Plasma jet engine based on hall effect
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma jet engine based on Hall Effect used for driving the satellites with the help of electricity. Proposed jet engine includes the main circular ionisation and acceleration channel. Sais channel has exposed end. Engine comprises at least one cathode, circular channel, pipeline with distributor to feed ionising gas to circular channel and magnetic circuit for magnetic field generation in said main circular channel. Said node is arranged aligned with said main circular channel. Said main circular channel comprises inner circular wall section and outer circular wall section located nearby exposed outlet end. Every said section comprises stack of conducting or semiconducting plate-like rings. Plates are separated thin layers of isolating material.
EFFECT: longer life, higher power efficiency.
9 cl, 5 dwg
The technical field to which the invention relates.
The subject of the invention is the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel of ionization and acceleration with an open output end, at least one cathode, an annular anode concentric with the main annular channel, pipeline and distribution system for supply capable of ionizing the gas in the channel and the magnetic circuit a magnetic field in the main annular channel.
In particular, the invention relates to a plasma shunting jet engine based on the Hall effect is used to move satellites using electricity.
The level of technology
The durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect is essentially determined by the erosion of the insulating ceramic channel under the action of ion bombardment. Due to the topography of the electric potential in the channel portion of the generated ions are accelerated in the radial direction to the walls.
Lengthening the lifetime of telecommunication satellites and increase desired speed of ejection of the plasma (in particular, for the so-called engines with high specific impulse) requiring greater durability, which can not provide the usual ceramics based on boron nitride.
High resistance to ion is th bombardment of some conductive or semi-conductive materials, such as graphite, theoretically, make them ideal candidates for the manufacture of exhaust channels jet engines based on the Hall effect. The idea of using conductive materials and, in particular, graphite was investigated in the U.S. by a group of authors Y.Raitses and others (Princeton University). These studies showed the advantages of graphite in respect of durability, however, no attempt to solve the problem of loss of efficiency associated with the short circuit of the plasma.
Identified low efficiency due to the use of conductive materials so far hindered their widespread use in the construction of canals acceleration plasma jet engines.
Thus, in the present exhaust of jet engines based on the Hall effect are made of homogeneous insulating ceramics, often on the basis of boron nitride or silicon dioxide (materials BN-SiO2). Ceramics based on boron nitride provides jet engines on the basis of the Hall effect increased efficiency, but are subject to rapid erosion by ion bombardment, which reduces the service life of jet engines up to about 10,000 hours and limits their performance at high values of specific impulse.
Disclosure of inventions
The invention aims to eliminate the above disadvantages and, in particular, increasing the durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect while maintaining a high level of energy efficiency.
In accordance with the invention the solution of this problem is achieved by the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel of ionization and acceleration with an open output end, at least one cathode, an annular anode concentric with the main annular channel, the pipeline distribution system for supply capable of ionizing the gas in the channel and the magnetic circuit for creating a magnetic field in the main annular channel, wherein the main annular channel contains located near the open end section of the inner annular wall and the area of the outer annular wall, each of which contains the package adjacent to each other conductive or semi-conductive rings in the form of separate plates that are separated by thin layers of insulating material.
In the optimal case, each conductive or semi-conductive ring is divided into segments along the angular sectors and isolated from each other.
Preferably the segments of each conductive or semi-conductive rings are staggered relative to the segments adjacent conducting them or semiconducting rings.
According to a preferred characteristic of the invention, thin layers of insulating material are placed on all surfaces of a conducting or semi-conducting rings except for a surface that defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel.
The package conductive or semi-conductive rings may be the length of the inner and outer annular walls may be a length of less than the total length of the main annular channel.
According to the private embodiment, conductive or semi-conductive ring is made of graphite, and subtle layers of insulating material are made of pyrolytic boron nitride.
The thickness of the conductive or semi-conductive rings is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron.
Their maximum thickness as determined in accordance with the expression:
where r is the Larmor radius of the electrons,
when this occurs, the following condition determines the azimuthal angle separation:
where EZEt- electric field volosi and azimuth
R is the radius of the edge segment of the ring in contact with the plasma,
α is the angle of the segment rings.
