Method of producing structured organomineral binder
SUBSTANCE: method of producing structured organomineral binder includes at least one-time cavitational dispersion of a mixture of peat and water in ratio of 1:4-1:4.5, respectively. Dispersion is carried out until the mixture reaches temperature of 80-90°C, followed by cooling the mixture to room temperature to obtain the end product.
EFFECT: preserving binding properties of the product for a long period of time during storage.
The invention relates to environmentally sound technologies for binder from raw materials of natural origin, namely from peat, and may be used in the briquetting materials, in particular for the production of fuel and technological briquettes from various fine materials of natural and artificial origin.
Binder (adhesive) properties of peat caused by the presence of humic substances. For the manufacture of peat technology products with astringent properties, a mixture of peat and water is subjected to various treatments to activate the action of humic substances. Mostly knitting receive the manufacturing of briquettes, which can be explained, apparently, by the fact that peat binder is not subject to storage and transportation.
Known, for example, a method of obtaining a binder, which is part of the method of manufacturing fuel briquettes (Patent RF №2195401, publ. 2002) . To obtain a binder peat, shredded, grated, crushed in a wet environment, boil and turn into a homogeneous mass of a particle size of from 0.01 to 10 μm. To obtain the combustion of the briquettes in the weight of the binder is injected filler in the ratio by weight of 1:0.01 to 1:20, stirred at operational humidity from 3 to 97% and placed in a rigid mould, where it is subjected to controlled dynamics is a mini-loads with a certain frequency and force of the blows. Judging by the size of the particles obtained peat mass, the structure of the peat in the process does not change that it is not possible to talk about the high binding properties of the obtained binder.
A known method of manufacturing a binder, which is part of the way briquetting peat coke (SU # 30674, publ. 1933) . Binder is prepared by processing a mixture of peat with water in a water colloid mill, resulting in a gain of peat emulsion, humidity which does not allow to use it as a binder for briquetting coke. The emulsion is subjected to dehydration to a certain percentage of moisture. The need for removing excess moisture from the peat emulsion requires special equipment, as well as time and labor costs.
A method of obtaining a binder in the form of 2-9% aqueous slurry of peat (SU # 1715829, publ. 1992) . The method is used in the manufacturing process of briquetted fuel. Waste peat any size load in laboratory stock roll, add hot water, and mix to obtain a homogeneous mass. Obtained peat suspension is mixed with ground wood waste (sawdust or chips of size up to 15 mm) at 25±5°C for 3-5 min before the formation of a homogeneous mass, which is then formed into briquettes at the 0.04±0.01 MPa and 25±5C and dried at 100-130°C. Massin ro the l represents Chan, inside which rotates a cylinder supplied with steel knives. This apparatus is characterized by high energy consumption lack of effective grinding mass.
A method of obtaining the binder used in the process of manufacturing fuel briquettes (RU # 2413755, publ. 2011) . Binder obtained from podocarpaceae mixture, which is at least once passed through disperser (cavitator) when the pressure drop across the dispersant 0.1·105 to 25·105 PA. As indicated in the description of this patent, the percentage of peat and water can be various depending on the design of the dispersant and drive power dispersant, although as described, the optimum ratio of solid peat and water is 1:2,6 respectively, in which the binder has the consistency of thin cream. Passing through the dispersant mixture is subjected to the cavitation treatment (high pressure thousands of atmospheres. The treated mixture is mixed with carbonaceous material and bitteroot by known methods. As the carbonaceous material can be used peat, sawdust, coal, all kinds of waste (in particular, litter) and their mixtures. In the example of the description of the patent  as such a material provides the peat.
The use of cavitation impeller for efficient grinding t is erday phase and mixing it with the liquid phase to obtaining a quality homogeneous mass is known. The principle of operation of such devices is based on the phenomenon of cavitation, which represents education of a liquid gas-filled cavities, or cavities, in the "collapse" are experiencing a shock wave, resulting in the destruction of solids and emulsified liquid. This process occurs due to the differential pressure generated in the apparatus. It should be noted that the conditions for the creation of cavitation different. In the description of the method  write about the pressures of thousands of atmospheres and high, several thousand degrees, the temperature. These data cast doubt on the possibility of realization of this method, since at temperatures above 100 the water begins to evaporate, and the peat - burning.
