisphenol A and HBCD (hexabromocyclododecane).

Under the materials for shielding electromagnetic radiation usually refers to electrically conductive materials. They can be formed in the form of films, particles, fibers or wires and/or textile fabrics of the above materials.

Thanks to the use of funds to improve or regulate the electrical conductivity can be achieved antistatic effect or to adjust the properties of the paint powder coatings. These tools usually before the represent particles, which conduct electricity. Suitable materials are electrically conductive carbon particles, such as carbon black, graphite and carbon nanotubes (C-nanotubes), conductive plastic, or fibers, or particles of metal or metal components. Along with them can also be applied conductive organic resin such as phenolic resin, or inorganic or organic salts. Such additives are already known from DE-A-3639816. In addition, you can also use salt, described in DE-A-10232874 and EP-A-1659146, in particular, salts of alkaline or alkaline earth metals such as lithium nitrate and sodium nitrate. Of course, the above materials must be compatible with other materials.

Thanks to the use of funds to improve or regulate the conductivity decreases the surface resistance of the composite material according to the invention. It turned out that the composite materials according to the invention with a surface resistance of up to 1010Ohms, preferably up to 108Om is very well suited for paint powder coatings.

To improve durability and resistance to scratches preferably applied particles of SiC and/or SiO2or similar materials. To improve the quality of the surface against abrasion and hardness typically used particle size is the Eney 1 mm, so you can achieve a very solid surface is not.

The proportion of functional materials in the decorative layer is 0-15 wt.%, preferably 1-15 wt.%, calculated on the total weight of the textile fabric.

5.6. Alternative decorative functions

In the following a preferred embodiment, the adhesive layer according to the invention can also be equipped with functional materials. This functional material is applied on the upper side provided with a binder phase B textile fabrics or injected into the textile fabric.

Under used according to the invention the functional material is, in particular, the materials for the control of electrostatic charge, but in principle applicable to the above-mentioned flame retardant tools, materials for shielding electromagnetic radiation, the material to increase the surface hardness and pigments.

In one embodiment, the method adds an extension binder for fixing a functional material on a textile cloths. This preferably is selected the same binder (binder phase B), what there is in the fabric. The content of the functional material is subsequently applied.

The introduction of functional materials in the adhesive layer can improve the properties and effects of lying outside amaratunga layer. In particular, the application of funds to improve or regulate the conductivity of the adhesive layer coating powder paint coating is carried out directly on the adhesive layer. In this case, the decorative layer is applied to the powder paint coating.

In the following a preferred embodiment, the powder paint is applied directly on the adhesive layer, and separate from the outer decorative layer partially or completely refuse. In this case, the adhesive layer partially or completely takes over the function of the decorative layer.

5.7. The protective layer

Depending on the scope of the final product outer layer may optionally provide various protective layers (Fig. 1, the layer a1). As the protective layers are suitable, in particular, as irradiated by the radiation, and thermoset system, which is described in WO97/49746. As the chemical basis for these protective layers are suitable polycondensation, polyaddition and curing system, it is preferable that the polymerization system. The presence of such additional coatings leads to particularly high-quality products, which are suitable, in particular, to the external environment, exposed to sun, wind and weather. These products are characterized by exceptional resistance to weather the effects and especially low sensitivity to moisture decorative surfaces.

When selecting source materials described for the protective layer must ensure that its heat of combustion according to ISO 1716 was low, preferably ≤4 MJ/m2on the layer, and in order for the entire laminate was obtained over a low heat of combustion according to ISO 1716, preferably ≤ 3 MJ/kg

5.8. Relaxation layer

In the following a preferred embodiment of the invention may optionally contain at least one relaxation layer, which is located on facing towards the middle of the laminate side of the decorative layer.

Under textile cloths used for relaxation layer, it is preferably of non-woven materials, in particular, non-woven materials made of mineral fibers, which are formed of filaments, i.e. continuous fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, the fibers used according to the invention the non-woven material made of mineral fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven mineral fiber contains a mixture of endless fibers and staple or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the mineral fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 8 to 1 micron.

Textile fabrics for relaxation layer, in particular, non-woven materials may also contain a mixture of organic polymer fibers and filaments, natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

Among textile fabrics of glass fibers are particularly preferred nonwoven materials. They can be formed from filaments, i.e. infinitely long fibers or staple, or cut, fibers. The average length of the staple, or cut, of the fibers is from 5 to 120 mm, preferably from 10 to 90 mm In the following embodiment of the invention nonwoven fibers comprises a mixture of endless fibers and staple or cut, fibers.

The average diameter of the fibers is from 5 to 30 μm, preferably from 8 to 24 μm, particularly preferably from 10 to 21 microns.

Suitable fiberglass include fiberglass, which were obtained from A glass, glass, E glass, S glass, C glass T or glass R.

The surface density of textile fabrics for relaxation layer is from 25 to 500 g/m2, preferably from 30 to 70 g/m2moreover , these values are calculated on a flat product with a binder. Textile fabric contains 10-50% wt.% binder, preferably 15-25 wt.%, moreover, data on the content of the binder is specified on the total weight of the textile floor is the living area with a binder.