According to the embodiment, the conductive or semi-conductive rings have a thickness of from 0.7 to 0.9 mm, and thin layers of insulating material have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm
According to the invention pseudosclerosis outlet is made of a set of rings or parts of rings, made of conductive or semi-conductive material and covered with a thin layer of insulating ceramics.
This improves the durability of the jet engine 3-4 times without the potential loss of efficiency. This design allows to use the advantages of low erosion rate of conductive materials without the associated disadvantages, and the channel can behave as electrically insulating with respect to the plasma with a maximum limit of electric currents arising in the discharge channel.
Thus, the invention optimizes the design of the outlet of the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect due to the separation of conductive or semi-conductive walls of isolated segments of small size, which causes a significant reduction in short circuit current and prevents significant loss of efficiency.
Moving telecommunications satellites associated with a high E. the economic costs and any improvements plasma sources traction based on the Hall effect, currently considered the most effective for extending the life of the satellite, are of great interest. The present invention is directly responds to the need to increase the service life of geostationary satellites by increasing the durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect.
The invention also enables the operation of jet engines with higher specific impulses (Ispwhile maintaining substantial durability. Thus, it provides an important competitive advantage moving through the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect.
Brief description of drawings
Other features and advantages of the invention will be clear from the following description of embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings:
1 schematically depicts in the form of a perspective view with pulling the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, which can be used in the invention,
Fig, 2 illustrates in the form of a perspective view of one quarter of the outlet plate structure in accordance with an example embodiment of the invention,
figure 3 depicts in the form of a perspective view of a suggested plate design discharge channel p is azmanova jet engine based on the Hall effect in accordance with the invention,
figa depicts in enlarged view, the proposed variant of the segment of conductive or semi-conductive material with an insulating coating, used in a plate design in figure 3, and
figv depicts a view in section along the line IIIB-IIIB in figa.
The implementation of the invention
Figure 1 shows an example of performing a plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, also called stationary plasma jet engine, which can be used in the invention and which may serve to provide electrical traction satellites.
Jet engine of this type is based on the Hall effect contains the following elements:
- the discharge channel or main annular channel 120 of the ionization and acceleration
ring anode 125, concentric with the main annular channel 120,
pipe 126 and the valve associated with the anode 125 and with the main annular channel 120 for submission to the channel capable of ionization of a gas, such as xenon,
- hollow cathode 140,
magnetic circuit 131-136 create magnetic fields in the main annular channel.
The anode 125 and dispenser capable of ionizing the gas to allow injected into the engine oil (such as xenon) and get the electrons of the plasma discharge. Hollow cathode 140 is used to generate electrons, which allows you to create the jet engine and plasma to neutralize the jet stream of ions, from the engine.
The magnetic circuit contains an internal pole 134, the outer pole 136, the yoke of the magnet, which connects the inner and outer pole 134, 136 and consists of a Central ferromagnetic core 133 and the peripheral ferromagnetic cores, one or more windings 131 around the Central core windings 133 and 132 around the periphery of the rods 135.
The magnetic circuit provides the possibility of plasma confinement and create a strong magnetic field E at the output of the engine, which allows you to accelerate ions to velocities of about 20 km/s
To create a magnetic circuit, there are various options, and the invention is not limited to the embodiment described with reference to figure 1.
The outlet channel 120 allows us to keep the plasma, and its composition determines the operating characteristics of the engine.
Traditionally, the exhaust channel 120 is made of ceramics. Engine thrust is provided by the emission of a jet of ions with high speed. However, as the stream diverges slightly, the collision of high energy ions with the wall of the channel causes the erosion of ceramics at the output of the engine.
Therefore, in accordance with the invention, an exhaust channel 120 includes at least one section 127 of the inner annular wall and at least one portion 128 of the outer annular wall located near opened the second end 129 of the channel, which are made of non-ceramic. Each of these sections contains a package located next to each other conducting or semi-conducting rings 150 are composed of individual plates, separated by a thin layer 152 isolation (see figure 2).
