Photoluminescent polymer solar cell

FIELD: physics, optics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to semiconductor devices, particularly polymer solar cells. Disclosed is a polymer solar cell having, arranged in series: a supporting base in the form of a transparent polymer photoluminescent substrate, a transparent anode layer, a photoelectrically active layer and a metal cathode layer, wherein the polymer photoluminescent substrate consists of an optically transparent polymer containing a luminophore, selected from luminophores of general formula (I), where R is a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical from said series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from said series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3.

EFFECT: high efficiency and simple technique of producing flexible polymer solar cells.

8 cl, 7 dwg, 2 ex

 

The invention relates to semiconductor devices, in particular for converting solar light into electrical energy and can be used in the production of solar cells. To reduce their cost is actively carrying out research in the field of organic solar cells, where the active layer of solar cells made of organic semiconductor material. It is believed that organic solar cells can be produced based on the technologies developed in the polymer and printing industry.

The simplest organic solar cell (solar battery) consists of two electrodes, one of which is transparent, between which the active layer of the organic semiconductor. How it works is that sunlight is the charge separation in the active layer with subsequent transfer to the electrodes, thus, there is an electric current. One option for organic solar cells are polymer solar cells, in which the active layer are polymers with a low bandgap.

To date, demonstrated a variety of polymer solar cells [Nature Photonics 6, 153-161 (2012)]. These devices have several advantages compared to traditional neorg the organic solar cells. First, the possibility of using mortar methods for their production, which greatly simplifies the technological scheme of production and cheaper products. Secondly, polymer solar cells can be made on flexible substrates, which enables us to provide solar cells of different shape. In addition, polymer solar cells much easier inorganic, which reduces their production costs for the installation, operation, and disposal. This is of particular importance when primeneniye in those areas where light weight solar cell is one of the critical parameters (aviation, space, etc). However, when using polymer solar cells observed the effect of degradation and efficiency of such devices to date, greater less than that of the commercially available silicon analogues.

To improve the efficiency of polymer solar cells is proposed to use fluorescent concentrators, which effectively absorb in the spectral region where the absorption of the solar spectrum, the active layer of the solar cell is negligible, and emit in the spectral region where the absorption of the active layer of the solar cell is most effective. Thus, high efficiency photoluminescence phosphor and optimization of the spectral ratio is Estia absorption spectra-emission phosphor, the active layer and the Sun can be remarkably increase the efficiency of the solar cell [Solar Energy Materials &Solar Cells 93 (2009) 1182-1194].

Usually luminescent concentrators consist of a matrix and a phosphor dispersed therein. To the matrix presented several requirements. First, the matrix should have a high transmittance in the region of absorption of the active layer. Secondly, in the matrix should be well distributed phosphors. Thirdly, an important thermal and photostability of the matrix, as it for a long time will be subject to sunlight exposure. The most common matrices used various organic polymers (poly (methyl methacrylate), polystyrene, polycarbonate and others) [J. Sol. Energy-Trans. ASME 129 (3) (2007) 272-276], inorganic crystals (Al2O3and CaF2) [Mater. Sci. Forum 239-241 (1997) 311-314], organosilicon polymers [J. Lumin. 87-89 (2000) 1257-1259]. Polymeric materials can have high transparency in the visible spectral range, good resistance to external environment and high mechanical strength [Synthetic Met. 154 (2005) 61-64]. In addition, polymers are well processed and are widely used in industry. Inorganic crystalline materials have high transparency for the entire spectrum of sunlight and high photostability, however, the difficulty of processing and greater fragility does not allow IP is to alsowhat such materials when creating flexible solar panels [Sol. Energy Mater. 2 (1979) 19-29.]