The above-mentioned preferred ranges for the length of the fibers, the diameter of the fibers, the surface density and the amount of binding can freely be combined independently of one another, thus, each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges or embodiments definitely understood as an integral part of the present description.

Above the present invention has been described and illustrated preferred embodiments of. Preferred ranges for the above mentioned textile fabrics Central layer containing intermediate layer of the adhesive layer and the support layer, the binder phase B, average of the laminate, decorative layer, a relaxation layer and the protective layer can freely be combined independently of one another, thus, each possible combination of the respective preferred ranges or embodiments definitely understood as an integral part of the present description.

6. The way to obtain

Fire resistant laminate according to the invention is obtained by pressing the above individual layers in the above described embodiments patterns.

Pressing all the layers of the preform laminate (Fig. 1, layers a-d) can be conducted on a one-story, and, preferably, multi-media, which is known from the prior art for the floor is to be placed laminate, preferably what is known to obtain HPL (High Pressure Laminates), i.e. if at least 120°C and a pressure of at least 5 MPa. Used pressure and temperature pressing lie within the ranges commonly used for technical and decorative laminates. This is also the final curing of the binder in a state of B-stage. According to the invention, the above special properties of the laminate is achieved thanks to its layered structure and, in particular, it creates the stability of the outer layers. Monolithic structure formed after manufacturing (extrusion at high pressure and temperature, which fuses before lying one on top of the other layers are inseparably linked system), has in the outer areas of higher strength than in the middle of the laminate, and this should be understood as a gradient of mechanical properties from the outer (higher) to the inner (lower) regions. Functionally it can be compared to a steel I-beam, which gets its stability thanks to a similar special design.

In Fig. 1 additionally illustrates the behavior of the strength inside of the finished laminate. The results were obtained by comparative measurements of laminates of different structure (with and without reinforcement and support layers), they show significantly bol is E. high strength in the outer regions of the laminate. This gradient strength obtained according to the invention the laminate is a significant advantage of the invention.

After pressing, the individual layers is obtained monolithic material with gradient strength on the outside (from the side of the decorative layer) inside (from the middle part).

Further, due to this special structure prevents moisture from penetrating through the outer surface of the laminate in the middle part. The result is a plate with high resistance.

In addition, the laminates according to the invention are particularly good strength in bending, preferably at least 40 MPa, in particular at least 45 MPa, particularly preferably at least 50 MPa, particularly preferably at least 55 MPa, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003 (in transverse direction).

Additionally, the laminates according to the invention are particularly good modulus of elasticity in bending, preferably at least 8.5 HPa, particularly preferably at least 9 GPA, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003 (in transverse direction).

In addition, due to this special structure is especially high-quality, attractive surface of the laminate, which differs significantly from the surfaces, corresponding to the level of technology.

7. Application

The laminate is, obtained from the blank of laminate according to the invention, suitable for receiving surfaces for interior or exterior areas of structures.

Increasingly strict regulations aimed at the prevention of fires, significantly limits the application of flammable building materials, in particular, in the outer parts of buildings. The slow progress of harmonization of building codes require an increased security requirements. For facing of facades of buildings, the height of which exceeds the limits of high-rise building, in most countries of the prescribed non-combustible building materials. Therefore, these buildings are often elements of a facade of glass, metal or stone. Architects are increasingly demanding elements of the facade with natural surfaces, such as, for example, layered pressed plates so that you can offer an alternative. Layered pressed panels made for the cladding of buildings as ventilated facades. When this insulation is separated from the actual façade facing the air gap, which provides a continuous water abstraction in a ventilated air gap. Therefore, moisture can be easily removed from the building, the insulation remains dry and normal functioning, and preventing the formation of mold.

In the interior the indoor areas become more strict regulations for walls in hospitals, nursing homes, schools, public buildings, airports, particularly emergency exits. The goal is to ensure that in case of fire the full evacuation of the building, even if, as in the case of, for example hospitals, we have to reckon with a long time of evacuation. However, there are also trends in engineering depart from the sterile concrete and glass surfaces to natural or individual surfaces. And here layered pressed panels also offer the same freedom of design, but their Flammability up to the present time did not allow them to be used in these areas. Here comes to the aid of the present invention, giving the necessary layered pressed panels. Managed to link the desire for artistic diversity of layered pressed panels with fire properties of materials class A2. The mounting is also carried out with ventilation gaps. In particular, the reconstruction of old buildings provided the necessary from the point of view of biology building ventilation stone walls. In addition, this type of installation allows you to simply align heterogeneity and makes possible the installation of durable, do not require special care and hygienic lining the walls.

Examples

The invention is substantiated by the following examples, which, however, is not limited to them.

Example 1: Decorative plate Thermopal flameprotect compact (the product of the company Thermopal GmbH), laboratory development, solid white, 6.50 mm (comparative example)

Bilateral non-combustible decorative plate, intended for internal use. The structure of the middle part of the optically homogeneous, bright.

Example 2: Base plate without a hydrophobization and without decoration

Structure: 8 layers (the middle part).

8 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (0% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10,5, inactive ingredients: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol)

Example 3: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength for internal use

Structure: symmetrical structure, 8 the Central layers (8d), respectively on each side of the one support layer (c), one adhesive layer (b) and one decorative layer (a2); total structure a2, b, c, 8d, c, b, a2.

Impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 90 g/m2, adhesive non-woven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the obreteniyu, 8 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (0% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10,5, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 90 g/m2.

Example 4: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength, for external use

Structure: symmetrical structure, 8 the Central layers (8d), respectively, one adhesive layer (b), one supporting layer (c), one decorative layer (a2) and one protective layer (a1); total structure a1, a2, b, c, 8d, c, b, a2, a1.

Stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate coating, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin textured decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2, adhesive non-woven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, 8 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention impregnated comp is the position for the middle part according to the invention (0% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10,5, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate floor.

Example 5: a Base plate with a hydrophobization without decoration

Structure: 8d layers.

8 Central layer of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (2% of water-repellent based on polysiloxane, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler = 1:10, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol)

Example 6: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength, for external use, vysokochastotnaya

Structure: symmetrical structure, 8 the Central layers (8d), with each side one adhesive layer (b), one supporting layer (c), one decorative layer (a2) and one protective layer (a1); summary of the structure a1, a2, b, c, 8d, c, b, a2, a1.

Stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate coating, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin textured decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2, adhesive non-woven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, 8 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (2% of water-repellent based on polysiloxane, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate floor.

Example 7: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength, for external use, vysokochastotnaya, including relaxation of non-woven material

Structure: symmetrical structure 11 of the Central layer (11d), with each side one adhesive layer (b), one supporting layer (c), gnome relaxation of non-woven material (e), one decorative layer (a2) and one protective layer (a1); total structure a1, a2, e, b, c, 11d, c, b, e, a2, a1.

Stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate coating, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin textured decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2relaxation of non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, 11 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (2% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, the relaxation of non-woven material according to the invention, the impregnated melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate floor

Example 8: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength, for external use, vysokochastotnaya

With ructure: symmetric structure, 11 Central layer (11d), on each side of the one support layer (c), one adhesive layer (b), one relaxation nonwoven material (e), one decorative layer (a2) and one protective layer (a1); total structure a1, a2, e, c, b, 11d, b, c, e, a2, a1.

Stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate coating, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin textured decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2relaxation of non-woven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, 11 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (2% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, the relaxation of non-woven material according to the invention, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate floor

Example 9: two-sided decorative plate according to the invention with a gradient strength, for external use, vysokochastotnaya containing relaxation nonwoven material

Structure: symmetrical structure, 7 Central layers (7d), with each side one adhesive layer (b), one supporting layer (c), one relaxation nonwoven material (e), one decorative layer (a2) and one protective layer (a1); total structure a1,a2,e,b,c,7d,c,b,e,a2,a1

Stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate coating, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin textured decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2relaxation of non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, the reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, 7 Central layers of textile fabrics according to the invention, the impregnated composition for the middle part according to the invention (2% of water-repellent, filler: CaCO3binding agent: phenol-formaldehyde resin, the ratio of solids resin:filler=1:10, excipient: carboxymethylcellulose, agent, facilitating the impregnation of: water, methanol), reinforcing non-woven material according to the invention, the adhesive nonwoven material according to the invention, the relaxation nonwoven mother is l according to the invention, impregnated with melamine-formaldehyde resin solid decorative paper weighing 80 g/m2stable to weathering polyurethanacrylate floor

Table 3 contains the results of test examples.

Special attention in the interpretation of test results should be given, on the one hand, a particularly high values of mechanical strength, as well as the results by keeping in water and results in climatic resistance of the laminates according to the invention.

Corresponding to the invention of example 4 is superior to a commercially available product (example 1) in terms of strength when bending at 56% and the modulus of elasticity in bending by 25%. Increasing the thickness of the product and increase the thickness of the edges is comparable. Resistance to boiling water for example 4 is also good, with the example 1 can not withstand this test without the formation of bubbles on the decorative side. Example 4 due to its polyurethanecoated coatings (PUA Coatings) markedly exceeds that of example 1 in terms of stability to climatic influences.

Following the improvement in moisture resistance, and stability in variable climatic conditions is example 6. Change the thickness or the thickness of the edges under the action of water, 80, respectively, 60% lower than in comparative example 1. The strength of the UD bending for example 4 after a quick change of climate is superior to example 1 by 75%.

In comparison with example 6 example 7 shows no negative influence of the relaxation of non-woven material on the characteristics of water resistance, heat of combustion or strength properties.

In addition, it should be emphasized that changing the order of the adhesive non-woven material (b) and reinforcing non-woven fabric (c) does not detect a significant difference in the stiffness characteristics (compare examples 7 and 8).

In example 9 was presented to the lower border of the Central layers, even to achieve fire safety. At smaller thicknesses external reference layers should bear a higher load, so they can also increase strength properties.

