Formwork block for manufacturing solid structures and method of solid wall erection

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: formwork block for manufacturing of multi-layer solid structures comprises embedded boards and links, transverse reinforcement, and also formwork shields, with edges made as capable of joining with other formwork shields, in which the specified shields are placed in the space between the specified shields and are connected with them (shields) by means of specified links as capable of non-breaking separation of specified shields from the specified links after pouring of fluid material into the specified space and its (material) hardening.

EFFECT: increased strength of a structure.

15 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the construction and manufacture of multilayer monolithic structures.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

Widely known blocks of a fixed casing, which is connected layers of materials having high strength, such as layers of reinforced concrete and layers of materials with high thermal insulation properties, for example layers of foam.

There is a method of erecting a wall with the use of permanent formwork, including installation on the Foundation of one or more series of hollow blocks made by casting in metal moulds peskobetona mixtures, installation of valves in the channels formed by the communicating cavities of the blocks with the subsequent filling of the insulating material (RF patent for the invention № 2104374). The wall, built in such way consists, essentially, of three layers: an inner insulation layer and two outer layers of concrete. However, the internal insulating layer is not continuous, since it is interrupted concrete bridges connecting the layers of concrete and creating bridges.

Known block for a fixed casing comprising two opposed spaced plates made of porous insulating material, sealed plastic jumpers and forming between themselves, the issue is ransta for mounting the valve and fill flowable material, capable of solidification, the upper, lower and side surfaces of the plates have protrusions and corresponding recesses for connection with other blocks, each jumper is made of three parts, and the marginal parts of the jumpers have elongated elements inside plates and end plates arranged on the outer surfaces of the plates (U.S. patent No. 6363683). No lining on the plates of the unit casing, taking into account the low strength of the insulating porous material, it is not possible to further increase the allowable size of the layer of flowable material filling the space between the plates in one operation fill, which increases the total time of the pauses required to achieve the filling material specified strength, and increases the duration of construction of the wall.

Known block for a fixed casing comprising two opposed spaced plates made of porous insulating material, sealed plastic jumpers and forming between themselves a space for mounting the valve and fill flowable material capable of solidification, the upper, lower and side surfaces of the plates have protrusions and corresponding recesses for connection with other blocks, plates with their outer side nanesennoi facing by the method of partial immersion in a form, filled with a flowable material capable of hardening (RF patent for the invention № 2253719). Drawing on the outer sides of the plates block cladding layer partially to increase the durability and reliability of the unit. However, the proposed process of applying a cladding layer to be labor - intensive, requires special equipment and large production areas, which contributes to the appreciation of the blocks.

Known block of permanent formwork, consisting of inner and outer concrete panels and connecting elements, in which the plates are connected with plastic ties supplied with eyelets for fastening them to the plates, between themselves and with the ties adjacent blocks, plates contain cage nuts installed in their manufacture in quantity, depending on the number of couplers used in the same block, in which are screwed the mounting hooks, concatenate with one of the lugs of the screed and enabling smooth adjustment of the verticality of installation plates by changing the depth of screwing hooks into the cage nuts with different thickness of the wall mounting hooks different sizes, as well as by sequential coupling of several plastic ties bolted connections, heat insulation material is installed on the inner side of the outer plate (U.S. Pat is NT the Russian Federation for invention № 2342502). The disadvantages of this block are the complexity and difficulty of attachment between a disposable heavy concrete slabs with embedded nuts, hooks and ties that reduce the strength, and the connection blocks together in a row wire does not provide sufficient reliability.

The INVENTION

The present invention is to reduce the complexity of the process of constructing a multilayer monolithic structures lightweight reusable formwork, increasing the strength of both the casing and constructed and manufactured using structures with robust reinforcement, providing specified physico-chemical characteristics in layers and between the layers of the structure.

