Method of providing plants with water and mineral nutrition under conditions of weightlessness and system for its implementation

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying irrigation drinking water in the root module ion-saturated ion-exchange fibre soil-substitute and providing auto-correction of the pH value of the obtained substrate solution, as well as its saturation with nutrients containing the elements N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Fe. To ensure it with nutrients in the required amount, the continuous monitoring of the total concentration of the elements in the irrigation water is carried out before supplying to the root module. The irrigation drinking water before supplying to the root module is previously passed through a layer of granulated ion-saturated ion-exchange fibre-soil-substitute the amount of which is selected so that before the end of the calculated period of operation the total concentration of the elements S, Ca, Mg and Fe in the irrigation water is within the range adequate for growing plants. At that in case of a decrease in the irrigation water after passing through the layer of granulated ion-saturated ion-exchange fibre-soil-substitute of the total content of the elements N, P and K to the lower limit of the admissible range of concentrations, a concentrate is added to it, which is obtained by passing the water through the layer of granules of slow-acting fertiliser (SAF), the number of which is selected so that the elements N, P and K contained in it are enough to the end of the calculated period of operation. The system comprises a root module with the ion-exchange fibre soil-substitute for planting seeds or seedlings and the subsequent growing the plants, which is connected to the output of the pipeline of supply of irrigation water with the peristaltic pump mounted at the inlet. In addition the pipeline of supply of irrigation water after the peristaltic pump the concentrating cartridge filled with granular ion-saturated ion-exchange-soil-substitute, and the flow mixing chamber with a sensor of electrical conductivity of water and a stirrer placed in it are connected in series, the mixing chamber is equipped with its own closed loop water circuit, in which the pump and the concentrating cartridge with granular SAF are mounted in series. At that the system is provided with a controller electrically connected to the pumps, the stirrer and the sensor of electrical conductivity of water, and the sensor of electrical conductivity of water is included in the loop of the negative feedback of the controller.

EFFECT: inventions enable to improve the technology and manufacture of plant products in the space greenhouse under conditions of microgravity.

4 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

 

Group of inventions relates to biology, more precisely to the field of space biology, and can be used for the cultivation of plants under spaceflight conditions.

From the prior art known method and device for providing plant mineral nutrition in the conditions of weightlessness and device for its implementation [Bingham et al., 2002]. The known method and device are the following. In the root module in the form of a container with granular inert filler (focuslistener) place the granules of slow-acting fertilizer (MDU). The number of MDU choose from that stored in the granules of mineral salts necessary for plant growth, was enough for the planned period of plant vegetation. Then in the root module serves irrigation water, which wets pochvoznanie and its granules MDU. In the moistened granules MDU begin to dissolve salts, which then, due to osmotic pressure and diffusion, gradually out of the granules and are distributed throughout the volume of the substrate solution of the root module, thereby providing mineral nutrition to the crop root zone of plants.

However, this method and apparatus have the following disadvantages:

unregulated inflow of salts in the substrate solution root the ons plants of granules placed in pochvoznanie slow acting fertilizer (MDU);

after wetting or start watering focusareas placed in him MDU salt stored in MDU, dissolve in and out of his pellets approximately within the first 10-15 days, long before the expiration of one vegetation salad crops, lasting from 26 to 30 days;

plants lettuce crops in the second half of the vegetation period loose mineral nutrition;

when making MDU in pochvoznanie immediately in a quantity according to the calculations in the norm must meet the needs of the plants for the entire growing season, a substrate solution is already in the early days formed the excessive concentration of nutrients, which leads to sanitaryware soil and vegetation, to the suppression of plant growth.

There is also known a method for providing plant mineral nutrition in hydroponic greenhouses and device for its implementation [Domingues et al., 2012]. They are based on the monitoring and correction of parameters of substrate solution in the root zone of plants by two integral parameters - conductivity and pH of the solution. This is possible due to the fact that within the changes of the concentrations of all salts that are acceptable for the growing conditions of the plants, the electrical conductivity of a solution is proportional to the total concentration of salts. In the device for monitoring the electrical conductivity is used cond is klimaticheski sensor, and for monitoring pH - pH-meter with special electrodes.

This method and apparatus have the following material weaknesses:

you must constantly monitor and adjust the pH of the substrate solution, which optionally uses a sulfuric acid solution;

working with sulfuric acid under conditions of germoobekte is risky/dangerous operation;

usually used in ground conditions selective chlorine-silver electrode pH to work in a space greenhouse unsuitable, it is necessary to develop electrodes that are suitable for work in conditions of weightlessness;

for the correction of the salt content of the substrate solution, which is carried out according to the results of continuous monitoring of its conductivity, use two uterine (concentrated) solution of different salts, which need to be mixed in a certain proportion. Preparation of the uterine fluids in weightlessness difficult, and replace them prepared in advance by one concentrate prepared nutrient solution is impossible, as it will form insoluble compounds precipitated.

