Device for preparation of forest soil to preliminary natural forest regeneration
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry and can be used for preparation of forest soil to natural forest regeneration. The device comprises a frame of rectangular cross-section, a hollow cylinder, a shaft, ratchet mechanisms with hydraulic cylinders. On the lateral surface of the hollow cylinder the niches are made with plates with working elements mounted in them. The working elements are made in the form of openers and mounted between each other at a distance of 5 to 15 cm. The plates are mounted with the possibility of changing the position in the niches for providing processing the soil to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm.
EFFECT: this constructive solution provides improved quality of forest soil surface processing and seed germination in natural forest regeneration.
The invention relates to forestry and can be used for the preparation of forest soils to natural reforestation.
Known technical solutions (patents№2040134, 2298302, 2338351, 2365074), containing frame, gradely mounted brozdowski rollers, spring-loaded rod associated with brozdowski rollers, wheels and mechanisms of regulation.
It is also known technical solution (A.S. No. 165938 AV 49/04), consisting of a triangular frame, hung on the tractor; unilateral guided razors, fortified in a triangular frame on the inner side by means of pins and knife-a tooth.
The main disadvantages of these structures are cumbersome and high intensity.
The closest in technical essence and the achieved economic effect selected by the author as a prototype device (patent No. DE 3502510 AS 5/06, AS 7/00)containing vehicle on a supporting structure in which its upper part is rigidly fixed seed box with guides for the direct introduction of separate seeds in angular grooves, and the bottom rotating disk knives for cutting vertical slits, United by a chain transmission with a drive engine, and directly behind the disks are mounted plow blade for cutting horizontal slits.
VI is m a disadvantage of this device is a bulky device. The technical result of the invention is to improve the quality of processing the surface of the forest soil, improvement of seed germination in the preliminary natural reforestation.
The technical result is achieved in that the working body in the form of a hollow cylinder, on the basis of which the Central axis is mounted to the shaft at the free end of set ratcheting mechanisms connected to the cylinders, placed on a frame of rectangular cross-section, with the side surface of the case is made of a niche in which the laminas with openers at a distance equal to from 5 to 15 cm, while the plates are mounted with the possibility of changing the position in the niches to ensure the soil to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm
The proposed device is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a side view; figure 2 shows a top view; figure 3 - plate working bodies.
The device includes a housing 1 made in the form of a hollow cylinder, on the basis 2 of which Central axis is mounted a shaft 3, at the free ends mounted ratchet mechanism 4 connected to the hydraulic cylinders 5, placed on the frame 6 of rectangular cross-section, with the side surface of the housing 1 is made of a niche 7, which has a plate 8 with working bodies, made in the form of openers 9 at a distance equal to is between a 5 to 15 cm, with depth of soil from 2.5 to 5 cm, while the plate 8 is fastened by bolts 10 with the ability to change the position in the recesses 7.
Work is carried out as follows. In order for the device to be transported to the site, where it will be tillage, with the help of hydraulic cylinders 5 are exempt ratchet mechanism 4. The device can be moved by means of a frame 6 both forward and backward freely. Cylindrical body 1 thus rotates freely. The soil is not processed. After arriving at the site where it is necessary to cultivate the soil by means of hydraulic cylinders 5, the fixation occurs hrapovic mechanisms 4. In this case, the body 1 stops rotating, and when the movement is dragged tillage, moving forward, is the cutting of the surface layer, which is shifted to the side of the housing 1. It is not only the cutting of the surface layer, but also the cutting of the strips, where it is assumed the ingress of seeds in natural insemination soil under the forest canopy. To increase the pressing force of the body to the soil, inside it can be loaded ballast (sand, small stones), and after completion of the work exemption. As a result of processing of the soil in front of the body is formed roller 11. With sufficiently large dimensions of the roll by means of hydraulic cylinders 5 are exempt ratcheting the mechanisms 4 and the housing 1 rolls across the swath.
When you commit hrapovic mechanisms 4 tillage again continues. The amount of penetration openers 9 to the desired depth before the beginning of work in the forest.
The thus prepared the soil increases the number of shoots of pine seeds in 3...8 times compared with the unprepared soil.
