Method of afforestation of slopes

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to forestry, in particular agro-forest amelioration, and can be used for afforestation in arid, for example, chalk slopes having soil cover. The method comprises mapping the reafforesting area, digging trenches in rows across the slope with the depth greater than the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil into the trenches, and the rest of the soil near the trenches down the slope, planting of woody plants. Soil of the slopes and bottom of the dug trenches is compacted. In between the rows a part of the soil layer is cut and the trenches are filled with it to form a roll. The soil remaining in between rows is compacted. The woody plants are planted in spring in the formed roll. The soil in the trenches and the soil between the rows is compacted to a density providing maximum water-holding capacity. The soil in between the rows is compacted during the growing seasons before closing crowns in between the rows.

EFFECT: method provides improved survival ability and growth of woody plants by improving their moisture content, nutrient and light regimes.

2 tbl

 

The invention relates to forestry, in particular to agroforestry, and can be used for afforestation in the arid, for example, chalk slopes with soil.

There is a method of afforestation of slopes (banks beamed network) with the preparation of the soil furrows (Kharitonov GA agroforestry systems of Central Russian Upland. - Voronezh publishing house, 1958, 169 C.). The method consists in partial preparation of the soil on the slopes of the furrows. Across the slope of the double passage of the plow turn to both sides of the turf with the creation of furrows. Later in the furrows loosened soil plow with pochvouglubiteley. Then in the furrows Colom create cracks and planting woody plants.

The disadvantage of this method is not good enough survival and growth of woody plants that occur due to lack of moisture and nutrients in the soil slope.

Moisture is lacking woody plants because one part of it, getting on the soil slope with snow melt and rain water that flows down on the surface. Another part of it seeps into the soil layers and flows down the slope-soil or soil under the ground, practically do not linger in the soil and only moistening her upper root horizons. Besides herbaceous plants growing in rows, spend frequent the soil moisture and nutrients, creating competition with the planted woody plants.

There is a method of afforestation of slopes (creshevsky IV, Shatalov VG Forest reclamation and zonal system of erosion control measures. Voronezh, publishing house of Voronezh state University, 1982, 159) prototype. A known solution is to create across a slope ditches 70 centimeters deep (i.e. depth exceeding the thickness of the soil). At the bottom of the ditches fill a previously dug when they are digging humus layer (soil), while the rest dug the earth (soil) and the stones piled next to the gutter, down the slope. Then in ditches planted tree species.

The disadvantage of this method, as in previous similar is not good enough survival and growth of woody plants.

This is primarily due to the lack of the slope soil moisture and nutrients, especially in dry slopes with little soil layer (e.g., undeveloped soil slopes)formed on the Cretaceous sediments, which as you know well, drain the water. Basically, in this case, rain and melt water is partially "roll" down the slope of the surface, and partially drained soil and soil slope into the deeper layers, is not available root systems of woody plants. Soil moisture also spend and weedy herbaceous plants growing in rows and between rows l of the red areas. They are competitors planted tree species for moisture and food. In addition, tall ruderal herbaceous plants and shade newly planted seedlings, seedlings or shoots (in case of creation of planting seeds) tree species, which negatively affect the survival and further growth, forcing them to compete not only for moisture and nutrition, but also for the light.

Thus, the technical result of the claimed solution to the problem is to improve the survival rate and growth devishnik plants by improving their water, food and light modes.

The technical result is reached by the fact that the soils of the slopes and bottom of the dug ditches condense, inter cut off part of the soil layer and fill them ditches with the formation of the roller, and then the rest in the inter-row soil is compacted and formed in the platen spring planted woody plants, and soils in ditches and soil in between rows compacted to the density for maximum water-holding capacity, while the soil in between rows condense during the vegetation periods prior to the closing crowns in rows.

"Povorot slopes and bottom of the dug ditches condense, inter cut off part of the soil layer and fill them ditches with the formation of the cushion, then astavrou the I in the inter-row soil sealing" - these characteristics are essentially private, as in combination with other essential features can achieve a presents the solution of the technical result. Soils of the slopes and bottom of the excavated trenches compacted to the density for maximum water retention (waterproof) capacity (water practically does not pass through the soil and the soil, she retained them). That is, melt and rain water held some time condensed to the maximum water-holding capacity of the soils of the slopes and bottoms of the trenches, which improves the availability of moisture is planted in a formed over the trenches roller woody plants. Rain and melt water in this case hold (accumulate) in the borders created ditches, where there are rows of planting, and do not drain surface or subsurface beyond them. Compacted soils (soil and soil) of the bottom and slopes of ditches in this case is an obstacle to drainage of the water it collects rainwater and melt water within the boundaries of the trenches, that is, in the ranks of the plantations, in the locations of the roots of woody plants. Therefore, the moisture content of such plantations is increasing, which increases its survival and further growth (table 1). The platen above the trenches are partially cut away in the inter-row soil layer to the m fill of the ditch. The cutting part of the soil in between rows of reach just before the destruction of weeds across the top layer of soil in between rows, which consumes moisture, nutrients and shading the young woody plants. Cutting off the top soil layer in rows, with it cut the root system of the grass plants and the amount of their seeds. The seeds and roots of herbaceous plants with soil between the rows fall into the ditch, where newshore the depth of the roots and seeds are killed, and the remaining further destroy the weeding in the rows. Therefore, removal of herbaceous vegetation together with cut the top layer of soil from between the rows and destroy it improves moisture, food mode and the illumination of woody plants, which has a positive effect on the achievement of the technical result is the solution of the problem, i.e. improves survival and growth of woody plants.