ExampleDimensional stability at elevated temperature EN 438-2-13, aggregate size change, %Bending strength in the transverse direction,
EN ISO 178:2003, load [MPa]
The modulus of elasticity in bending in the transverse direction
EN ISO 178:2003,
load [HPa]
Bending strength in the transverse direction after rapid climate change
EN ISO 18:2003,
load [MPa]
The modulus of elasticity in bending in the transverse direction after rapid climate change
EN ISO 178:2003,
load [HPa]
Resistance to scratching
EN 438-2-25
Force [deg]
Test the resistance according to DIN ISO 4892-1, satin, installation cycles according to EN 438-2-29, the duration of exposure in hours, grayscaleDensity
EN ISO 1183-1$2004
[g/cm3]
alongacross
10,250,2335,88,024,04,8461000 h <42,02
2--37,07,427,05,2---1,87
30,25 0,3555,011,0--34-1,99
4--56,010,038,15,2463000 h, >41,91
5--38,27,632,3of 5.4---1,92
6--51,09,042,1of 5.4--3000 h, >41,91
7-- 53,09,0----3000 h, >4-
8--50,08,0------
9--62,011,0------

1. Laminate, characterized in that it contains:
A) located symmetrically or asymmetrically middle part of the matrix that contains
- 3-17 wt.% the organic binder resin,
- 45-85% wt.% inorganic fillers,
- 10-25% wt.% inorganic and/or organic fibers,
moreover, the total amount of organic binder resin, inorganic fillers and fibers is 100%, and the middle portion of the laminate has a multilayer structure, but C is trannie layers after the final manufacturing of the product are inseparably connected and up - and underlying functional layers, in addition, have
- density of at least 1.70 g/cm3measured according to EN ISO 1183-1:2004, preferably at least 1,80 g/cm3,
- Flexural strength of at least 35 MPa, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 45 MPa,
- modulus of elasticity in bending of at least 7 GPA, measured according to EN ISO 178:2003, preferably at least 8.5 HPa,
B) at least one intermediate layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate containing
(i) at least one support layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate, and the support layer includes
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric that has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 5-30 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(ii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer and the adhesive layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, which are permanently content of the cured binder phase B 40-80 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
or
(iii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate and the adhesive layer
- contains at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric that has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 40-80 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(iv) at least one support layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer and the supporting layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric that has the contents of the finally cured binder phase B 5-30 wt.%, moreover, these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
C) at least one decorative layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the intermediate layer and the decorative layer may be made of a multilayer,
D) optionally, at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer, and
E) optionally, at least one relaxation layer, which is arranged is turned on to the middle part of the laminate side of the decorative layer.

2. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that it has a calorific value of ≤3 MJ/kg according to ISO 1716.

3. Laminate under item 1 or 2, characterized in that there is at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer.

4. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that under the textile fabric in the support layer and the adhesive layer refers to the structure of the fiber, which is processed by the forming technology of flat products flat textile product, preferably under a textile it comes to fabric, the styling, the Jersey knit stitch, knitting machine knitted and/or non-woven materials, in particular non-woven materials.

5. Laminate under item 4, characterized in that under the fibers are in the form of ceramic fiber, mineral fiber, glass fiber, or a mixture thereof, preferably in a mixture with the polymer fibers and filaments, as well as natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

6. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the final utverjdenie binder phase B in the support layer and the adhesive layer is a binder resin of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea-formaldehyde resins and mixtures thereof.

7. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the middle portion of the laminate has a mass which rises the ratio of fibers to mineral fillers from 1:3 to 1:9, preferably from 1:4.5 to 1:6.

8. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the textile fabric in the reference layer has a surface density of from 140 to 600 g/m2preferably from 200 to 300 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without binder.

9. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the textile fabric in the adhesive layer has a surface density of from 25 to 500 g/m2, preferably from 30 to 70 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without binder.

10. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the total surface density (the sum of all individual textile fabrics) of textile fabrics used for the adhesive layer, at least 20% less than the total surface density of textile fabrics used for the reference layer.

11. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the decorative layer is a decorative paper weighing from 25 to 140 g/m2or textile fabric, preferably cloth or non-woven material, in particular, on the basis of mineral and/or glass fibers.

12. Laminate under item 10, characterized in that the decorative layer is a textile fabric with a surface density of 30 to 250 g/m2preferably from 40 to 70 g/m2.

13. Laminate under item 12, characterized in that the textile fabric decorative layer contain what it finally utverjdenie binder phase B.

14. Laminate under item 1, characterized in that the middle part of the laminate contains at least 2 of the Central layer, preferably at least 3 of the Central layer, particularly preferably at least 6 of the Central layers, in particular at least 7 of the Central layers.

15. Preparation of a laminate, characterized in that it contains
A) located symmetrically or asymmetrically middle part, which
- contains at least two layers, preferably at least three layers with a mineral filler textile fabrics and textile fabric reinforced binder content of 5-20 wt.%, moreover, these data are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder, and
- soaked from 60 to 90 wt.% compositions for the middle part, containing:
(i) from 1 to 20 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 15 wt.%, in particular, from 8 to 12 wt.%, thermosetting natural and/or synthetic resin,
(ii) from 40 to 90 wt.%, preferably from 45 to 80 wt.%, in particular, from 50 to 75 wt.%, inorganic fillers,
(iii) from 1 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 4 to 25 wt.%, in particular, from 9 to 18 wt.% water for dilution,
and received by the Central layers are dried to a residual water content of up to 8 wt.%, preferably up to 5 wt.%, and the resin was transferred into a reactive state of B-stage,
B) at least one ex who CNY layer, which is applied on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate containing
(i) at least one support layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate, and the support layer
- contains at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, each with a content of the binder phase B 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(ii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer and the adhesive layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
or
(iii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate and the adhesive layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these data expect the us to the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(iv) at least one support layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer and the supporting layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, each with a content of the binder phase B 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
C) at least one decorative layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the intermediate layer and the decorative layer may be made of a multilayer,
D) optionally, at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer,
E) optionally, at least one relaxation layer which is facing towards the middle of the laminate side of the decorative layer.

16. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that it has a calorific value of ≤3 MJ/kg according to ISO 1716.

17. Preparation of laminate under item 15 or 16, characterized in that it contains at least one protective layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer.

18. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the composition for the middle part has a viscosity 100-50 MPa·s, preferably 120 to 200 MPa·s, measured at 25°C. and the solids content of 55-90 wt.%, preferably 63-75 wt.%.

19. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that under the textile paintings in the middle of the laminate, the support layer and the adhesive layer refers to the structure of the fiber, which is a technology of forming flat products processed in a flat textile product, preferably under a textile it comes to fabric, the styling, the Jersey knit stitch, knitting machine knitted and/or non-woven materials, in particular non-woven materials.

20. Preparation of laminate under item 19, characterized in that the fibers are ceramic fibers, mineral fibers, glass fibers, or their mixture, preferably also in a mixture with the polymer fibers and filaments, as well as with natural fibers and/or carbon fibers.

21. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the binder phase B in the support layer and the adhesive layer is in the state of B-stage, preferably it is about the binder resin of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, urea resins and their mixtures.

22. Preparation of a laminate according to item 15 , wherein the middle portion of the laminate contains at least 2 of the Central layer, preferably m is Nisha least 3 of the Central layer, particularly preferably at least 6 of the Central layers, in particular at least 7 of the Central layers.

23. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the textile fabric in the middle of the laminate has a surface density of from 80 to 250 g/m2preferably from 100 to 200 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without binder.

24. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the textile fabric in the middle of the laminate has a porosity of at least 500 l/m2sec, preferably 1000-3000 l/m2sec.

25. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the textile fabric in the reference layer has a surface density of from 140 to 600 g/m2preferably from 200 to 300 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without binder.

26. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the textile fabric in the adhesive layer has a surface density of from 25 to 500 g/m2, preferably from 30 to 70 g/m2and these figures are based on the canvas without binder.

27. Preparation of laminate under item 15, characterized in that the total surface density (the sum of all individual textile fabrics) of textile fabrics used in the adhesive layer, at least 20% less than the total surface density of textile fabrics used for TNA the aqueous layer.

28. Preparation of laminate under item 15, wherein the decorative layer is a decorative paper weighing from 25 to 140 g/m2or textile fabric, preferably cloth or non-woven material, in particular, on the basis of mineral and/or glass fibers.

29. Preparation of laminate on p. 28, characterized in that the decorative layer is a textile fabric with a surface density of 30 to 250 g/m2preferably from 40 to 70 g/m2.

30. Preparation of laminate on p. 29, characterized in that the textile fabric decorative layer contains a binder in a state of B-stage.

31. A method of producing a laminate defined in the PP. 1-14, comprising stages:
A) education or supply located symmetrically or asymmetrically middle part, which
- contains at least two layers, preferably at least three layers, particularly preferably at least 6 layers, in particular at least 7 layers filled with minerals textile fabrics and textile fabric reinforced binder content of 5-20 wt.%, moreover, these data are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder, and
- soaked in 60-90 wt.% compositions for the middle part, containing:
(i) from 1 to 20 wt.%, preferably from 2 to 15 wt.%, in particular, from 8 to 12 wt.%, termorio the effective natural and/or synthetic resin,
(ii) from 40 to 90 wt.%, preferably from 45 to 80 wt.%, in particular, from 50 to 75 wt.%, inorganic fillers,
(iii) from 1 to 30 wt.%, preferably from 4 to 25 wt.%, in particular, from 9 to 18 wt.%, water for dilution,
and received by the Central layers are dried to a residual water content of up to 8 wt.%, preferably up to 5 wt.%, and the resin was transferred into a reactive state of B-stage,
B) feeding at least one intermediate layer, which is caused by at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate containing
(i) at least one support layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate, and the support layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, and each has the content of the binder phase B 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(ii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the support layer and the adhesive layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on full the th weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
or
(iii) at least one adhesive layer, which is deposited on at least one of two surfaces of the middle part of the laminate and the adhesive layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabric, having a content of the binder phase B 40-80 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage, and
(iv) at least one support layer, which is deposited on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer and the supporting layer contains
at least one layer, preferably at least two layers of textile fabrics, each having a content of the binder phase B 5-30 wt.% in the state of B-stage, and these figures are based on the total weight of the textile fabric with a binder after his transfer to the state of B-stage,
C) if necessary, filing or application of at least one relaxation layer facing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer,
(D) filing or applying at least one decorative layer, which is applied on pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the adhesive layer or available when needed relaxation layer and the decorative layer may be made of a multilayer,
E) laminating Viseu azannyh layers under the action of pressure and temperature.