Device for preparing forest soil prior to natural reforestation, containing a frame attached to the working body, characterized in that the working body in the form of a hollow cylinder, on the basis of which the Central axis is mounted to the shaft at the free end of set ratcheting mechanisms connected to the cylinders, placed on a frame of rectangular cross-section, with the side surface of the case is made of a niche in which the laminas with openers at a distance equal to from 5 to 15 cm, while the plates are mounted with the possibility of changing the position in the niches to ensure the soil to a depth of 2.5 to 5 cm
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dendrometry in the study of growth and development of butt of trees, mainly birch, and can be used in phytoindication of areas and the development of measures to protect the land plots from water erosion, environmental and climatic technologies, as well as in dendrometry monitoring of development of ravine network and rationalisation of land use, taking into account changes in the shape of butt of growing trees, particularly birch. The method comprises choosing the test plot with the record trees, the measurement of the height of the crown and the total height of all record trees. The shape of the butt as the geometric figure is taken into account from the cross section of the butt at the intersection with the surface of the soil to a standard height of 1.3 m. The measurements of the perimeters of the butt are carried out at least at three cross-sections of the butt of each record tree below the root collar of the trunk, and on the measured data, in addition considering the perimeters of the root collar and the cross section of the trunk at a standard height of 1.3 m, the mathematical pattern of symmetrical butt shape on a single common formula. On the parameters of identified unified mathematical pattern of the butt shape the rating of record trees is identified for the quality assessment of the butt shape, and then the patterns with wave disturbances of influence of parameters of the record trees and their butts are identified on the parameters in the general form of a mathematical equation of the butt shape. To assess the quality of the habitat the patterns are determined with wave disturbances with severe crowding of correlative variation for subsequent isolation of the limiting factors of the butt and the record tree itself.
EFFECT: method provides enhanced functional capabilities of the analysis of the butt shape of trees, especially birch trees growing on flat terrain or on the slopes of the ravine, as well as improving the accuracy of measurements of the trees below the root collar, from the standard height of the trunk of 1,3 m above the root collar of the tree to the soil surface.
6 cl, 14 dwg, 8 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dendrometry. The method comprises the choice of test band of wood across the ravine or hill with trees located along it. Near each birch on the test band the maximum height of butt is measured from the root collar of the trunk to the soil surface on the loser side along the slope of the ravine or hill and the angle of the local slope across the general slope of the habitat of the tree. For analysis of growth and development of birches growing on a slope, according to a variety of measured parameters of height of the birch butt and the angle of the local slope of their habitat by statistical modelling the relationship between the height of the birch butt and the angle of the local slope of their habitat is revealed.
EFFECT: technology enables to extend the functional capabilities in the water erosion control.
2 cl, 6 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dendrometry in the study of the relative taper of butt during the growth and development of trees, mainly birch, and can be used in quality phytoindication of areas and the development of measures to protect the land plots from water erosion, as well as in dendrometry monitoring of the development of ravine network taking into account the changes in the relative shape of butt of growing birch trees. The method for analysis of the relative taper of butt during the growth and development of birch growing on the slope of the ravine, is characterised by the fact that across the ravine the test area with trees is chosen, then the record trees are chosen on the plot, the height of the crown and the total height of the record trees is measured. At each record tree at the standard height of 1.3 m the diameter and simultaneously the perimeter of the trunk cross-section is measured. The butt of the tree is taken as a symmetrical geometric shape extending along the vertical axis of the record tree trunk. The height of the butt of each record tree is measured from the transverse butt cross-section on the root collar to a point of intersection of the vertical axis with the surface of the soil. Then from this point to the periphery of the butt on the lower side along the slope the half-perimeter of the lower cross-section of the butt is measured. After that, taking into account the local slope angle at each record tree the maximum height of the butt from the root collar of the trunk to the soil surface on the lower side along the slope at the butt is additionally measured. According to variety of measured birches the calculations of relative indices are made in the form of a shape factor of the cross-section of a tree trunk at a standard height of 1.3 m, the relative taper of the cross-section of a tree trunk from the root collar to the standard height of 1.3 m, the relative taper of the tree butt from the cross section at a height of the butt to the standard height over the tree root collar. Then, using the statistical modelling the connection between the parameters of the relative taper of the butt of birches growing on the slopes of the ravine is determined, with respect to the cross-section at the standard height and the slope angle.
EFFECT: method provides enhanced functional capabilities of analysis according to the relative taper of the butt of trees growing on the slope of ravine or hill, as well as improving the accuracy of measurement of birch below the root collar, from the standard height of the trunk of 1,3 m above the root collar of the tree to the surface of the slope of the ravine or hill.