Thus, known methods for producing binder of peat are characterized by multi-stage, the need for additional special equipment, energy, and continuity with the subsequent briquetting process, excluding the application of the obtained binder for various technological processes.
The present invention is the obtaining of a binder, as the finished product, allowing you to use it for various technological processes while simplifying the production technology. The problem is solved in that a method of obtaining a structured organic binder including the em at least once cavitation dispersion of a mixture of peat and water, in this case, the dispersion is subjected to the mixture at the ratio of peat to water of 1:4-1:4,5, the dispersion mixture is conducted to a temperature of 80-90°C, the mixture was cooled to room temperature.
The stated ratio of peat and water in the range of 1:4-1:4,5 contributes to expiration of peat mixture in the dispersant, which provides fast heat it. The process of dispersion peat mixture, carried out in cavitation apparatus to a temperature of from 80 to 90°C, and cooling the mixture to room temperature yields a binder, which represents a colloidal system with a particle size of 2×10-4-2×10-6. Visually it is a jelly-like "pasta shell, which when cooled to room temperature is a structured organic ready-to-use product. Between the pasta and the vessel wall visually determined by the presence neizprotamas fluid unexplored nature, which, apparently, creates on the product surface film that protects the product from exposure to oxygen-containing environment and ensures binding properties for a long time. A new technical result achieved the claimed invention is to preserve the binding properties of the product for a long time while simplifying the technology it manufactured by Garrett, Borg is tion.
The method was implemented in the cavitation device, which is a pulsatile pump, the impeller of which has an internal cavity, equipped with blades and channels connecting the cavity with the outer lateral surface of the wheel (EN 2386471, publ. 20.04.2010,) . The principle of operation of this apparatus is the following. On the outer side surface of the wheel has a vortex emitter, which on the outer side surface of the wheel is made tangential, tapering in the direction of the flow, slit-like channels, which are relative to the direction of rotation of the rotor have the front and rear walls, the front wall on the exit side of the liquid made the chamfer. During the rotation of the impeller of the processed fluid medium enters the inner cavity of the wheel, where interacting with the rotor blades, receives rotary motion. Under the action of centrifugal force, the flow receives a significant increment of radial velocity, depending on the frequency of rotation of the wheel and its diameter. When driving on narrow channels flowable medium receives an additional increase in speed due to centrifugal force, and by narrowing the cross-section of the channels. When you exit channels flowable medium through bevel directs the flow towards the predetermined rotation stake is but motion, and dramatically expanding the channel configuration, substantially changes the pressure in the processing environment, resulting in a powerful turbulent motion, accompanied by the phenomena of cavitation and intense emission of acoustic and ultrasonic energy.
In the presented examples illustrate the claimed method, use lowland with a high degree of decomposition of peat from the peat deposits Samarovskoe II No. 744 directory and map of administrative units, In-Pyshma, Sverdlovsk region. Peat was subjected to screening using vibrating screens with a cell of 5 mm to obtain a peat crumb size up to 5 mm To produce 1 ton of binder were weighed 200 kg obtained peat crumb. In example 1 took 800 l and for example 2 - 900 l of water. In pot-stirrer at room temperature, poured water and included the engine pulsation of the pump. In a moving stream of water portions were served peat. The dispersion was performed in one stage. In the process of dispersion measured the temperature of the processed mixture. When the mixture temperature 80°C according to example 1 and 90°C according to example 2, the treated mixture was poured into the intermediate tank for degassing and cooling to room temperature. After 1.5-2 days the product is ready for storage and transportation. The product has the appearance of a jelly-like paste brown who is a ready-to-use binder. Binder, manufactured in example 1, was tested company producing fuel briquettes. Was tested briquettes obtained by compressing the mixture containing 25% of the binder and Neftekamsk. The briquettes had a calorific value 31,045 GJ/tonne and was recognized as a fuel suitable for combustion in kilns cement plant. Binder produced according to example 2, was tested and metallurgical company. The test results show that the briquettes obtained from a mixture containing 20% structured organic binder and briquetted of sinter charge, leads to an increase of the vertical velocity of sintering, while the yield of sinter is increased, and the fines content of the class 5-0 mm decreases. Minimum storage binder according to preliminary data, is 2 weeks.