The technical result consists in the fact that when using the jumpers connecting formwork panels with zamonolichivanie stove in the manufacture of multilayer monolithic structures comprising outer and inner layers are made entirely of fluid curable material, due to the fact that these bridges can be made of the same material from which the layers and shuttering panels used to form the layers are removable, can be achieved homogeneity of the layers, which eliminates the manifestation of harmful effects caused neodyne the new coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials.

The task is solved by the fact that the shuttering block for the manufacture of monolithic structures contains zamonolichivanie slab and lintel reinforcement and shuttering panels, with edges made with the possibility of joining with other formwork panels, in which the said plate is placed in the space between the said panels and connected with them (shields) through the above-mentioned jumper with the possibility of non-destructive separation of the mentioned boards from the above jumpers after pouring flowable material in said space and its (material) hardening.

Mentioned shields can be made of polymeric thermoplastic materials. In one preferred form of execution of the said panels have a honeycomb cross-section or stiffeners.

Mentioned bridges can be made of a material which is filled mesohaline space.

Mentioned jumpers connected with the said shields and plates with an adhesive, preferably with polyurethane glue.

Mentioned transverse reinforcement, speaking in miopliocene space may be partially zamonolichennyj in the above-mentioned plate or inserted into holes made in the above-mentioned plates.

Mentioned transverse reinforcement, speaking in miopliocene simple is ansto, may be located differently inclined relative to the planes of the plates.

The said valve may be made of a material selected from the group consisting of composite material, fiberglass, basaltoplastica or carbon fiber.

Between these shields can be placed, at least one additional plate. Mentioned plate and the additional plate can be made of different materials.

The task is also solved by the use of the above block in the way of erection of monolithic walls, which connect the said blocks together, by rows, one row above the other, fill in the space between the shields flowable material capable of hardening, permit referred to harden, separating the said shields from monolithic wall after hardening.

In one embodiment of the method in the Assembly of the formwork prior to pouring mentioned flowable material in said space between boards establish rebar or reinforcing mesh.

In yet another embodiment of the method in the Assembly of the formwork prior to pouring mentioned flowable material in said space between boards establish the elements of the mortgage for the construction of communications.

The invention is illustrated precincts of the AMI:

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

The figure 1 shows a General view of formwork unit assembled in forming the conductor, giving him the exact spatial geometry. The block contains the plate 1, is installed between the panels 2, the transverse reinforcement 4, partially zamonolichennyj into the plate with protruding from the plate ends and jumper 3, which are glued or Rethimno connect with shields. The shields are made of grooved along the perimeter of the plates.

The figure 2 shows the scheme of the Assembly of formwork shuttering blocks. Shuttering blocks, in accordance with the method, joined together in a row in the grooves of the boards or the connecting joint 6 and the angular 7 elements on jumper blocks laid horizontal reinforcement 5, later in the grooves of the panels of the bottom row of blocks is established similarly the subsequent rows of blocks, upon reaching the desired height of the formwork it is inserted vertical armature 5, and at the same time it is possible to install embedded items and laying of engineering communications. After Assembly of the casing as a whole in the space between the shields and plate fill flowable material can withstand before hardening and the acquisition of strength, and the dismantling carry out the removal of the formwork panels, leaving the jumper in the monolith of the flowable material.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION/p>

Proposed shuttering block provides as bookmark horizontal and vertical reinforcement to ensure consistency americium layers, and a transversely-inclined valve connecting the layers together. With this arrangement, reinforcement and reinforcing elements reinforcement acquires spatial form, able to perceive the full range of loads acting on the structure. This is especially important when a significant difference of linear expansion of the material layers and large temperature differences between layers. The use for the manufacture of reinforcing elements made of composite materials having low thermal conductivity, to avoid the formation of cold bridges through the plate forming the layer structures. The use of formwork frameless polymer grooved boards with a tight connection between itself and the lack of adhesion of the material of the shields to material poured into mesohaline space, allows to reach not only a smooth outer surface, but also significantly reduce the weight of the formwork panels, and hence the cost.