6 cl, 12 dwg, 11 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry, in particular agro-forest amelioration, and can be used for afforestation in arid, for example, chalk slopes having soil cover. The method comprises mapping the reafforesting area, digging trenches in rows across the slope with the depth greater than the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil into the trenches, and the rest of the soil near the trenches down the slope, planting of woody plants. Soil of the slopes and bottom of the dug trenches is compacted. In between the rows a part of the soil layer is cut and the trenches are filled with it to form a roll. The soil remaining in between rows is compacted. The woody plants are planted in spring in the formed roll. The soil in the trenches and the soil between the rows is compacted to a density providing maximum water-holding capacity. The soil in between the rows is compacted during the growing seasons before closing crowns in between the rows.
EFFECT: method provides improved survival ability and growth of woody plants by improving their moisture content, nutrient and light regimes.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of ultrasonic testing of technical wood in the form of chucks, for instance, special logs in the form of resonant chucks, and may be used in certification of wood under conditions of lumbering, forestry and wood processing with control of chucks quality under different conditions of their storage, and also in engineering ecology during assessment of ecological quality of area by values of ultrasonic speed of wood in chucks logged in this area. The method includes storage of technical wood in the form of chucks with natural drying in stacks until stable moisture content is achieved, application of radial lines with marks onto ends of the chuck, installation of sensors of an ultrasonic device relative to marks at the ends, measurement of ultrasonic parameters of wood along the chuck at the marks. Directly in the stack at the ends of the tested chuck in addition to radial lines with marks they apply two lines in the form of concentric circumferences that mark near-core, ripe-wood and sapwood zones. Sensors of the ultrasonic device are installed relative to approximately symmetric marks at the ends of the chuck. After measurements they identify laws in change of ultrasonic parameters of wood along the chuck.
EFFECT: method provides for simplification of the process and reduced labour intensiveness of an ultrasonic test and certification of technical wood in the form of chucks and short special logs in a stack, and also expansion of functional capabilities of the ultrasonic testing method on sapwood and ripe-wood zones of cross section of round timber.
5 cl, 3 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dendrometry and may be used for development of environmental and climatic technologies as well as during dentroecological monitoring of ravine net development and land usage efficiency promotion. The analysis method includes selection of a sample forest belt with trees arranged along it. With each birch within the sample belt along the ravine slope one measures the crown height and the local slope angle across the common slope at the tree stump. For analysis of growth and development of the crown of a birch growing on the slope, one identifies the interrelation between the bitch crown height and the local slope angle at its growth place through statistic modelling relying on the multiple measured parameters of the birch crown height and the local slope angle at its growth place.
EFFECT: technology will allow to ensure protection of land plots located near ravines and hills against water erosion.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in this method the sand is fixed by planting large-sized seedlings of eurotia using the side-scenes from cane fibre boards. The work is carried out on the open sands using grey eurotia as sand binding culture. Forage Kochia, Siberian wheatgrass are seeded under protection against pouring the side-scenes from eurotia. At that the large-sized eurotia seedlings are planted by planter along the axes of the tapes. Then to protect the grey eurotia seedlings against pouring with sand the cane fibre boards are used, stacked with support on each other along the rows.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of phytomeliorative works carried out using cane fibre boards on open sandy areas and degraded pastures.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises treatment of the soil for planting trees with a definite distance in the areas of direct location of rows of trees planted in the tree belt area to the width, the value of which depends on the desired area of feeding of various species of trees and is determined by the formula: B=πD2/4L, where B is the width of zone of the processed soil for planting rows of trees in the tree belt area; D is the diameter of the feeding area of the tree and its root expansion system when ploughing soil across the width of the tree belt area with inclusion of inter-row spacings and edges; L is the length of the feeding area of the tree and its root expansion system in soil treatment directly at the locations of rows of plants, adequate feeding area when ploughing soil across the width of the tree belt area. When soil treatment and planting tree belt area the form of the transverse profile of the soil surface of the tree belt area is formed and maintained under agro-technical care: in the rows of trees - concave moisture-accumulating in the form of recesses, and between rows - convex drainage-forming, in the form of a rampart, which shape is determined by the following formulas: - concave
EFFECT: method of creation of tree belt areas with special transverse profile of the soil surface will provide directed collection in the wells of rows of plants of tree belt areas in winter of dry snowfalls, during the warm period of the additional runoff from sloping surfaces between rows, which improves the moisture content of trees, their best growth and development.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device relates to forestry and is intended for elimination of inferior hardwood at tree surgery. Proposed device comprises frame composed of rectangular plate with side slot for tree. Stationary blade of cutting unit is fixed by bolts at lateral side of said slot while bearing assembly is bolted to said frame perpendicular to said slot for shaft to run in plain bearing. Cutter unit moving blade is rigidly fixed at one of the shaft free ends while chemical solution feed mechanism is secured at opposite end.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower repair and servicing costs, simplified design.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forest husbandry, in particular to felling, including specialised kind of felling. The method comprises a cycle of felling. The term of the first felling of the softwood species is determined by the formula: y=0.01x2-0.8x+29.1, where y is the age of undergrowth of spruce and fir, with which it is necessary to carry out the first felling; x is the age of softwood species at the time of emergence of undergrowth of spruce and fir, and the term of carrying out the last multistage felling when felling transformation in spruce forest is carried out in the interval of the tree age of the second tier of 40-65 years, in which in the first stage from the first tier the most developed trees of the softwood species are felled the best and the supportive from the categories.