Thus, the claimed method allows to obtain a binder, as a finished product, allowing you to use it to get briquettes used in various technological processes while simplifying the production technology. Astringent can be produced and in terms of the technology of production of briquettes. The high content of humic substances in a given amount of binder and colloidal dispersion composition can bind, and then briquetting various small materials, such as sawdust, fines of drives the century of coal, detail of stone coal, peat, dust to dust, coke breeze, graphite and other
The method of obtaining structured organic binder comprising at least a single cavitation dispersion of a mixture of peat and water, wherein the dispersion is subjected to the mixture at the ratio of peat to water 1:4 to 1:4.5 and the dispersion is carried out to achieve a mixture temperature of 80-90°C, which is then cooled to room temperature to obtain the finished product.
SUBSTANCE: proposed binder comprises organic polymer composed by polymer sodium- and polyalkylene oxide derivative of polymethylene-naphthalensulfonic acids and additive glycosides. Ratio of said components is as follows (in wt %): polymer sodium- and polyalkylene oxide derivative of polymethylene-naphthalensulfonic acids - 30-80 and additive glycosides - 20-70. Quantity of links in polyalkylene oxide chain is n=5÷25. Note here that polymer sodium- and polyalkylene oxide derivative of polymethylene-naphthalensulfonic acids is produced by condensation of sulfonic acid of naphthalene with formaldehyde while additives of glycoside derivatives represent fructosides, glucosides, galactosides or the mix thereof.
EFFECT: high-temperature durability and mechanical strength.
4 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metallurgical, casting production, and namely to production of cast irons operating under abrasive wear conditions. The method involves preparation of a mixture of initial material with further moulding. As initial material, crushed metal chips and metal scrap in the form of scale and scrap of ferrous metals, which are mixed with cryolite, and zircon and ilmenite concentrate, are used. Water solution (40%) of glyoxal is used as the binding agent. Components of the briquette are contained in the following ratio, wt %: metal chips and metal scraps in the form of scale and scrap of ferrous metals - 60, cryolite - 20, zircon concentrate - 7.5, ilmenite concentrate - 7.5, water solution (40%) of glyoxal - 5. The obtained mixture is homogenised by mixing, formed into a briquette by pressing and dried during 3 hours at 80°C.
EFFECT: according to the invention, use of briquettes will allow increasing wear resistance of the obtained cast iron.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes, which involves mixing carbon filler with ground coal, adding a binding substance and briquetting the mixture under pressure. The carbon filler, which is in form of aluminium wastes, anode paste and electrodes in amount of 25.1-85.00 wt %, is dry-mixed with ground brown coal until a 100% dry mass is obtained, followed by addition of the binding substance to the dry mass. The binding substance used is bitumen or polyvinyl alcohol in amount of 2-10 wt %, in excess of 100% of the dry mass. If polyvinyl alcohol is used as the binder, hydrophobic additives are added to the obtained mixture in amount of 1-5 wt %, in excess of 100% of the obtained mixture.
EFFECT: improved properties.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises mixing polydisperse ores of ferrous metals and/or concentrates of ferrous metal ores with binder and mix pelletising at pressure. Note here that said binder represents solution of carboxymethyl cellulose of 1-3 wt % concentration in amount sufficient to get mix with moisture content of 7-14% and with addition of bentonite in amount of 0.2-1% of polydisperse material weight. Obtained pellets are roasted at 900-1300°C.
EFFECT: simplified process, higher strength, water resistance and dilution.
2 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in paint-and-lacquer, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and metallurgical industries. Proposed method comprises iron ore crushing, grinding, wet magnetic separation to produce magnetic and nonmagnetic fractions, ultrasound oxidation destruction of nonmagnetic fraction, hydraulic classification, thickening and drying. Stage-by-stage hydraulic classification comprises primary classification and, at least, two cleaner classification. Magnetic fraction and sand of primary classification are pelletised using molasses as binder in amount of 1-5 wt% at moisture of pelletised blend of 8-12%.