The phosphors used in fluorescent concentrators must possess: high quantum yield of luminescence; effective absorption in the spectral region where the absorption of the solar spectrum, the active layer of the solar cell is negligible; the luminescence spectrum that matches the absorption spectrum of the active layer; a large Stokowski shift; high photostability. The main phosphors used in fluorescent concentrators can be divided into three groups: quantum dots [Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87 (2005) 395-409], organic phosphors [Prog. Photovolt: Res. Appl. (2009) 191-197] and ions or complexes of rare earth elements [J. Lumin. 87-89 (2000) 1257-1259]. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanocrystals, optical properties which depend on their size. They have strong fluorescent properties, high extinction coefficients, and good photostability. On the other side of the spectrum of luminescence significantly overlaps with the absorption spectrum, which leads to high absorption. In addition, they are quite expensive [J. Sel. Top.Quantum Electron. 14 (2008) 1312-1322]. Organic phosphors have a large extinction coefficient, quantum yield of luminescence, close to unity, and can be easily combined with the polymer matrix [Dyes Pigments 11 (1989) 303-317]. Their main drawback is the small Article is kowski shift, which leads to large losses [J. Appl. Phys. 23 (1980) 369-372]. Ions or complexes of rare earth elements have a high quantum yield, but extremely low absorption coefficient [Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 91 (2007) 23 8-249]. The most promising is the use as phosphors molecules, with the effect of molecular antennas, i.e. effectively absorbing energy in a wide range and emitting in a narrow, far more.

Known luminescent solar concentrator, which is a flat rectangular plastic plate containing phosphors, with the solar cells placed on the end plate [US 20110253198]. The principle of operation of the hub is greater absorption of light by the surface of the plate and the reradiation it in the end plate, where the active layer of the solar cell. The use of this scheme, however, does not allow you to host a large number of cells on the same wafer, which has a negative effect on the ratio of the occupied area to the efficiency of the battery.

Closest to the present invention is a technical solution known from US 20110132455, which describes a solar battery, comprising the following layers: a transparent substrate; an optical layer, which reflects light with a wavelength of 500-730 nm and passes light with a wavelength of from 300 to 600 nm; fluorescent lamps is ntny layer, which emits light with a wavelength of from 500 to 730 nm; photovoltaic element. This solar panel has a number of disadvantages. First, using the optical layer, with the characteristics specified in the application does not allow the active layer of the solar cell to directly absorb a substantial part of the spectral region (500-730 nm), where the spectrum of sunlight is more intense, leading to a reduction in the efficiency of solar panels (i.e. efficiency). Secondly, the multilayer system complicates the technology of production, and, consequently, increases the cost of the product.

The problem to which the invention is directed, is the expansion of the range of flexible polymer solar cells through the creation of new solar cell (see Fig 1), where the substrate is used, an optically transparent polymer containing a phosphor, which effectively absorb in the spectral region where the absorption of the solar spectrum, the active layer of the solar cell is negligible, and emits in the spectral region where the absorption of the active layer of the solar cell is most effective, which would increase the efficiency of solar panels. The lack of an optical layer, which reflects light with a wavelength of 500-730 nm and passes light with a wavelength of from 300 to 600 nm allows fotoa the active layer to directly absorb a large part of the spectrum of sunlight. Combining the substrate and the luminescent layer in a single polymer substrate and the exclusion necessary in the optical layer would greatly simplify the production technology.

The technical result, which can be obtained by carrying out the invention: increase efficiency and simplify the production technology of flexible polymer solar cells.

The problem is solved in that created a new polymer solar cell that contains one:

the carrier substrate in the form of a transparent photoluminescent polymer substrate;

a transparent layer of the anode;

photoelectrically the active layer and the metal layer of the cathode,

this photoluminescent polymer substrate comprises an optically transparent polymer containing a phosphor selected from a number of phosphors with the General formula (I),

where R is the Deputy of a range of: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl group; a linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; a linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulfur atom; a branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkeneamine group; Ar represents the same or different is allenbyi or heteroarenes radicals, chosen from a number of: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazol-2,5-diyl, substituted fluoren-4,4'-diyl, substituted cyclopentadiene-2,7-diyl; Q denotes a radical of the above number for Ar; X represents at least one radical selected from the above number for Ar and/or a radical from the series: 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, anthracene-9,10-diyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2,5-diyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-3,5-diyl, perylene-3,10-diyl; L is 1 or 3 or 7, preferably 1 or 3; n means an integer from the range from 2 to 4; and m means an integer from the range from 1 to 3; k is an integer in the range from 1 to 3.