EFFECT: method provides creation of favourable forest growing conditions for spruce and fir trees growing in the second tier of derived softwood planting, at the aged of culmination of their active growth.
4 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agricultural engineering industry, in particular to the tools for firming of soil and seeding. The device comprises the tools mounted on the hub parallel to each other. The tools are made in the form of annular elements (7) and are fixed by means of spokes (3-6). The tools are attached to the sleeve (2) of the hub with the ability of controlled movement and/or deviation relating to each other in the radial and/or horizontal direction.
EFFECT: simplifying the design of the tool.
15 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device includes a frame, a support wheel, a hydraulic system, a working body, a tank for liquid and a hydraulic system. The working body is made in the form of a hollow rod. The device is equipped with a metering pump with a safety valve and a measuring wheel. The hollow rod mounted on the spherical joint is provided with a guiding shield. In the working part of the rod the guiding tubes oriented upward are made. The measuring wheel is operated by a support-drive wheel. For cyclic operation and the transfer of the rod from the working position to transport position and vice versa, the device has a hydraulic cylinder controlled by hydraulic system spool and the lever.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce the power consumption of digging holes, to increase the productivity of the device, providing a continuous process of work.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a frame with a working body made in the form of a hollow rod, and a hydraulic system. The device is equipped with a capacity for explosive material and a batch metering pump. The hollow rod is equipped with a shield-reflector. In the working part of the rod a cavity is made with guide channels oriented upward. In the cavity of the rod an ignition device is mounted connected to the power supply unit. For cyclic operation and transfer of the bar from working to transport position and vice versa the device has a hydraulic cylinder controlled by hydraulic system spool and lever. The device is equipped with two dimensional wheels driven in rotation by the support-driving wheel. One dimensional wheel is connected to the spool of the hydraulic system, and the other - with a metering pump.
EFFECT: invention enables to reduce energy consumption and provide a continuous process of work.
SUBSTANCE: agricultural machine includes a frame and at least one opener for fertiliser application, installed on the frame and is designed for opening furrows in the soil. Each opener for fertiliser application includes the disk located at an angle to the working direction, a runner located behind the opener disc towards the working direction, and at least one tube for fertilisation. The tube is located behind the runner towards the working direction. The runner has a groove in its rear edge. The groove at least partially covers at least one tube for fertilisation. In another embodiment the opener has a groove in its rear edge towards the working direction. The protrusion is made with an ability of at least partial enclosing of at least one tube for fertiliser.
EFFECT: proposed design concept enables to improve the quality of fertiliser application, as well as reduce operating costs during the transition from one type of fertiliser to another.
29 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: machine comprises a frame bar, which stretches in both sides from the central line oriented towards the machine movement, and where agricultural implements are installed, mostly sowing devices, at equal distances from each other or with equal distances between groups of sowing devices. The frame bar is divided into sections, which are joined hingedly by means of a joint in the form of a vertical axis, arranged on the specified central line, and is equipped with a facility to rotate the appropriate sections at each side from the central line by an identical angle in the horizontal plane, so that the same distance is always preserved between the neighbouring agricultural implements at the sections of the frame bar in the working position.
EFFECT: invention provides possibility to sow seeds and treat soil with various distance between rows, and also transportation of a machine along commonly used roads.
10 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system (50) contains furrow opener (20), which has pair of disks (52) located against each other at an angle (α). Each disk (52) has inboard side (58) and exterior (60), at that inboard sides (58) are turned to each other, and exteriors (60) are located opposite each other. Each disk (52) has relatively movement direction (44) forward edge (54) and back edge (56). Furrow closer contains pair of wheels (22) units of depth and closing of seed furrow. Each wheel (22) has inboard side (62), and inboard sides (62) are turned to each other and located to adjacently-corresponding exteriors (60) of the disks (52). Each wheel (22) has forward edge (64) and back edge (66). The forward edge (64) is located between the forward edge (54) and the back edge (56) of corresponding disk (52). The back edge (66) is located relatively to movement direction (44) behind back edge (56) of corresponding disk (52). The agricultural machine contains tool carrier (14) and at least one system of opening and closing of the seed furrow in the soil leaning against the tool carrier (14) described above.