EFFECT: iron oxide coloring agents and pelletised raw stock for metallurgy.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: metallic iron is produced by loading and heating lumpy material in reduction furnace with moving hearth for reduction of iron oxide contained in lumpy material with the help of carbon-containing reducing agent. Note here that lumpy material is produced by ball milling of the mix of materials containing said material that contains iron oxide, said carbon-containing reducing agent, binder and moisture, and drying mix of materials. Hydrocarbon is used as binder. Mix of materials is cured prior to ball milling for 0.5-4 hours. Note also that binder fraction in said mix makes about 0.5-1.5 wt %.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength, moderate content of binder and moisture.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: mould contains particles of at least one alloy. Also particles of alloy correspond to titanium dioxide and binding material connecting particles of alloy in the mould. Notably, binding material contains organic polymer. Binding material changes its form and releases particles of alloy at heating the mould to specified temperature above 260°C. The mould includes approximately at least 18 % of organic polymer weight. The said moulds completely and uniformly are distributed in melt, which facilitates maintaining carbon contents in melt below allowed maximum, preferably below 0.04 wt % due to contents of from 18 wt % of organic polymer in the moulds, for example copolymer of ethylene and vinyl acetate or polyethylene of low density. Uniform distribution of alloying additives is achieved, for example by usage of moulds of dimension similar to dimension of other source materials added to melt.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of alloying additives.
44 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pelleting of sulfide molybdenite concentrates granulations before oxidising roasting. Pelleting is implemented with addition of binding component - water solution of corn syrup with consumption of corn syrup, which is 3.0-4.0 kg per 100 kg of molybdenite concentrates. Additionally corn syrup contains 36-44% mono - and disaccharides.
EFFECT: receiving of pellets with strength >300 g/pel with using of organic binding, thoroughly decay during the process of oxidising roasting.
4 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: ferrous metallurgy, namely production of iron ore pellets.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of feeding charge into lumping apparatus by two flows; introducing first flow into gas flow at creating stream of gas and moistened charge; depositing charge; realizing seed formation; after-lumping seeds by means of second flow of charge; in addition introducing into gas flow organic filament like particles with diameter 0.01 - 1.0 mm and length 2 - 50 mm in quantity 0.1 -4.0% of charge mass. Deposition of charge and after-lumping of seeds are performed simultaneously.
EFFECT: improved strength of iron ore pellets.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods for lumping ground iron-ore raw in aim for it preparing to metallurgic conversion and utilization of iron-containing waste. At least one iron-containing material and a binding agent are mixed, the mixture is subjected for aggregation and prepared aggregates are strengthened. As a binding material method involves using a synthetic copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate wherein the mole part of sodium acrylate can be from 0.5 to 99.5% and molecular mass in the range = (1 x 104)-(2 x 107) Da. Dosing synthetic copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate is from 0.02 to 0.10 kg per a ton of iron-containing material. Copolymer of acrylamide and sodium acrylate can be used as a dry powder, solution, emulsion, suspension or aerosol, in pure state or as a mixture with additional material. Invention provides retaining the maximally high content of iron in lumped material possessing required physical and metallurgic properties, enhancing output of the technological process and creating additional parameters in operation of the lumping process.
EFFECT: improved lumping method.
2 tbl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention includes mixing of ground solid fuel with a binder, briquetting of the mixture under pressure, where the ground solid fuel is coke dust with particle size of less than 1 mm, and the binder is coking sludge in the amount of 8.0-10% to the weight of coke dust, the mixture of coke dust and the binder is heated to 100°C, pressed in stages: first the load of 5-6 atm is set with a delay of 3-5 min and then up to 15 atm with a delay at the maximum load for 3-5 min, the finished fuel briquette is tempered at 250-300°C without access of air for 10-12 min. The produced briquettes may be used as fuel for combustion in domestic and industrial furnaces, and also for coking in chemical-recovery and metallurgical industry.
EFFECT: production of smokeless fuel briquettes of higher strength, improved environmental situation in coal processing regions, reduced prime cost of fuel briquettes.
2 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing improved solid fuel. Described is solid fuel which is obtained by briquetting crushed low-grade coal, where the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of pores of the low-grade coal is coated with a nonvolatile component contained in the low-grade coal, and content of heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt % with respect to the solid fuel.
EFFECT: low production costs and environmental load, as well as improved solid fuel.
2 cl, 3 ex, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.
EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.
15 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of BREC produced by stiff vacuum extrusion.Said process comprises coke fines, mineral binder and, if required, brown-coal char to be used as reducer in metallurgical furnace. Mineral binder in production of BREC is normally a cement and, if required, bentonite. Particle size of materials of the mix for BREC production does not exceed 5 mm, BREC weight not exceeding 0.3 kg.