32. The method according to p. 31, characterized in that before step D) pointing away from the center of the laminate surface of the decorative layer is applied at least one protective layer.

33. The application of the laminate defined in the PP. 1-14, to obtain surfaces or surfaces for interior or exterior areas of structures.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of manufacturing decorative paper, and also to the decorative paper. The method of manufacturing the decorative paper comprises printing decoration on paper; applying aliphatic, polycarbonate-containing, anionic polyurethane dispersion, and after applying aliphatic, polycarbonate-containing, anionic polyurethane dispersion on paper the resin is applied with sealing. The decorative paper comprises at least one core, a printed layer and the aliphatic, polycarbonate-containing, anionic polyurethane dispersion entered into the core, at that the paper is saturated with amino-plastic resins.

EFFECT: creation of decorative paper, which would have increased light-proofness and could be profitably manufactured.

13 cl, 2 dwg, 8 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for panel fixation, providing for fixation of the panel on a support with two fastening grooves at the opposite sides, which during installation of the panel are located oppositely to the device of panel fixation, comprising two primary ledges, which are adapted to cover two lateral opposite sides of the support; at the same time each primary ledge comprises a secondary ledge transversely directed inside, capable of being installed into one of appropriate grooves of the support or being located behind it. One or several such elements as the panel, primary or secondary ledges, are flexible or resilient, therefore secondary ledges under action of the bending force may be elastically removed or stretched from opposite lateral sides of the support, and upon termination of the bending force action, are able to engage with the appropriate groove.

EFFECT: improved reliability.

15 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building board with main part with porous surface and paper web applied thereon. Building board with main part 10 with porous surface and paper web 14 applied thereon above mid layer of cured binder 36. Note here that said binder penetrates in said paper web. Note also that said paper web 14 comprises primer layer 34 coating aforesaid binder penetrating through web 14 to adhere paper web to coloring fluid 38. Said fluid may be applied with the help of programmed printing process, in particular, jet printing, on paper web surface located above said main part 10 and provided with primer layer 34.

EFFECT: building board with pattern made thereon, lower costs.

6 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative paper using powders of aminoplast resins and/or phenol plastic resins and/or mixes thereof, of their mixes with additives. Proposed method comprises producing the composition for processing and applying it on substrate. Note here that processing composition represents a dry powder mix containing one polymer resin powder and/or mix of powders that can interact to form one polymer resin. Note also that said composition comprises additional heating either before or after application on the substrate to melt partially the polymer resin and/or melt and to subject said reagents to polymerisation/cross-linking. Note also that proposed method differs in that said composition represents a dry solid composition, Note that said polymer resin represents one or more amine and/or phenol resin or mix thereof.

EFFECT: perfected process.

16 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Making the multiple first layers (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d) of impregnated cellulose fibres. Making the multiple second layers (2a, 2b, 2c, 2d) of impregnated cellulose fibres. Making the wood chipboard (3). Making the set (4) of layers with top facing layer (4a) including first layers (1a, 1b, 1c. 1d) of cellulose fibres with central board (4b) abutting on top facing layer (4a) by its top surface (4b.1) including chipboard (3) and bottom facing layer (4c) abutting on bottom surface (4b.2) of central boars (4b) including second layers (2a, 2b, 2c, 2d) of cellulose fibres. Note here that top facing layer (4a) and/or bottom facing layer (4c) is made so that after escaping out of hot press (5) it features thickness of at least 2 mm. Displacement of said set (4) of layer in hot press (5). Pressing of said set (4) of layer in hot press (5) at increased pressing force and temperature for making multilayer board (6) and discharging said board (6) from hot press (5).

EFFECT: lower products costs.

18 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of decorative articles using amber and amber production wastes as filler and may be used for making decorative construction boards. Proposed method comprises preparation of filler, binder and mould, filling said binder in mould, curing it, extracting the article and drying to condition. Note here that article is cured at pressure to complete hardening. Note also that filler is the first to be filled in said mould, then binder is poured therein. Note that in pouring the binder absolute pressure is kept in said mould not exceeding 30 kPa. Note that pouring is carried out from below while, after pouring, absoluter pressure of up to 100-300 kPa is created to complete hardening. Note that pressure feed moment is selected to make binder viscosity be increased by not over 30% at said moment. After extraction, the articled is sliced into thin plates.

EFFECT: reduced labor input.

4 cl, 4 ex, 4 tbl

Decorative element // 2474479

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to surface decoration, particularly, to set for surface decoration, to painted coat and method of surface decoration. Proposed set comprises PVC-based surface coating to be painted covered by protective varnish based of polyurethane polymer cross-linked by UV radiation, and encased acrylo-urethane paint.

EFFECT: simple process, better spraying capacity and strength, wide range of colours and ornamental patters.

15 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to decorative laminated board and to method of its production. Method comprises the following stages. Preparing the board of fibrous or chip material, coating the board on, at least, one side with liquid glue hardened by pressure and/or heat. Building up of decorative layer not impregnated with resin on glue layer. Applying thermoplastic or liquid cover material o decorative layer. Pressing and heating laminar structure thus made to form surface structure of cover layer.