EFFECT: system provides high accuracy of interval for seeding material and reduction of compaction of lateral walls of furrow and allows to improve quality of closing of furrow when moving on curved trajectories and on various soils.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: transmission mechanism for agricultural machine.
SUBSTANCE: transmission mechanism has flexible rotating drive shaft 40 for driving of dosing device 22 of drill 10. Drill has reducer 42 for dosing device. Reducer 42 for dosing device has connection portion 58 for flexible rotating shaft 40 and gear portion. Output shaft of reducer is connected to dosing device 22 for driving thereof. Connection portion 58 is positioned beyond gear portion and serves for accommodation of drive bushing of flexible rotating drive shaft 40. Attachment unit 80 of reducer is positioned beyond drill 10 on seed box 20 and adjoins connection portion 58 of flexible rotating shaft 40. Attachment unit 80 of reducer has two retaining levers positioned in parallel with drive shaft of reducer. Connection portion 58 of flexible rotating shaft 40 is disposed between retaining levers and serves for preventing reducer 42 from rotation.
EFFECT: reduced costs of mounting works and improved construction.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering, in particular, equipment for sowing of seeds and application of fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: drill has frame, storage hopper and shanks. Seeds and fertilizers contained in storage hopper are fed in regulated amounts to shanks through dosing devices. Seed application shanks are made in the form of chisel-shaped shanks. Deepening guiding rolls are positioned rearward of chisel-shaped shanks. Shanks are arranged in several transverse rows one behind another and in spaced relation with respect to one another, transverse to direction of advancement. Disk shanks are positioned in at least one transverse row, rearward of chisel-shaped shanks. Shanks are spaced from one another by distance equal to doubled distance between chisel-shaped shanks. Drill of such construction allows seeds and fertilizers to be sown with insignificant soil movement and with the help of simplified means.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction of drill.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agricultural engineering.
SUBSTANCE: furrow cutting and closing apparatus has disk positioned for rotation about axis, first wheel positioned for rotation about wheel spindle, and second wheel positioned for rotation about wheel spindle. First and second wheels are mounted so as to contact ground on opposite sides of furrow for shifting soil onto material laid within furrow. First wheel is arranged on disk outer surface and second wheel is arranged on the side of disk inner surface. Parts of first and second wheels oriented forward of direction of advancement of apparatus are arranged between shaft of disk and its rear edge, and their lower parts are arranged forward of front edge of disk.
EFFECT: improved quality of planting.
11 cl, 15 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tillage sowing unit comprises a frame resting on the pneumatic wheels. The frame has a mechanism and a lifting pipe with a hydraulic cylinder, a spoke with a towing hook. On the frame a drilling system of the combined boxes for seeds and fertilisers, sowing machines, drill tubes and hoes-openers is mounted. The frame is equipped with an additional wheel from which drive at deepening the hoes-openers the sowing unit starts working. Behind the hoes-openers the harrow-levellers are mounted. The possibility of different sowing methods is provided by the drill tube mounted on the rack of the hoe-opener with the ability of its rotation it at a certain angle, adjustable by bolted connection and made of bevelled corner in the rear part of the dispensing unit of the hoe-opener. On the front part of the frame an additional transmission box is secured.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve quality of sowing operation and to increase crop yields.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device and method of growing grain crops. The method of growing grain crops with loosening the soil to a depth of sowing to the entire working width comprises sowing of spring crop and/or winter crop in a lane for one crop seeds or seed mixture of crops through unsown line or a line for the seeds of winter crop, which is additionally sprinkled with loosened soil from openers, and the width of the inter-row spacing li and the line width Il are selected so that they meet the requirement of 20 < 2*li - ll <=30. The device for growing grain crops with loosening soil to a depth of sowing to the entire working width with the box for seeding material, with at least two compartments and shafts with sowing devices, the common supplying devices connected by the drill tubes with the coulters mounted on the spring-loaded racks pivotally attached to the frame, at that each odd coulter is located behind the even one across the inter-row spacing, or, vice versa, each even opener is located behind the odd one across the inter-row spacing. The width of the inter-row spacing Ii and width of the line ll are chosen so that they meet the requirement of 20 < 2* li - ll <= 30.
EFFECT: use of the claimed group of inventions enables to accelerate the ripening of grain crops, to increase yields and grain quality.
2 cl, 5 dwg