Table 1.
The moisture content, the survival and growth of woody plants in forests, created in different ways.
IndicatorsThe placeholderThe claimed solution
The survival rate, %70-7590-95
Growth after creating for the first 5 years, cm (Norway maple).75-80100-110
The content of total moisture in the 50 cm soil layer, mm, 2012 - may 14.100140
-/-/-/-27 July80126
-/-/-/-2 September67100

After removing (cutting) the upper part of the soil from between the rows remaining in the inter-row soil compacted to the density for maximum water retention capacity, which is necessary to melt and rain water did not seep through the soil, treniruojasi deep in the bedrock, such as in the Cretaceous sediments. In the proposed technical solution of the problem of melt and rain water does not seep through the soil between the rows, and running down her compacted to the maximum water-holding capacity of the surface in rows of woody plants, stopping on the slope of the rollers above the trenches. Next melt and rain water absorbed unconsolidated soil rollers planted tree species is, and, seeping through it, fall within the trenches, where the root system of the planted trees. As the soils of the slopes and bottoms of the trenches is also sealed to the state of maximum water-holding capacity and does not let snow melt and rain water, they accumulate and be withheld from further filtering (drainage) within the trenches, where the root system is planted woody plants. All this improves the moisture content, the survival and growth of woody plants, which also has a positive effect on the achievement of the proposed solution technical result. Besides compacted to the state of maximum water-holding capacity of the soil between the rows prevents germination on the surface of seeds of weedy herbaceous plants that falls on it (table 2) and the components of the competition of woody plants for water, power and light. It also contributes to the achievement represented by the solution of the technical result.

In the intercrop remove the upper part of the soil and placed in a ditch with the formation of the platen. As mentioned above, the cushion necessary to detain flowing over the soil surface between the rows of snowmelt and rainwater in the ranks of the plantations, which is still underdeveloped root system of a newly planted trees. In this case, the trees will be better provided owner is Goy, that will have a positive impact on their establishment and further growth.

For education cushion cut off the upper part of the soil (layer) row spacing, while leaving the lower part, which is also compacted to the state of maximum water retention (waterproof) abilities. This is necessary because, as a rule, on the slopes the soil is located on the Cretaceous sediments (soils), which have high drainage (vodopropusknye) ability and ill keep melted snow and rain water even in a compressed state on its surface. If you cut the soil between the rows entirely and leave only the chalky soil, snowmelt and rain water will vertically to drain freely and to leave the spacing at greater depths, and not to act on their surface within rows with root systems of trees, which will reduce the moisture content the plants and adversely affect the achievement of the technical result is the solution of the problem.

Table 2.
Infestation of plants weedy herbaceous plants and their illumination after 5 years after their landing on 27 July 2012.
IndicatorsThe placeholderNumber of weedy herbaceous plants in the intercrop PCs/m2.10-151-2
Number of weedy herbaceous plants in rows PCs/m2.15-178-10
Illumination plantations through 5 years after planting in Kloxo 11 hours at a height of 20 cm from the soil surface.4968

And left in the row of the lower part of the soil layer after compaction to the maximum water-holding capacity holds melt and rain water on the soil surface between the rows of the slope and directs them into the ranks of woody plants, which has a positive effect on improving water plantings.

Created over ditches roller spring planting woody plants because most wetting of the soil, which is filled ditches, make it melt water, as their stock is much more than falls with rain and showers. Therefore, the greatest amount of moisture the soil series has it in the spring and planting at this time of woody plants also improves their survival rate, which has a positive impact on the achievement of the technical result presents a solution to the problem.