EFFECT: optimum size, higher cold and hot strength.
3 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.
EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.
SUBSTANCE: method of making fuel briquettes involves grinding combustible solid components, mixing with binder, pressing and drying the briquettes. The method is characterised by that the combustible solid components used are recycled ballistit-type gun powder or non-recoverable wastes from powder production, ground on a modernised disk mill to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and activated charcoal screenings, ground on a double-roll crusher to particle size of less than 4.0 mm, and mixed in 8.0-10.0% aqueous solution of polyacrylamide binder or a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a continuous or periodic action mixing device with horizontal mixers, followed by pressing into fuel briquettes on a shaft pelleting press; the formed briquettes are dried with air on a three-section belt drier at temperature 100…105°C for 3 hours, cooled and then dry-cured for three days.
EFFECT: wider raw material base for making fuel briquettes, environmentally safe recycling of discarded gun powder, ballistit wastes and activated charcoal screenings not suitable for use as an adsorbent, high energy output and calorific capacity of the fuel briquettes.
1 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to briquetted solid fuel, which contains activated charcoal screenings and ballistit powder wastes which do not contain heavy metal salts and other environmentally hazardous components, ground to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and polyacrylamide as binder, with the following ratio of components, wt %: activated charcoal screenings - 75…86, ballistit powder wastes - 10…20, polyacrylamide - 4…5. The invention enables to comprehensively solve the problem of the environment, saving energy resources and recycling potentially hazardous high-energy substances.
EFFECT: solid fuel has higher flammability, low ash content and high calorific capacity.
SUBSTANCE: briquetted solid fuel contains activated charcoal screenings and expired ballistit powder, ground to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and polyacrylamide as binder, with the following ratio of components, wt %: activated charcoal screenings - 75…86, expired ballistit powder - 10…20, polyacrylamide - 4…5.
EFFECT: fuel has high calorific capacity, high flammability coupled with low ash content and satisfactory mechanical properties of the briquetted solid fuel during use.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.
EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pulverised coal fuel for blast-furnace smelting from carbon-containing finely ground starting material which is a product with output of volatile substances of up to 25% in amount of (3-100) wt %, obtained via slow semicoking of black oil; the fuel contains a desulphurising agent, wherein the carbon-containing finely ground starting material and desulphurising agent are in the following ratio: carbon-containing finely ground material - (90-99) wt %; desulphurising agent - (10-1) wt %.
EFFECT: using pulverised fuel in the energy field and ferrous metallurgy, specifically in the process of blast-furnace production of cast iron, increases efficiency of the blast-furnace process and improves environmental friendliness of the blast-furnace process, widens the raw material base used the pulverised fuel associated with the blast-furnace process.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: process complex for manufacturing of products from peat includes the following components functionally interconnected with each other - a preparation module, a drying module, a module for shaping of peat raw materials, and a module of processing of wastes of core production. The module of preparation of peat raw materials is made of the following components serially installed and connected to each other by means of belt conveyors - a receiving hopper, a roller separator, a flow magnetic separator, a milling crusher and a press-auger separator, and is connected with the drying module by a belt conveyor, with the shaping module by the belt conveyor, with the module of processing of wastes by the belt conveyor, the belt conveyor and the pipeline. The drying module includes a biofuel storage, connected by means of an auger feeder with a heat generator, connected by an air duct with a tunnel multi-tier dryer, and is interconnected with the help of belt transfer units and conveyors with the shaping module. The shaping module is equipped with batching hoppers of additional raw materials, connected by a belt conveyor with a double-auger attrition mill, connected via a feeding hopper with an auger extruder, equipped with replaceable draw plates and connected by a belt conveyor with a filler of big bags, connected with a finished goods warehouse by means of a fork lift and interconnected with the help of belt conveyors and transfer units with the drying module. The module of processing of core production wastes is equipped with a receiving hopper for metal inclusions, a settling tank for water by the connected pipeline via filters with peat charge with a reservoir for service water, equipped with a pump house and a storage of wastes, connected by the belt conveyor to the hammer crusher, connected by the belt conveyor with the biofuel storage included into the drying module.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to produce various peat products from peat raw materials of any type and quality when supplying to non-volatile production.
1 dwg, 6 cl