EFFECT: simple and efficiency process.

6 cl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and device for refining particle board. Method of refining particle board 2 with decorative finish on one of its sides comprises the following steps. (a) Cleaning particle board top and bottom surfaces. (b) Applying first top layer of pitch containing corundum particles on top surface and first bottom layer of pitch on bottom surface. (c) Drying top and bottom first layers of pitch to residual moisture of 3% to 6%. (d) Applying second top layer of pitch containing cellulose on top surface and second bottom layer of pitch on bottom surface. (e) Drying top and bottom second layers of pitch to residual moisture of 3% to 6%. (f) Applying third top layer of pitch containing glass particles on top surface and third bottom layer of pitch on bottom surface. (g) Drying third said layers to residual moisture content of 3%-6%, and (h) compacting layered structure at pressure and temperature.

EFFECT: perfected procedure.

14 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of floor boards. Proposed method comprises the following stages: making large-size rectangular board (1, 2, 3, 4) with tope side having, at least, set of long panel decors (D1.1, D1.2, D1.3, D1.4; D2.1, D2.2, D2.3, D2.4, D2.5, D2.6; D3.1, D3.2, D3.3, D3.4, D3.5, D3.6; D4.1, D4.2, D4.3, D4.4, D4.5, D4.6). Note here that every said decor has its direction and extends parallel with one board edge while kevery set has, in the first extreme area perpendicular to decor direction and along one board edge, one straight segment of panel decor (http://Al.ll11, A1.31; A2.32, A2.42; A3.12, A3.22; A4.12, A4.32, A4.52) to be combined with second segment of panel decor (A1.22, A1.42; A2.51, A2.61; A3.32, A3.42, A3.52, A3.62, A3.51, A3.61; A4.22, A4.62) in the same first extreme area and/of in opposite extreme area of this set of panel decors located opposite the first segment of panel decor perpendicular to direction of shifted panel decor (D1.2, D1.4; D2.5, D2.6; D3.3, D3.4, D3.5, D3.6; D4.2, D4.4, D4.6); dividing large-size board (1, 2, 3, 4) into separate panels with one of said panel decors (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4; 2.3, 2.4, 2.5, 2.6; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4; 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6); shaping lengthwise and crosswise edges of appropriate panels and making inclined surfaces by scarfing lengthwise edges on decorated side of finished panel and second transverse edge not intended for making continuous decor.

EFFECT: higher quality.

20 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to laminar materials, particularly, to rigid plate minerals. Laminar material cover layer comprises plate-like monocrystalline aluminium oxide particles with crystalline lattice of corundum.

EFFECT: higher resistance to scoring and abrasion.

13 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: polyester fabric with thickness of 0.13-0.3 mm and surface density of 80-300 g/m2 is first saturated with silicone emulsion to post-drying weight increase of 3.0-8.5 wt %, and then with aqueous solution of a mixture of polyphosphoric acids and urea with ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus of 1.0:1.56-1.80 to post-drying weight increase of 12.0-21.5 wt %. The modified fabric is coated with a double-sided coating based on a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) composition which contains antipyrenes with the ratio of layers of the saturated fabric to the double-sided PVC coating of 1.0:1.14-2.28, with ratio of layers of the finished material by weight - saturated fabric: front coating: back coating of 1.0:0.595-1.7:0,27-0.886, respectively, and with ratio of layers by thickness of 1.0:0.39-2.1:0.3-1.17, respectively.

EFFECT: producing fire-resistant materials, having a given set of physical and mechanical properties according to functional purposes.

6 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to composites. Proposed prepreg comprises components A, B and C, component A being located at one or both surfaces of the ply containing components B and C. Component A is a nonwoven material including thermoplastic elastomer and/or polyolefin with tan δ equal to 0.06 or larger at 10°C measured at measurement of viscoplasticity and is incompatible with component B being the first composition of epoxy resin and C making a reinforcing fiber. Proposed method of prepreg making comprises impregnation of component C with component B to produce prepreg precursor and bonding component A with prepreg precursor.

EFFECT: high stiffness, strength and damping properties.

22 cl, 15 dwg, 33 tbl, 103 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to building materials and can be used for reduction of sound level and increase of heat insulation in residual, public and industrial buildings, mainly in constructions of floors and walls. Material contains granules, connected to each other with glue, with formation of porous structure.

EFFECT: application of claimed material results in increase of its vibroinsulating, sound-insulating and heat-insulating properties.

9 cl

FIELD: textiles, paper.

SUBSTANCE: product comprises at least one textile material made of fibers/filaments, in particular in the form of filaments having partially inner pouncing of the impregnating material. The pattern penetrates at least partially the cross-section of the said first textile material, forming the impregnated areas and unimpregnated areas in accordance with the pouncing. The unimpregnated areas are air-permeable and can comprise a functional coating.

EFFECT: product is air-permeable and permeable to water vapor and has a reduced water absorption, upon its production the time of redrying is reduced, in one version the product exhibits additional improved fire-resistance.