The soil in between rows to condense the state of maximum water holding capacity (water resistance) during the vegetation periods prior to the closing CZK planting in rows. These operations are necessary to maintain soil spacing in a compact permanent water retention (waterproof) condition, which improves not only the survival but also growth stands because the best trees with moisture, nourishment and light as possible for a long time. After batting crowns in the spacing becomes impossible to use the technique or tillage tools on horse-drawn for soil compaction due to their obstruction on overgrown rows. Besides, by this time, the root system of woody plants develop so that they become able to provide for themselves moisture and nutrition. Further growth and development of woody plants occurs independently.

Thus each significant feature is necessary, in the aggregate sufficient to achieve the presented solution of the technical result.

The invention is as follows.

Oblastey slope is the steepness of 9-10 degrees. The soil slope is undeveloped, a depth of 12-14 inches. It is one of the varieties of Chernozem soils. The underlying rock and the ground (rock, which formed the soil) is chalk, which has good vodopropusknye (draining) ability. The slope of the southern exposure is quite dry. Covered with grassy vegetation, presents wormwood bitter, sweet clover yellow and grass.

Afforestation slope started with markup forest area. Pegs mark the future series plantations, while the markup series produced across a slope, inter-row spacing was about 3 meters.

In late summer, in the middle of August, dug in the marked rows ditches triangular shape, a depth of about 50 cm, which is significantly lower soil layer slope. The width of the ditches in the upper part was about 80-100 cm. Performed ditches using the grader DZ-98. In the marked rows future plantings were inclined zagubieni middle grader knife and held it to the corner on the future of the series in two or more passes. And the first pass was removed (cut off) the soil at 12-14 cm depth and was putting her up the slope from the ditch. And the second and subsequent passes grader cut the soil to 50 cm depth and laid it beside the ditch down the slope. After that, originally dug and laid near ditches soil using a grader moved again dug ditches so that it con the and naked in a ditch soil. Then, using one section of water-filled smooth skating rink SCVT-1.4 in the unit with the tractor T-40 or horse-drawn by rolling to summarize the soil and the soil under the ground (soil) slope dug ditches to the density for maximum water retention capacity. On the Chernozem soils of the greatest water retention (waterproof) ability occurs when they seal up to 1.5-1.6 g/cm3on other soil types, the greatest water-holding capacity is observed at other densities. This cut the first pass of the grader soil from the ditch and laid back on her bottom closes the draining Cretaceous sediments exposed along the bottom of the ditches second pass of the grader. And after compaction of this soil beneath the slopes of ditches and bottom become waterproof, good holding and accumulating rain and melt water flowing within the ditches from the rows on the slope. Next grader cut off part of the soil from between the rows (in this case, to a depth of 5-7 cm) and fill it ditches with compacted soil and soil (soil) slope and bottom with the formation of the platen. Together with a part cut away of soil from between the rows in ditches get the root system and seeds of herbaceous plants growing on the slope. Getting into ditches significant depth of the roots and seeds of herbaceous plants is round, because they are not able to grow with such depth. Another part of them later killed in a series of mechanical and chemical weed control. Next spring, after the spring snowmelt and the natural moisture of the soil, in the ditches, and the onset of physical maturity in rollers formed over ditches, planted the seedlings of woody plants using tree-planting machine LFM-1 in Assembly with a tractor MTZ-80. After that within 5-7 growing seasons 5-6 times during the growing season (up until the point CZK in rows) to summarize them in the soil with the help of smooth water-filled rollers SCVT-1.4 in the unit with the tractor MTZ-80 and density, providing state of maximum water-holding capacity. In this case supported the density of the soil surface spacing in the range of 1.5-1.6 g/cm3. In this case, first, compacted soil between the rows did not give seeds of herbaceous plants, fallen on it, germination (sprouting seeds at a density of soil, providing its state of maximum water-holding capacity, are unable to pass their roots deep into and die from lack of moisture). Secondly, rain and melt water is not absorbed by it because of its great water-holding capacity, and rolled on its surface in the ranks of the stands, where he absorbed loose soil rollers, fell in PR is outside of the trenches and remained there compacted soil slopes, raising the moisture content, the survival and growth of woody plants plantings. Growing in the ranks of herbaceous plants to crown linkage in the intercrop were destroyed mechanical and chemical weed control.