The closest (prototype) to declared is a well-known way to ensure plant mineral nutrition in the conditions of weightlessness and device for the sushestvennee [Berkovich and others, 2005].

The known method involves feeding the irrigation drinking water in the root module with invasionen ionite fibrous pococurantism and ensuring the correction of the pH value of the obtained substrate solution, and its saturation with nutrients, containing the elements N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Fe in the correct quantity.

The known device supply the plant with water and mineral nutrition in the conditions of weightlessness includes the root module with ionite fibrous pococurantism "BION-B3" for planting seeds or seedlings and subsequent plant growth that is connected to the output of the pipeline supply of irrigation water, installed at the inlet of the peristaltic pump.

These method and device have an important drawback:

inconsistency ionite fibrous pochvoznanie, "BION-B3 used to ensure adequate conditions in the root zone and at the same time to ensure stocks of nutrients to the settlement term, has a relatively low specific resource reserves of these nutrients per unit mass of plant products. This leads to the need to plan for a relatively large volume and weight stocks focusareas on Board the spacecraft, thereby reducing the efficiency of space greenhouses according to the criterion given mass [Berkovich and others, 2005], it is here reducing the efficiency of the production plant productietechnieken the result of the claimed invention as a part of the way, and a

1. Way to supply the plant with water and mineral nutrition in the conditions of weightlessness, including the supply of irrigation drinking water in the root module with invasionen ionite fibrous pococurantism and ensuring the correction of the pH value of the obtained substrate solution, and its saturation with nutrients, containing the elements N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg and Fe, characterized in that to ensure the nutrients in sufficient quantity to carry out constant monitoring of total concentrations of elements in irrigation water before serving in the root module, irrigation drinking water before file in the root module, previously passed through a layer of granular invasiones Ionith-focusareas, the number of which is chosen so that before the end of the payment term total concentration of elements S, Ca, Mg and Fe in irrigation water was in the range that is adequate for plant growth, however, in case of reduction in irrigation water after passing through a layer of granular invasiones of the resin-focusareas total content of the elements N, P and K to the lower limit of the allowable range of concentrations, it is added to the concentrate obtained by passing water through a layer of granules cause a slow fertilizers (MDU), the number of which is chosen so that the contained e is cops N, P and K had until the end of the payment period.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the addition of concentrate from the layer MRL of irrigation water end when in the water at the entrance to the root module total concentration of the elements N, P and K will be close to the upper limit of the allowable range of concentrations.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the total concentration of elements in irrigation water at the entrance to the root module determines indirectly the value of the conductivity of the water using conductivity sensor water.

4. Assurance system of plants, water and mineral nutrition in the conditions of weightlessness, including the root module with ionite fibrous pococurantism for planting seeds or seedlings and subsequent plant growth that is connected to the output of the pipeline supply of irrigation water is installed at the inlet of the peristaltic pump, characterized in that in addition to the supply line of irrigation water after the peristaltic pump serially connected processing cartridge filled with granular invasionen by ion exchange-pococurantism, and flow-through mixing chamber with the sensor the conductivity of the water in the vessel, the mixing chamber is equipped with its own closed water circuit in which consistently set the Lena pump and processing cartridge with granular MDU, the system is equipped with a controller, electrically connected to the pumps, stirrer and probe the conductivity of the water and the conductivity sensor water circuit is included in the negative feedback controller.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and food industry. The method comprises growing pepper plants with the introduction of doses of fertilisers. At that the pepper is grown from seedling method in winter greenhouses; and the enrichment element of the plants with selenium the prolonged granules APION-30 are used, containing 0.036% sodium selenate, which are applied under the plant's root system during its transplantation from the pots into the soil.

EFFECT: method enables to improve the efficiency of selenium accumulation in fruits of pepper sort-type of paprika.

1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. In the method lotus is grown in artificial conditions by selection of two containers one of which is placed in the other so that the inner container height is 10-30 cm less than the outer container height. At that in the inner container the planting ground is placed, in which lotus rhizomes are lowered to a depth of 5-15 cm. The soil surface is covered with the drain, which is used as a layer of washed river sand. A layer of fine washed stone with particle diameter of not more than 1 cm is applied on its top, then the container is filled with water. Planting and growing of lotuses in the container can be carried out throughout the year, regardless of the season.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the growth rate of lotus in artificial conditions by growing in containers.