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the phosphor is a phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 1, m is equal to 1 (Figure 2).

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the phosphor is a phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 2, m is equal to 1 (Figure 3).

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the optically transparent polymer selected from a number of polymers, including at least:

polymethylmethacrylate, polystyrene, sex is a carbonate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylenterephthalat, polysulfone, polyethersulfone. You can also use any other polymers, provided that they have a high transmittance in the region of absorption of the active layer of solar cells and dissolve well phosphors.

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the content of phosphor in the polymer is from 0.01 to 3%. Depending on the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate, preferably from 0.05 to 1%, most preferably from 0.1 to 0.2% when the thickness of the substrate 100 to 200 microns.

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that photoelectrically active layer consists of a mixture of semiconducting polymer with a small bandgap and a fullerene derivative. You can use any polymer with a narrow gap and soluble derivatives of fullerenes, provided that they effectively absorb in the field of emission of the used phosphor.

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the anode layer is made of highly conductive complex polyethyleneoxide (PEDOT) with polystyrenesulfonate (PSS). At the same time as the anode material can be used, and other transparent conductive materials with high injection holes. For example, a super-conducting polietilen oxititan, or polyaniline, or any soluble complex, or tin oxide doped with indium (ITO).

In particular, the solar cell is characterized by the fact that the cathode layer is made of metal selected from a number of metals, including at least: CA, Al, Yb, Mg.

A new technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the optically transparent polymer substrate, in contrast to the known device, the added phosphor selected from chemical compounds of General formula (I). These phosphors are characterized by the fact that absorb light in the short wavelength region of the spectrum where the absorption of the active layer is small, and lumines cent in the long-wave region of the spectrum where the absorption of light by the active layer is large, i.e. they are effective smectites spectrum (Figure 2 and 3). Silicone smesiteli spectrum of General formula (I)have the stability of a fundamentally higher stability of organic materials, and the efficiency of energy transfer exceeds 80%. In addition they possess good solubility, allowing us to obtain molecular solutions of polymers that can be used as a transparent substrate. The unique structure of organosilicon smesiteli spectrum of General formula (I) provides a large Stokowski shift that reduces losses due to self-absorption. High molar absorption coefficient p is positioned most effectively convert shortwave radiation by using low concentrations of phosphor.

Additionally, the use of photoluminescent substrate instead of the multilayer structure (substrate, a luminescent layer) in the known device allows to simplify the technology of manufacture of the device.

Compounds of General formula (I) obtained according to the method described in patent RU 2396290.

Design of polymer solar cell (see Figure 1) includes the following steps. On photoluminescent substrate (1) (a polymer of the vinyl-containing phosphor) Paladino inflicted anode (2) of the complex polyethyleneoxide with polystyrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS); then the active layer (3) from a mixture of semiconducting polymer with a small bandgap and a fullerene derivative; then the cathode (4) of aluminum. The thickness of the photoluminescent substrate is in the range from 50 μm to 5 mm, the concentration of the phosphor in the polymer ranges from 0.01 to 3 wt%, depending on the thickness of the polymeric substrate. The thickness of the layer of the anode (2) PEDOT:PSS is in the range from 40 to 80 nm. The thickness of the active layer (3) is in the range from 50 to 120 nm. The thickness of the cathode (4) is in the range from 40 to 80 nm. The mixture of polymer and phosphor was obtained by extrusion. Then extruded by using a press. The layer of the anode and the active layer were obtained from solutions by the method of rotating the substrate using orthogonal solvents. To obtain a layer of the cathode, used Ter the practical evaporation in a vacuum.

In made in this or in any other way the device represented in figure 1 under the influence of sunlight is the charge separation in the active layer with subsequent transfer to the electrodes, thus, there is an electric current.