Thus, the implementation of the invention will simplify the process of erection and fabrication of multilayer monolithic structures lightweight frameless polymer formwork panels while increasing the strength and reliability of connection with the OEB of different materials in the construction to improve the quality of their surface.

1. Shuttering block for the manufacture of multilayer monolithic structures containing zamonolichivanie slab and lintel reinforcement and shuttering panels, with edges made with the possibility of joining with other formwork panels, in which the said plate is placed in the space between the said panels and connected with them (shields) through the above-mentioned jumper with the possibility of non-destructive separation of the mentioned boards from the above jumpers after pouring flowable material in said space and its (material) hardening.

2. The unit according to claim 1 in which the said panels are made of polymeric thermoplastic materials.

3. The unit according to claim 2, in which the said panels have a honeycomb cross-section or stiffeners.

4. The unit according to claim 1, in which the above-mentioned jumper is made from a material, which is filled mesohaline space.

5. The unit according to claim 1, in which the said jumper connected to the said boards and boards with glue.

6. The unit according to claim 5, in which the said jumper connected to the said boards and slabs using polyurethane glue.

7. The unit according to claim 1, in which the mentioned transverse reinforcement partially zamonolichennyj in the above-mentioned plate.

8. The unit according to claim 1, in which the mentioned transverse reinforcement is inserted into the holes, the implementation of the data in the above-mentioned plates.

9. The unit according to claim 1, in which the mentioned transverse reinforcement have differently inclined relative to the planes of the plates.

10. The unit according to claim 1, in which said armature is made of a material selected from the group consisting of composite material, fiberglass, basaltoplastica or carbon fiber.

11. The unit according to claim 1, in which between these boards posted at least one additional plate.

12. The block of claim 11 in which the said plate and the additional plate made from different materials.

13. The method of construction monolithic walls, which use blocks according to any one of claims 1-12,
join the said blocks together, by rows one above the other,
fill in the space between the shields flowable material capable of hardening,
allow referred to harden,
separate the said shields from monolithic wall after hardening.

14. The method according to item 13, in which to fill the mentioned flowable material in said space between boards establish longitudinal rebar or reinforcing mesh.

15. The method according to item 13, in which to fill the mentioned flowable material in said space between boards establish the elements of the mortgage for the construction of communications.



 

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1 tbl, 8 dwg

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SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.

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30 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.

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30 cl, 22 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for concreting structures with application of a non-detachable reinforced concrete and (or) reinforced cement formwork, including treatment of the active surface of the formwork with application of vertical chases and laying with vibration of a concrete mix into the formwork, prior to laying of the concrete mix into a non-detachable reinforced concrete and (or) reinforced cement formwork, the concrete mix is exposed to preliminary electric heating with alternating current to temperatures exceeding by 25-45° the formwork active surface temperature, besides, treatment of the formwork active surface is carried out with a water jet of high pressure 8-16 atm. in 4-8 hours after formwork moulding, at the same time application of additional inclined chases onto the active surface of the formwork is carried out at the angle of 45±15° relative to vertical chases, and vertical and inclined chases are applied by means of mechanical cutting.

EFFECT: higher strength characteristics of a joint between old and new concretes, increased durability of a structure and intensification of concrete works.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: external multilayer cast-in-place wall of a multistory building comprises cast-in-place concrete layers, a heat insulation layer with air holes and separated with a flat slot, connecting concrete layers of connection arranged in holes, besides, holes for arrangement of connections are arranged in the form of vertical air channels, at the same time connections are arranged in pairs at the distance from each other equal to the thickness of the vertical air channel, and each connection comprises at least four serially connected elements, besides, spatial arrangement of appropriate elements in each of pairwise arranged connections is accordingly made in the form of a narrowing and expanding figure. On the inner surface of the heat insulation layer at the side of the air hole there are curvilinear grooves, besides, on one part of the insulation layer separated with the flat slot, the tangent of curvilinear grooves have direction along with the motion of an hour hand, and on the second part of the heat insulation layer the tangent of curvilinear grooves has a direction opposite to the travel of the hour hand.