2 cl, 1 dwg

High seedbed // 2494606

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: reduced labour intensity of building the seedbed, increased convenience of its use.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to crop production. The method includes maintaining a continuous light and daily exposure on tomato seedlings of variable temperatures of +26°C and +10°C. At that the tomato seedlings, starting from the phase of the first true leaf, are subjected to daily exposure of temperature of +26°C for 21-22 hours and a temperature of +10°C for 2-3 hours during 16 days.

EFFECT: method enables to enhance the quality of tomato seedlings due to increasing biomass, the utilisation efficiency of light energy and acceleration of development of plants, and to reduce the energy consumption for cooling the facilities for growing seedlings.

1 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a system of plant cultivation, in particular, to a system of cultivation a number of plants in any weather conditions, regardless of environmental conditions or location, and to increase significantly the yield per unit area, and it comprises the system of movement along a closed circuit which comprises a number of shafts. The shafts are mounted on the frame sections. The frame is mounted in the premises for plant cultivation. The system comprises a number of sprockets that are mounted on the shafts, the left and right chains, the reduction motor. The motor is mounted on each shaft and is connected to this shaft. The system comprises a number of elements for pots for plant cultivation, comprising a container and hook-shaped plates. The plates are attached to the left and right ends of the upper surface of the container for axial mounting and connecting by suspending the left and right hook-shaped axes, as well as for displacement and movement along the closed loop in the interior space of the premises by suspending with the ability to rotate between the left and right chains with use of the left and right hook-shaped axes and hook-shaped plates. The system comprises a device for supplying nutrient liquid to a number of elements for the pots, and a blower. The blower is mounted in the premises for supply of filtered fresh air into the premises or for internal air circulation.

EFFECT: invention provides a simple and easy performance of work with a reduction of time and labor costs due to simple design of the system.

23 cl, 40 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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4 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

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3 cl, 19 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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5 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: simplifying of device design, simplifying of the device maintenance.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to methods for growing green hydroponic fodder and feeding it to poultry. The method to grow hydroponic fodder and feed it to poultry includes supply of seeds and water into trays. Closing of the tray with a net and feeding fodder from trays to animals. Seeds are couched outside the tray for 2-3 days. Sprouted seeds are laid onto the net placed on the tray ledge, and seeds are additionally grown for 2-3 days. Hydroponic fodder is grown for 5-8 days at room temperature. Further green hydroponic fodder is fed for 6-10 minutes by introduction under the cage of the feeding trough in the horizontal position and adjustment of tray lifting along the height. The device for realisation of the method comprises a cage with a meshed floor, a feeding trough equipped with a net of polymer materials, a support and a stop. The feeding trough comprises a ledge, on which the net is placed. The support is equipped with a worm gear and a bracket on a bearing built into the end of the upper part of the support. The feeding trough is fixed with the help of fixtures to the bracket and is supported in the horizontal position with the stop. The height of the feeding trough is adjusted with worm gear rotation.

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3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

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2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture and hydroponics. The method applies arrangement of terraces, including bulldoser arrangement as well. Vertical walls are reinforced with protective panels fixed by means of fastening cords that outgo from piled anchoring at higher slope horizons or on the opposite side of a slope. The terrace base is protected with decks, under which there are the support pedestals of cultivation pipes and pipelines of nutrient solution circulation system, as well as the main reservoir with a working nutrient solution in case of its underground arrangement. Lines of drain pipes that collect water in accumulator tanks are placed between fastening cords. The system comprises cultivation pipes, support pedestals, manifolds of nutrient solution circulation, arranged on terraces. The terraces on slopes are arranged with protective panels reinforced with fastening cords, between which there are lines of drain pipes that remove moisture from slope soil into an accumulator tank with its subsequent use for domestic and/or process purposes. The nutrient solution circulation system is arranged with the possibility to arrange the main reservoir with the working nutrient solution in a place, which is protected from overheating and exposure to cold - under ground, in a niche of the vertical terrace wall. A vertical stand with a nozzle to spray nutrient solution is located inside a cultivation pipe and is protected against overheating and exposure to cold. Cultivation pipes are connected by fastening links and are fixed with braces that increase the structure stability under impact of wind loads.

EFFECT: group of inventions makes it possible to grow vegetables and fruit in intensive mode on slopes.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to decorative gardening. Device comprises vertical tight cultivation tower, closed on top and bottom with funnel-shaped nozzles, one of which, upper one, is only opened at wide end, and the other one is flow-through. Nutrient solution is supplied to roots of plants along coaxially arranged feed tube. Solution is supplied into upper dead nozzle to passive sprinkler. Solution flows down through cone screen filter and is distributed near inner wall of tower in zone of arrangement of root systems of plants. Plants are fixed on location beds around tower, and root systems of plants are located inside tower. Device is arranged as tight and does not affect air humidity in office. Nutrient solution is disinfected by bactericide lamp located in reservoir with nutrient solution.