Figure 1 shows the General diagram of the device of the solar cell in longitudinal section, where (1) means photoluminescent substrate containing a phosphor; (2) a transparent anode; (3) - photoelectrically active layer, and (4) metal cathode.

Figure 2 presents the chemical structure of phosphor selected from a number of phosphors with the General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 1, m is 1. The phosphor of pogloshayet light in the short wavelength region of the spectrum (300-420 nm)where the absorption of the active layer slightly, and luminesce in the long wavelength spectral region (500-700 nm)where the absorption of light by the active layer most effectively (the phosphor 1).

Figure 3 presents the chemical structure of phosphor selected from a number of phosphors with the General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 2, m is 1. The phosphor absorbs light in the short wavelength region of the spectrum (300-420 nm)where the absorption of the active the layer slightly, and luminesce in the long-wave region of the spectrum (550-750 nm)where the absorption of light by the active layer most effectively (the phosphor 2).

Figure 4 presents: spectrum of light (1), the absorption spectrum of the phosphor 1 (2), the luminescence spectrum of the phosphor 1 (3), the absorption spectrum of the active layer (4).

Figure 5 presents: spectrum of light (1), the absorption spectrum of the phosphor 2 (2), the luminescence spectrum of the phosphor 2 (3), the absorption spectrum of the active layer (4).

Figure 6 presents the dependence of the relative efficiency of the solar cell on the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate, with different content of phosphor 1 in the polymer (1-0,1 wt%, 2-0,2% of the mass).

Figure 7 presents the dependence of the relative efficiency of the solar cell on the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate, with different content of phosphor 2 in the polymer (1-0,1 wt%, 2-0,2% of the mass).

Comparative analysis of the claimed device in comparison with the known convincingly confirms the achievement of a new technical result: increase efficiency and simplify the production technology of flexible polymer solar cells.

The following examples confirmed the achievement of a new technical result (increase efficiency) based on the study of the relative efficiency of the solar cell on the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate, when R is sliczna the content of phosphor in the optically transparent polymer.

Example 1. The device (Figure 1) where in the layer (1) is used as a phosphor, the phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 1, m is 1. In this case, the calculations show that when the concentration of the phosphor of 0.1% of the mass in the optically transparent polymer optimal thickness of the photoluminescent substrate is in the range of 200-250 μm, the efficiency of the solar battery can be improved by 17%. If the concentration of the phosphor 0.2% when the same thickness of the photoluminescent substrate efficiency is 18% (see Fig.6).

Example 2. The device (Figure 1) where in the layer (1) is used as a phosphor, the phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 2, m is 1. In this case, the calculations show that when the concentration of the phosphor of 0.1% of the mass in the optically transparent polymerionline the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate is in the range 190-240 μm, while the efficiency of solar cells can be increased by 30%. If the concentration of the phosphor 0.2% of this increase in efficiency is achieved when the thickness of the photoluminescent substrate 90-120 µm (Fig.7.).

1. Polymer solar cell, containing in series is:
the carrier substrate in the form of a transparent photoluminescent polymer substrate;
a transparent layer of the anode;
photoelectrically active layer and
the metal layer of the cathode,
this photoluminescent polymer substrate comprises an optically transparent polymer containing a phosphor selected from a number of phosphors with the General formula (I),

where R is the Deputy of a range of: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl group; a linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; a linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulfur atom; a branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkeneamine group; Ah represents the same or different allenbyi or heteroarenes radicals selected from the series of: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazol-2,5-diyl, substituted fluoren-4,4'-diyl, substituted cyclopentadiene-2,7-diyl; Q denotes a radical of the above number for AG; X is at least one radical selected from the above number for Ar and/or a radical from the series: 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, anthracene-9,10-diyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2,5-diyl, 1-phenyl-2-Piras the Lin-3,5-diyl, perylene-3,10-diyl; L is 1 or 3 or 7, preferably 1 or 3; n means an integer from the range from 2 to 4; and m means an integer from the range from 1 to 3; k is an integer in the range from 1 to 3.

2. Solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the phosphor is a phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 1, m is 1.

3. Solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the phosphor is a phosphor of General formula (I), where R is hexyl, Ar, and Q means thienyl-2,5-diyl, X means 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,7-diyl, L is 1, n is 3, k is 2, m is 1.

4. Solar cell according to claim 1, characterized in that the optically transparent polymer selected from a number of polymers, including at least: polystyrene, polycarbonate, polymethylmethacrylate, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylenterephthalat, polysulfone, polyester-sulfon.

5. Solar cell according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the content of phosphor in the photoluminescent polymer substrate ranges from 0.01 to 3%.

6. Solar cell according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that photoelectrically active layer consists of a mixture of semiconducting polymer with a small bandgap and a soluble fullerene derivative.

7. Solar cell one is C claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the anode layer is made of highly conductive complex polyethyleneoxide with polystyrenesulfonate.

8. Solar cell according to one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the layer of the cathode is made of metal selected from a number of metals, including at least: CA, Al, Yb, Mg.



 

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7 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: system of concentrator photovoltatic plants comprises Sun-tracking concentrator photovoltaic plants arranged in the form of a rectangular lattice with a distance Xns between neighbouring concentrator photovoltaic plants in direction from the north to the south and the distance Xwe between neighbouring concentrator photovoltaic plants in direction from the west to the east, at the same time distances Xns and Xwe satisfy the following ratios simultaneously: Xns ≥ (a2 +b2)1/2, m; Xns ≥ 0.0105 · φ + 1.42, m; Xwe = B · Slp / Xns, m; where a - length of a light-perceiving surface of a concentrator photovoltaic plant, m; b - width of a light-perceiving surface of a concentrator photovoltaic plant, m; φ - geographic latitude of the place, °; B=0.0026·φ2-0.0584·φ+4.047 - non-dimensional coefficient for detection of the earth area required for placement of 1 m2 of the light-perceiving surface of the concentrator photovoltaic plant; Sne - area of the light-perceiving surface of the concentrator photovoltaic plant, m2; and the earth area Sse for placement of the system of concentrator photovoltaic plants meets the following ratio: Sse=N·B·Slp, m2; where: N - number of concentrator photovoltaic plants, pcs.

EFFECT: system makes it possible to provide for maximum efficiency of conversion of arriving radiation into power with permissible losses of energy as a result of shading, and minimum area of earth surface required for placement of a system of concentrator photoelectric plants.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed are novel branched oligoarylsilanes of general formula (I) , where R denotes a substitute selected from: linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; including separated by at least one oxygen or sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diiyl; Q denotes a radical selected from the series for Ar; X denotes at least one radical selected from the series for Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diiyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diiyl, perylene-3,10-diiyl; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3. Also disclosed is a method of producing said compounds.

EFFECT: obtaining novel compounds characterised by high luminescence efficiency, efficient intramolecular energy transfer from some molecule fragments to others and high thermal stability.

20 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl, 15 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to organic light-emitting diode (OLED) solid-state light sources used to make colour information screens and colour display devices with high consumer properties, as well as cheap and efficient light sources. Disclosed is an OLED, having a base in form of a transparent substrate having a transparent anode layer and a metal cathode layer with a light-emitting layer in between, which is based on a dendronised polyaryl silane of general formula (I) or (II) , where n is an integer from 5 to 1000.

EFFECT: wide range of OLEDs with high operational characteristics, particularly in the radiation range of 400-700 nm, which enables use thereof as light sources.

7 cl, 3 dwg, 6 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical engineering of organosilicon compounds. Disclosed are novel dendronised polyarylsilanes of general formula

, where R denotes a substitute from: linear C1-C12 or branched C3-C20 alkyl groups; linear C1-C12 or branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear C1-C12 or branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups, separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diiyl; substitured or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diiyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diiyl. X denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from said group for Ar and/or a radical from 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diiyl, anthracene-9,10-diiyl; L equals 0 or a an integer from 1, 3, 7, 15; k is an integer from 1 to 6; m is an integer from 1 to 6; t is an integer from 2 to 10; n is an integer from 5 to 10000. A method of producing said compounds is also disclosed.