EFFECT: maintenance of normalised heat insulation parameters of external multilayer cast-in-place wall under changing weather-climate conditions of operation, especially under negative temperatures of ambient air, higher efficiency of operation.

3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: set of a leave-in-place form comprises a main wall block, an universal clip to fix wall blocks to each other, an above-opening link and a cover roof block. Blocks of a leave-in-place form are made of a hard polyurethane foam having high heat insulation and noise-absorbing properties with higher chemical resistance to exposure to salts available in concretes (aerated concretes), and also have a fabricated decorative finish of an outer surface on the face side made as a whole with the block, and at the inner side the block has a melted-in sheet profiled in accordance with the surface geometry on its surface, and/or an expanded steel sheet, and/or a close-meshed net.

EFFECT: higher efficiency in production of civil and installation works, higher extent of adhesive engagement between finishing lining and a block of a leave-in-place form and higher adhesion of blocks with monolithic concrete, universality of elements.

5 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: frame is manufactured, onto which different covers are attached by different methods. At the same time a grilled frame of a structure is made from a rebar, the frame bottom is poured into a foundation or a prepared base, openings are made in it for windows, doors, manholes, jambs of windows, doors, manholds are mounted into them, pipes are fixed to the frame for installation of utilities, the grilled frame is filled with facing tiles from inside and outside the structure, the facing tiles are coated with insulant, soundproof, solar-control or decorative tiles of a cover in compliance with the selected relief and pattern, gaps between tiles are sealed by mutual collapsing of cover tiles sealers, the space between facing tiles is filled in layers with a filler that is solid after hardening and not dismountable. If it is required to replace the cover tiles, they are removed from a dovetail fixture and are replaced with new ones. Also a device is proposed that realises the method.

EFFECT: improved technology of construction.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect a site-cast skeleton building with decorative outer finish includes casting of foundation, tying of a reinforcement structure of the ground floor, casting walls of the ground floor with the help of removable curbs, installation of crossbar reinforcement and casting ceiling slabs and crossbars, tying a reinforcement structure of the first and subsequent floors with casting of walls, installation of crossbars reinforcement and casting ceiling slabs and crossbars of subsequent floors and erection of a roof, at the same time, when the foundation is cast, it is previously filled with vertical reinforcement fills and fastening supports for removable wall curbs, and when ceiling slabs are cast, reinforcement fills are tied to reinforcement of the lower floor walls, and fastening supports are laid for removable wall curbs, besides, the reinforcement structure of walls is tied to reinforcement fills, leaving vertical openings for windows and doors, then removable wall curbs are vertically lowered on top of the reinforcement structure of the walls, and curbs comprise a hollow cover and a tray with a wall stock fabricated at a plant and including at least one decorative and at least one heat-insulating layers, joined to each other by means of reinforcement elements, arranged with the decorative layer outside, and the hollow cover of the removable wall curb the reinforcement structure of the wall bearing layer is arranged, then removable wall curbs are fixed in the fastening supports of the foundation with fastening ties, and gaps around the reinforcement inside hollow covers of the removable wall curbs are filled with concrete, forming a bearing concrete layer of the building wall and leaving the upper area of the removable wall curb free of concrete, adjacent to the heat-insulating layer of the wall stock, besides, after removal of the removable wall curbs on the bearing concrete layer of the wall, in the upper area free of concrete there are crossbar curbs arranged as adjacent to the wall stock, at the same time prior to filling of the last floor slab it is filled with fastening elements for the roof frame.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensity and time required to erect a building, improved universality of the building frame structure with site-cast walls and improvement of its operational characteristics, simplified process of concrete mix pouring in erection of the building wall, increased reliability, strength and seismic stability of a facility.

6 cl, 23 dwg

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