Method of determining internal quantum efficiency of semiconductor photodiode based on current-voltage characteristics thereof

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for metrological determination of the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode based on the current-voltage characteristic thereof. The oxide biasing method is the known method of calibrating photodiodes. The efficiency of collecting charges for photocurrent generated in a p+ region needs to be determined in order to describe silicon p+nn+photodiodes. The primary reason for losses in the frontal region is the high rate of electron-hole recombination. This effect is intensified by the presence of positively charged ions which result in a surface electric field. The oxide biasing method is widely used to determine the extent of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of a diode. The advantage of this method is direct measurement of saturation photocurrent and calculating internal quantum efficiency therefrom. However, this method has a shortcoming which lies in the degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under the effect of a high negative voltage applied to the surface. The aim of this invention is to provide a method of determining quantum efficiency of a photodiode, which is based on comparing experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics thereof with theoretically calculated characteristics. This aim is achieved by recording to current-voltage characteristics of a photodiode at two different power values of incident laser radiation for which only the ratio is known. Said characteristics are then compared using a developed calculation procedure.

EFFECT: simple calibration procedure while maintaining accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.

 

The invention relates to techniques for photometry, and is intended for the metrological determination of internal quantum efficiency of the semiconductor photodiode with its volt-ampere characteristics to simplify the calibration procedure while maintaining the accuracy characteristics of the photodiode.

The known method the calibration method of electrical bias on the oxide [1]. To characterize silicon p+nn+photodiodes, it is necessary to solve the problem of determining the efficiency of collecting charges for the photocurrent generated in R+area. Losses in this frontal region occur mainly due to the presence of internal boundaries of the Si-SiO2. The primary reason is the high rate of electron-hole recombination activated surface States, which have energy levels within the forbidden zone. This effect is mainly enhanced by the presence of positively charged ions (Na+), who captured the inner surface during the manufacturing process. These charges induce surface electric field from silicon, which pulls minority carriers (electrons) on the inner surface where they recombine.

To determine the impact of this effect on the internal quantum efficiency of the diode is widely used is a method of electrical bias on the oxide. A drop of electrolyte (water, glycerol and impurities or ethylene glycol) is applied to the surface of the diode, and with it creates a negative bias voltage relative to the back contact. Thus, a negative charge accumulates on the outer surface of the layer of oxide, which counteracts the effect of the embedded charges. The resulting increase in the photocurrent shows saturation with increasing electrical bias on the oxide. The ratio of the photocurrent without offset to the current saturation is a measure of the loss due to recombination on the inner surface of the boundary of Si-SiO2. Assuming that the saturation level corresponds to negligible losses, this relation can be used to determine the internal quantum efficiency of the diode. This calibration procedure with great success was used in a number of radiometric certifications [1].

The advantage of this method is a direct measurement of the photocurrent saturation and calculating it internal quantum efficiency.

The disadvantage of this method is degradation of the working surface of the semiconductor under high negative voltage is applied to the surface. Thus, the results of measurements of the photocurrent and the subsequent calculations of the quantum efficiency become dependent on the period of the operation of the semiconductor.

The known method of calibration is the determination of internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode by means of its volt-ampere characteristics [2], which is the closest to the described method. In the basis of the method developed by the same authors, as described, laid down the same principle, but with a few additional parameters, and the measured characteristics, which are important components when determining the internal quantum efficiency. These include unknown: ohmic contact resistance in a semiconductor and the rate of recombination of carriers at the rear of the photodiode and measuring the characteristic concentration and depth of the doping profile near the front wall. They were identified during the acquisition and processing of experimental data.

The disadvantage of this method [2] is the presence of numerous solutions on the output, which does not allow to achieve the unambiguous determination of the quantum efficiency for real photodiode. One-dimensional model (1D PC) is not an ideal way describes the real experimental volt-ampere characteristics. Deviations of theoretical characteristics from "experimental" are already of the order of percent, which requires a separate study of the proposed method of determining the internal quantum efficiency and, in particular, it is acrostich characteristics.

The aim of the invention is independent of other known methods, the method of determining the quantum efficiency of the photodiode based on the comparison of experimentally measured current-voltage characteristics with theoretically calculated dependencies.

This objective is achieved in that at 2 different facilities of the incident laser radiation, for which we only know their attitude, take two volt-ampere characteristics of the photodiode. The third current-voltage characteristic is removed in the absence of exposure to laser radiation. Then select the settings for the virtual photodiode, taking into account the measured geometric characteristics and concentration of the alloying elements of the real photodiode, so that its volt-ampere characteristics (model) coincided with the pilot; however, the quantum efficiency of a real photodiode is equal to the quantum efficiency of the virtual photodiode with an accuracy not worse than 0.1%.

In the calculation procedure is compared by the least squares method experimental volt-ampere characteristics of the fitting curves, calculated using PC1D [3] with the unknown parameters. The parameters corresponding to the closest theoretical curves are solutions of the problem.

In the patent: "Measurement f current-voltage characteristic curves of solar cells and solar modules", patent number 7309850 use the PC ID of the various options which are available to a wide range of users. The choice of the current-voltage dependency as a source of information about the physical characteristics of the photodiode due primarily to the possibility of very accurate measurements of electrical quantities and wide accessibility of the method.