EFFECT: synthesis of novel chemical compounds, characterised by high efficiency of luminescence, high molar absorption coefficient and high thermal stability.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of producing polycarbosilanes. Disclosed is a method of producing polycarbosilane via thermal decomposition of polydimethylsilane in the presence of zirconium tetrachloride in an inert atmosphere at excess pressure of 0.4-0.5 MPa in three steps: holding at 350-380°C for 2-10 hours, releasing low-boiling point components and then holding at 350-420°C for 20-30 hours.

EFFECT: method of producing polycarbosilane which enables to cut time and lower temperature of the process.

1 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to macromolecular compounds with a nucleus-shell structure. The invention discloses macromolecular compounds with a nucleus-shell structure, whereby the nucleus has a macromolecular dendritic and hyperbranched structure based on carbon or based on silicon and carbon is bonded to at least three, in particular at least six external atoms through a carbon-based coupling chain (V) which is selected from a group consisting of straight and branched alkylene chains with 2-20 carbon atoms, straight or branched polyoxyalkylene chains, straight or branched siloxane chains or straight or branched carbosilane chains, with straight chains based on carbon oligomeric chains (L) with conjugated double bonds on the entire length. Conjugated chains (L) in each separate case are bonded at the end opposite the coupling chain (V) to one more, specifically, aliphatic, arylaliphatic or oxyaliphatic chain (R) without conjugated double bonds. The chains (V), (L) and (R) form the shell. The invention also discloses a method for synthesis of the said compounds.

EFFECT: novel organic compounds which can be synthesised using conventional solvents and have good semiconductor properties.

16 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to novel branched oligoarylsilanes and their synthesis method. The engineering problem is obtaining branched oligoarylsilanes which contain not less than 5 functional arylsilane links and have a set of properties which enable their use as luminescent materials. The disclosed branched oligoarylsilanes have general formula where R denotes a substitute from: straight or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups; straight or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups separated by at least one oxygen atom; straight or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20 alkenyl groups; Ar denotes identical or different arylene or heteroarylene radicals selected from: substituted or unsubstituted thienyl-2,5-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted phenyl-1,4-diyl, substituted or unsubstituted 1,3-oxazole-2,5-diyl, substituted fluorene-4,4'-diyl, substituted cyclopentadithiophene-2,7-diyl; Q is a radical selected from the same group as Ar; X is at least one radical selected from the same group as Ar and/or a radical selected from: 2,1,3-benzothiodiazole-4,7-diyl, anthracene-9,10-diyl, 1,3,4-oxadiazole-2,5-diyl, 1-phenyl-2-pyrazoline-3,5-diyl, perylene-3,10-diyl; L equals 1 or 3 or 7 and preferably 1 or 3; n is an integer from 2 to 4; m is an integer from 1 to 3; k is an integer from 1 to 3. The method of obtaining branched oligoarylsilanes involves reaction of a compound of formula where Y is a boric acid residue or its ester or Br or I, under Suzuki reaction conditions with a reagent of formula (IV) A - Xm - A (IV), where A denotes: Br or I, provided that Y denotes a boric acid residue or its ester; or a boric acid residue or its ester, provided that Y denotes Br or I.

EFFECT: obtaining novel compounds distinguished by high luminescence efficiency, efficient intramolecular transfer of energy between molecule fragments and high thermal stability.