22 cl, 15 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a thermosetting resin-based polymer composite material and fibre-filled material based thereon. The polymer composite material contains thermosetting resol phenol-formaldehyde resin and additionally thermosetting epoxy resin and a thermosetting polyester resin in the following ratio, wt %: thermosetting resol phenol-formaldehyde resin 48-83; thermosetting epoxy resin 3-13; thermosetting polyester resin 14-39. The fibre-filled material contains a thermosetting resin-based polymer composite material and fibre. The fibre used is polyacrylonitrile fibre or glass fibre in the following ratio, pts.wt: thermosetting resin-based polymer composite material 3.2-5.2; fibre 1.0.

EFFECT: avoiding use of expensive and toxic curing agents, low toxicity of the obtained material and production thereof, low cost of the obtained material and high impact resistance thereof.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an adhesive composition for gluing lignocellulose materials. The adhesive composition contains a cross-linking agent, a non-carbamide diluent which is contained in an amount ranging from about 0.01 wt % to about 75 wt % with respect to the total wet mass of the composition, as well as an aqueous mixture of a protein source. The cross-linking agent essentially does not contain formaldehyde and can be selected from a group comprising polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin resins, polyamine-epichlorohydrin resins, isocyanate, epoxide, aldehyde starches containing aldehyde functional groups, aldehyde, aldehyde functional resins as cross-linking agents selected from a group comprising glyoxal-based cross-linking agents and glyoxalated polyacrylamides and mixtures thereof. The non-carbamide diluent is at least one compound selected from a group comprising diethylene glycol, propylene glycol, 2-methoxyethanol, glycerol, glycerol derivative, ethylene carbonate, propylene carbonate, methylpyrrolidone, low-molecular polyethylene glycol, methoxypolyethylene glycol, saccharose, lactose, sorbitol, maltodextrin, cyclodextrin, carbohydrate, corn syrup, hydrolysed polysaccharide, sodium sulphate, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, alum, bentonite, aluminosilicate, alkali metal aluminosilicate, water-soluble organic compound, formamide, acetamide, N-methylpyrrolidone, vegetable oil, silicone oil and mineral oil. To prepare a lignocellulose composite, the adhesive composition is applied onto a lignocellulose substrate, followed by curing the adhesive composition and obtaining a lignocellulose composite.

EFFECT: adhesive composition has low viscosity while maintaining good adhesive properties.

16 cl, 5 tbl, 41 ex

Laminar material // 2480339

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multilayer article. Proposed material comprises: at least, one metal plate and, at least, one composite to adhere to one surface of said metal plate. Composite comprises reinforcing material composed of woven or nonwoven material located on metal plate surface and resin compound for bonding reinforcing material with metal plate on hardening said resin compound. Reinforcing material may represent: nylon fiber, polyester fiber, nylon/polyester multicomponent fiber, nylon/viscose multicomponent rayon, polyester/viscose multicomponent rayon, armamide rayon, carbon fiber, glass finer and metal fiber, or mixes thereof. Resin may represent: epoxy resin, resin modified by butadiene and acrylonitrile copolymer with end carboxyl groups (CTBN/urethane/epoxy polyurethane, acryl and unsaturated polyester, or mixes thereof.

EFFECT: decreased weight.

6 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: manufacturing process.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacture of flexible multilayer packaging materials for food products, particularly to multilayer material comprising layers of aluminuim foil and fat- and water-proof paper. The multilayer packaging material comprises as an adhesive for joining layers of aluminuim foil and fat- and water-proof paper an adhesive composition based on an aqueous dispersion of a copolymer of acrylic acid ester and styrene. The composition also includes a coalescent additive - isomeric mixture of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentadiol-monoisobutyran, antiseptic - a composition of tri-n-butyltin naphthenate with nitrogen organic compound, antifoam based on mineral oil, a thickening agent - sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose and distilled water.

EFFECT: increased adhesive bond strength of multilayer packaging material, the material resistance to multiple excesses, produceability.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: membrane is a continuous belt made from a mixture of an ion-exchange polymer and hydrophobic thermoplastic polymer binder, on which a textile net based on polypropylene, polyether or polyamide is layered on one or two sides. The method of making the membrane involves extrusion of a film and subsequently moving said film, together with the reinforced textile net and protective separation layers lying on both sides of the sandwich, between two heated and mutually pressed cylinders revolving at the same speed on a circle. The ion-exchange membrane then undergoes natural or forced cooling at the output of the cylinders.

EFFECT: obtaining a heterogeneous ion-exchange membrane which is virtually unbounded in the plane and design of an efficient method and device for making said membrane.

14 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: raised binder is composed by at least two webs and comprises concentric discrete bulged long elements surround by flat surfaces formed in every said web. Said discrete bulged long elements have exposed proximal ends. Note here that said discrete bulged long elements feature thickness smaller than that of flat sections. Proposed method comprises feed of at least two webs between pressure source and forming structure. Said structure comprises multiple discrete forming elements selected from the group including discrete holes, discrete recesses, discrete ledges and combination thereof. Then, pressure is applied from pressure source to webs and forming structure to press tightly said two webs to said discrete forming elements of said forming structure so that raised joint is formed.

EFFECT: efficient adhesion of webs, decreased noise in their detachment.

33 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl

Up!