The way afforestation of slopes, including markup forest area, digging trenches in rows across the slope depths, in excess of the soil layer, stacking the excavated soil in the ditch, and the rest of the soil near the ditches down the slope, planting of woody plants, characterized in that the soils of the slopes and bottom of the dug ditches condense, inter cut off part of the soil layer and fill them ditches with the formation of the roller, and then the rest in the inter-row soil is compacted and formed in the platen spring planted woody plants, and soils in ditches and soil in between rows compacted to the density for maximum water retention capacity while the soil in between rows condense during the vegetation periods prior to the closing crowns in rows.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a vehicle with wedge-shaped mouldboards mounted in front. The trailed frame is made in the form of transverse beams connected to the hitch tongue. The device also comprises skis, the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards of the trailed frame are kinematically connected to the skis and the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards are mounted with the ability arranged to gauge the soil surface across the width of the device and are interconnected in pairs to form at least two ridgers with the output windows and forming chambers. The front part of each pair of the mouldboards is connected to the main crossbar via hinges with horizontal longitudinal axes. Part of the mouldboards connected to the forming chamber of each pair of mouldboards is pivotally connected to each other with the ability to move the forming chambers of the mouldboards in height. The edges of the lower edges cutting snow of each pair of the mouldboards, mounted on the sections of the additional beam, form the input windows.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to enhance the technological capabilities of the device due to reducing the tractive resistance, increasing performance and reliability while simultaneous improving the quality of snowfall capture by creation of snow banks of specified height.

9 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil erosion. In the process the beardless vertical para-ploughing is carried out to a depth of 0.3 m and a surface mulching of top soil to a depth of seeding. At that the soil preparation is carried out in two phases, in the first phase in the autumn in the soil the vertical slits are made with shovel-shaped working elements with a size of k×b×h1 - respectively 0.05×0.3×0.3 m with a variable pitch S, which varies ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 m, with the placement of the slits in staggered order. Then, in spring the second phase is carried out by a solid surface loosening and mulching the soil with the tools with rotary working bodies to a depth of sowing seeds.

EFFECT: method enables to prevent water erosion, to accumulate a supply of water and to ensure optimal conditions for humus formation.

3 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame and two rotary slot-cutters. The rotary slot-cutters are mounted on the frame, are located vertically symmetrically along the direction of the device and are mechanically linked to a common drive. Under the drive a subsoil milling device is located. The slot-cutters and the milling device have shafts placed horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the ripper. The device has a gear pinion of drive of the annular slot-cutter located on the frame above the rotary slot-cutter and provided with outer engagement teeth performed alternately on the left and the right in the direction of rotation of the gear pinion. The rotary slot-cutter is provided with the slot-cutter disc and the annular slot-cutter. On the outer surface of the annular slot-cutter complementary to the outer engagement teeth of the gear pinion the engagement recesses are made. Along the inner surface of the annular slot-cutter alternately on the left and right engagement recesses are made. The slot-cutter disc comprises an idler, support and center drive gears, which engagement teeth are made alternately on the left and right along the outer cylindrical surface of each gear complementary to the engagement recesses on the inner surface of the annular slot-cutter. On the idler, support and center gears and the inside annular slot-cutter a cylindrical bearing surface is made, which diameter of the circle is equal to the diameter of the corresponding circle of the engagement. The annular slot-cutter is provided with cutting elements mounted along its outer cylindrical surface alternately on the left and right in the direction of rotation of the annular slot-cutter. In front of the cutting element on the side surface of the annular slot-cutter a container for ground intake is made which is open towards the side and the outer cylindrical surfaces of the annular slot-cutter. The milling device shaft is made with consoles. The engagement recesses of the gear transmission are made on the side surface of the annular slot-cutter and oriented to the outer side of the annular slot-cutter. The lateral plane of the engagement recesses is made on the same side of the annular slot-cutter as the container for ground intake of the annular slot-cutter relative to the appropriate side surface of the annular slot-cutter to a great 15-20% depth than the lateral plane of the container for ground intake of the annular slot-cutter.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to reduce tractive resistance and energy consumption, to increase the reliability of the device.

3 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises two rotary slot cutters located vertically symmetrically along the direction of the device movement, and connected mechanically to a common drive. The device comprises a rotary intrasoil cutter located below the drive. The cutter shafts are located horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the ripper. The rotary slot cutter is provided with an annular slot cutter. The device has a pinion, idler, support and center gear wheels, the teeth which engagement is made alternately left and right along the cylindrical surface of the engagement on every detail of the engagement on which they mutually rest with the toothed wheel gearing. The annular slot cutter is provided with cutting elements made on his side surfaces alternately on the left and right, forming capacity for receiving soil. The device is equipped with intrasoil rotary cutter which shafts are located horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of the ripper movement. The rotary slot cutter is equipped with the sun pinion mounted on a separate shaft, located on the frame of the device in the bearings horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of the ripper movement. The annular slot cutter is made in the form of an outer planetary gear. The pinion, idler, support and center gear wheels are made planetary to the sun pinion and the annular slot cutter. The shaft of intrasoil rotary cutter of the lower soil layer is mounted to the idler planetary gears of the rotary slot cutter. The shafts of intrasoil rotary cutter of the topsoil are mounted in the support planetary gears of the rotary slot cutter.

EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to improve the quality of soil treatment by layer by layer loosening the soil.

3 dwg

FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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