24 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of chemical technology of silicon-organic compounds. Technical task lies in synthesis of novel polyarylsilane links including dendrimers of large generations suitable for application as luminescent materials for organic electronics and photonics. Claimed are dendrimers of general formula (I) where R1 stands for substituent from group: linear or branched C1-C20alkyl groups; linear or branched C1-C20alkyl groups separated by at least one oxygen atom; linear or branched C1-C20 alkyl groups separated by at least one sulphur atom; branched C3-C20 alkyl groups separated by at least one silicon atom; C2-C20alkenyl groups; Ar represents, independently for each n and m, similar or different arylene radicals, selected from group: substituted or non-substituted thienyl-2,5-diyl of general formula (II-a) substituted or non-substituted phenyl-1,4-diyl of general formula (II-b) substituted or non-substituted 1,3-oxazol-2,5-diyl of general formula (II-c) substituted fluorene-4,4'-diyl of general formula (II-d) where R2, R3, R4, R5, R6 represent independently on each other H or said above for R1; R7 stands for said above for R1; K is equal 2 or 3 or 4; L is equal 1 or 3 or 7 or 15; m and n represent whole numbers from series from 2 to 6. Method of obtaining dendrimers lies in the following: monodendron of general formula (III) where X represents H or Br or I, first reacts with lithiumising agent of general formula R8Li, where R8 represents linear or branched C1-C10alkyl group, dialkylamide or phenyl group; then obtained compound reacts with functional compound selected from group of compounds of formula (CH3)4-KSiYK, where Y represents Cl, or Br, or -OCH3, or -OC2H5, or -OC3H7, or -OC4H9. Claimed method is technological, use of expensive catalysts is not required.

EFFECT: elaboration of technological method of synthesising novel polyarylsilane dendrimers which does not require use of expensive catalysts.

24 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl, 13 ex

FIELD: organosilicon polymers.

SUBSTANCE: novel polycyclic poly- and copolyorganocyclocarbosiloxanes with variable cycle size including structural motif of general formula: , wherein (1) x=3 or 4 and y=1, (2) x=2 and y=2, (3) x=3, and suitable as preceramic templates for manufacturing oxygen-free silicon carbide ceramics are prepared by Würtz reaction in toluene via interaction of chloro-derivatives of organocarbosilanes with metallic sodium in the form of suspension.

EFFECT: enlarged assortment of preceramic templates.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: organosilicon polymers.

SUBSTANCE: polydimethylsilane is obtained by reaction of dimethyldichlorosilane with sodium at 150-170°C followed by decomposition of unreacted sodium with methyl alcohol, isolation of desired polymer, washing on filter with distilled water, drying on air and the in vacuum. Process is characterized by that sodium reagent is added as deposited on water-soluble solid, incombustible, inorganic substrate.

EFFECT: reduced fire risk of synthesis process and labor intensity of polymer isolation stage.

2 dwg, 1 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for preparing metallopolycarbosilanes. Method involves interaction of polycarbosilanes with molecular mass above 200 Da and with the main chain consisting of links of the formula: [-(R)2Si-CH2-] wherein R means hydrogen atom (H), (C1-C4)-alkyl or phenyl groups with metalloorganic compounds of the formula MXz wherein M means transient metal of III-VIII group of Periodic system; z = 2-4; X means NR12 wherein R1 means (C1-C4)-alkyl group in organic solvent medium at temperatures from 20°C to 400°C under pressure from 5.05 MPa to 0.2 kPA. Method provides preparing fusible soluble polymers with homogeneous distribution of chemically bound metal atoms that elicit high capacity for fiber- and film-formation from solutions or melts that are hardened in thermochemical treatment and provides high yield of ceramic residue in pyrolysis (up to 85 wt.-%).

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

1 tbl, 9 ex

FIELD: chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method for preparing metallopolycarbosilanes. Method involves interaction of polycarbosilanes with molecular mass above 200 Da and with the main chain consisting of links of the formula: [-(R)2Si-CH2-] wherein R means hydrogen atom (H), (C1-C4)-alkyl or phenyl groups with metalloorganic compounds of the formula MXz wherein M means transient metal of III-VIII group of Periodic system; z = 2-4; X means NR12 wherein R1 means (C1-C4)-alkyl group in organic solvent medium at temperatures from 20°C to 400°C under pressure from 5.05 MPa to 0.2 kPA. Method provides preparing fusible soluble polymers with homogeneous distribution of chemically bound metal atoms that elicit high capacity for fiber- and film-formation from solutions or melts that are hardened in thermochemical treatment and provides high yield of ceramic residue in pyrolysis (up to 85 wt.-%).

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

1 tbl, 9 ex

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