PC 1D uses the equations of drift and diffusion, which describe the generation, recombination and carrier transport inside the flat solar cell or photodiode. All required payments, including quantum efficiency, can be produced with the help of this program by setting a few parameters of the photodiode. However, the manufacturers of these photodiodes are necessary for calculations of the parameters are not reported, and their measurement is a very time consuming task that requires special measuring equipment. Therefore, the required unknown parameters were determined in the result of solving the problem.

For optically thick R+nn+photodiode such the unknown parameters are: bulk density doping is n, the concentration of dopant on the front surface is N, characterized by depth and surface diffusion of an impurity - L, the rate of surface recombination of carriers - S and the power absorbed laser flow - q. The value of atomoxet together with the value of current saturation Las respective current-voltage characteristics allow to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode.

For practical application of the proposed method should be used in the current-voltage characteristics measured experimentally. However, these characteristics contain a random error, which can significantly affect the accuracy of determining the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode. To understand the effect of these errors was carried out numerical simulation of a real experiment. The numerical model of the experiment is obtained on the basis of its electrical circuits.

To simulate the measurements of the experimental current-voltage characteristics of the first discrete points inViusing PC-1D are calculated ideal current-voltage characteristics ofJi=J(Vi). Then, the values of "measured" voltageViadjusted for measurement error

V=Vi +ξiσv.(1)

Here σvthe amplitude of the measurement voltage; ξi-i is the standard normally distributed random variable ξ. Then the program PC1D again calculated the ideal current-voltage characteristics ofJi=J(Vi)that sets the random error of measurement current

Ji=Ji+ξiσJ,(2)

where σJthe amplitude of the error of measurement of the residual current,ξi-ithe value of a standard normally distributed random is th ξsimilar to ξ. The difference valuesJiandJican make a significant error in the determination of the local current. This error is uneven along the current-voltage characteristics.

This feature can lead to a large error in the determination of internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode, as the volt-ampere characteristic with the highest derivative contains the maximum amount of information about the internal structure of the photodiode.

In order to achieve uniformity errors along the experimental curves, it is necessary to vary the number of measurements in different points of the volt-ampere characteristics. Respectively, is selected such exponential function, which allows you to make the distribution of measurement errors is uniform along the current-voltage characteristics.

The process of measuring the current-voltage characteristics using exponential averaging allows to obtain relatively uniform noise measurements the experimental curves. When the x processing proposed method of error in determining the power absorbed by the photodiode radiation q significantly reduced. Moreover, when the characteristic scale of the doping profile L0>0.055 μm obtaining satisfactory results for the error to determine the value of q is only possible when using exponential averaging.

The problem was solved using a special algorithm, which represents a modified method Levenberg for solving systems of equations by minimizing a functional of the nonlinear least-squares. Used the local search algorithm based on the modified method Levenberg allows to obtain a satisfactory accuracy for a very reasonable time that allows you to calculate statistical characteristics of the desired q.

The results of this research showed that with the increase of the characteristic scale L0increase of both systematic and random errors in the determination of q values. When L0=0.2 µm they already are 0.02% and 0.06%, respectively. The figures give an idea about the restrictions on the use of the proposed method of determining the value of q on experimental volt-ampere characteristics of the photodiode for large values of L0.

The magnitude of the absorbed laser radiation q together with the value of the saturation current Justhe corresponding current-voltage characteristics the specifications specifications allow to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of the photodiode γ

γ=Jnandwith aechqDλ,(3)

where e is the electron charge, C is the speed of light in vacuum, h is Planck's constant, D is the active area of the photodiode, λ is the wavelength of the laser radiation.

Thus, the described method allows to calculate the internal quantum efficiency of a semiconductor photodiode through the use of the comparison by the method of least squares "experimental" current-voltage characteristics calculated for the fixed parameters of the photodiode using PClD, with fitting curves are also calculated using the program PClD 5 the unknown parameters.

The method will be widely used in laser radiometry to measure the output of laser radiation with semiconductor photodiodes in a wide dynamic and spectral ranges, up to levels of photon counting.

Literature

1. .F.Zalewski and J.Geist. Silicon photodiode absolute spectral response self - calibration.//Appl. Opt, 1980, V. 19, Pp.1214-1216.

2. Kovalev A.A., Lieberman A.A., Mikryukov A.C., moskaluk S.A. Determination of internal kV is Neveu efficiency of the photodiode by means of its volt-ampere characteristics, "Measuring technique №2", 2011, pp.33-36.

3. Clugston, D.A. and Basore, P.A., "PCID Version 5: 32-bit Solar Cell Simulation on Personal Computers," proc. 6th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conf., Anaheim, With A (IEEE, New York, 1997), p.207.

The method of determining the quantum efficiency of the photodiode, characterized in that
my volt-ampere characteristics of a real photodiode in the absence of exposure to laser radiation;
my volt-ampere characteristics of a real photodiode at two different power levels of laser radiation with a known relationship between them;
- select the settings for the virtual photodiode, taking into account the measured geometric characteristics and concentration of the alloying elements of the real photodiode, so that its volt-ampere characteristics (model) coincide with experimental;
while the quantum efficiency of a real photodiode is equal to the quantum efficiency of the virtual photodiode with an accuracy not worse than 0.1%.



 

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