EFFECT: invention provides for creation of closed automatic system of plants cultivation with continuous sterilisation of inner space of reservoir with nutrient solution.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: phytowall comprises vertical panel made of rigid, strong, waterproof, non-toxic and rot-protected plastic, fixed to wall of room or building, system of nutrient solution or water supply. Device includes reservoir for water and nutrient solution accumulation arranged in lower part of phytowall, submersible pump electrically connected to control unit and supply unit, and by means of discharge pipe - to distributor tube. Distributor tube is located across the panel on its upper end. Distributor tube includes outlet holes, with pitch equal to distance between pockets for plants. Pockets for plants are detachably fixed to the panel in rows along horizontal line and in columns along vertical line. Device comprises facility to supply of nutrient solution to roots of plants and source of light. Facility for supply of nutrient solution is arranged in the form of pad from synthetic material with high hydrophilic properties. Pad is attached to the panel by means of brackets, and in upper part it covers distributor tube made of plastic. Calibrated jets that guide nutrient solution flow towards pad are installed in outlet holes of tube. Ratio of total flow rate of jets and reservoir capacity provides for time of drip irrigation with nutrient solution in autonomous mode of supply for at least two weeks at nominal room temperatures. Optionally, tank is made of wood with water-repellent treatment or plastic. Source of light has artificial polychromatic radiation and consists of horizontal lamp fixed to upper part and vertical lamps fixed to sides of phytowall panel, or is mounted on external brackets to room wall. Lamps are arranged with the possibility to provide for modes of spectrum change along with stages of phytowall plants life: formation of root system at the first stage and formation of leaf mass at the second stage, as well as mode of additional radiation to required duration of daylight hours. Lamps are placed into reflector, where one, two or more lamps may simultaneously be located, depending on current stage of phytowall plants life. Control unit is equipped with timer for submersible pump connection within 10-15 minutes from 3 to 8 times per day depending on moisture and temperature of air in the room, and timer of lamps operation mode switching control.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve operational capabilities and intensity of plant growth.

4 cl, 11 dwg

Desalting complex // 2395459

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: desalting complex comprises desalting glass houses with vegetation pipes and helicopter platform for supplying said desalting glass houses with seafood. Complex incorporates also artesian sector and desalting ponds wherein pond desalters are mounted. Helicopter platform is arranged on water tower intended for accumulation, storage and distribution of sweet water. Note here that pond desalters are provided with power accumulators supplied from two-layer transformable solar panel arranged there above. Note also that pond desalters are furnished with the section that operates on freezing principle and the solar desalting section. Solar panel can increase its surface area in cold seasons via overlaying solar desalter glassing by panel top layer. Pond desalter section that operates on freezing principle is furnished with laser unit supplied by storage battery. Laser unit can actuate jet pumps that feed fluid coolant and mix of crystal ice with brine by directing alternating laser beams through rotary mirror onto light sensitive plates.

EFFECT: better ecology.

2 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of agriculture, namely to growing of plants without earth in special accessories with action of nutrient solution aerosol at root system. Tower-seedbed comprises vertically arranged pipe with location beds for placement of plants and their growth without substrate. Tower is arranged with cavities for flow of thermostatted liquid through them, which is supplied into cavities via distributor. Lower end of pipe has bulge with grooves. Support platform is arranged with bulges. Zones with nutrient solution and thermostatted liquid are separated and sealed with rubber rings. Tower cover is arranged with groove for sealing of internal volume of tower.

EFFECT: invention provides for universality of tower-seedbed application in any climatic zones.

3 dwg

FIELD: equipment for growing of plants in growing substrate within heated rooms.

SUBSTANCE: apparatus has growing volume defined by wall spaced from base and made from rigid material. Wall is equipped with space regulating device made in the form of metal strips fixed on wall and connected to cover. Growth chambers are mounted on monolith base formed from cement mixture having thermal conductance of 0.87-0.9 W/(m· C). Base has internal shielded double-core heating cable having power level of 165-170 W. Cable is laid in zigzag manner with 60-90 mm pitch.

EFFECT: optimal microclimate parameters for growing of plants provided by regulating air admission into growth chamber volume and maintaining predetermined temperature of growing substrate.

2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of plant breeding, particularly growing plants in greenhouses. In the method fertilising plants is carried out with accelerated formation of plant tissues, grown in greenhouses, by irrigation with water saturated with carbon dioxide to the concentration of 50 ml of gaseous CO2 per 1 litre of water, at the water temperature in the range of 12-20°C. At that the watering of plants is carried out three times a day.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce the time of growing, to increase yields and to use environmentally safe fertiliser.

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