The invention aims at a significant reduction in erosion with the outlet of a jet engine. It also allows you to reduce energy losses and the volatility of the issue, usually characteristic of jet engines based on the Hall effect, which uses a discharge channel of conductive or semi-conductive material. Through the use of these more resistant to ion bombardment compared with ceramic materials, such as graphite and carbides, and thanks to a set of conductive or semi-conductive rings (e.g., graphite), separated by thin layers of insulating material (e.g. boron nitride), the invention allows to reduce erosion of the channel and to reduce the instability of release.
Thus, the exhaust channel 120 plasma jet engine according to the invention can contain upper stream traditional piece of ceramics with a bottom wall 123, the outer cylindrical wall 121 and the inner cylindrical wall 122 and the lower stream part located between the upper stream part and the open end 129 and terasul cylindrical outer wall 128 and the cylindrical inner wall 127. Each of them formed a lamellar structure consisting of spaced next to each other conductive or semi-conductive ring 150, which are separated by thin layers 152 of insulating material, but are not covered with insulating material surface 151 on the inner side facing the internal space 124 of the annular channel 120.
In addition, to avoid possible azimuthal currents of short circuit caused by fluctuations of the potential along the azimuth (due to defects of symmetry, the azimuthal waves and other reasons), preferably rings 150 are many isolated angular segments, each of which has a length angular sector Δθ (figure 3 and 3A). Thus, each ring 150 may include, for example, from 10 to 30 segments 150A, 150b.
Preferably the segments 150A one conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 are staggered relative to the segments 150b adjacent rings 150 (Fig 3).
As seen on figa, thin layers 152, 153, 154, 155 of insulating material deposited on all surfaces of the segment of conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 with the exception of the surface 151, which defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel 120.
As an example, the package conductive ring 150 is from 20 to 50%, preferably from 30 to 40% of the total on the ins inner and outer annular walls of the main annular channel 120, however, this range is not restrictive.
The dimensions of the conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 may be set based on the calculation of e-flows received and emitted by the walls. In the first approximation can be shown that circulating in the walls of the short circuit current is proportional to the collected ion current, which is at a constant electron temperature and plasma density is approximately proportional to the conductive surface in contact with plasma.
Thus for a given axial electric field potential difference on the conductive element is approximately proportional to its axial length. From this it follows that for a channel of a certain size, the aggregate losses from the Joule effect due to short circuit of the plasma is approximately proportional to the thickness of the rings. Can also be shown that the short-circuit current becomes small in comparison with the currents associated with the secondary electron emission (the only currents that are present in the case of an insulating material), when the thickness of the rings is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron. This determines the critical thickness of the rings, allowing you to get pseudosclerosis channel.
As an example, the conductive ring 150, for example, from graphite with a low coefficient of expansion can have the thickness from 0.7 to 0.9 mm, in a typical case, equal to 0.8 mm.
Thin layers 152-155 insulating material, for example, made of pyrolytic boron nitride may have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm in a typical case, is equal to 0.05 mm, and can be applied to the segments of the conductive ring 150 by means of chemical deposition from the gas phase in such a way as to cover each segment along all its surface except for a region 151 in contact with the plasma.
1. The plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel (120) ionization and acceleration with an open output end (129), at least one cathode (140), the ring anode (125), concentric with the main annular channel (120), pipeline (126) with the distributor to supply capable of ionizing the gas in the main annular channel (120) and the magnetic circuit (131-136) to create a magnetic field in the main annular channel (120), wherein the main annular channel (120) contains located near the open output end (129) (127) of the inner annular wall and the plot (128) of the outer annular wall, each of which contains a package located next to each other conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) in the form of plates, separated by a thin layer (152) of insulating material.
2. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that each PR is undergoing or semi-conductive ring (150) is divided into segments, along the angular sectors and isolated from each other.
3. The plasma jet engine according to claim 2, characterized in that the segments of each conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) are staggered relative to the segments adjacent conductive or semi-conductive ring (150).
4. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the thin layers of insulating material located on a surface of a conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) with the exception of the surface (151), which defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel (120).
5. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the package conductive ring (150) is a plot (127) of the inner annular wall and the plot (128) of the outer annular wall constituting from 20 to 50% of the total length of the main annular channel (120).
6. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) is made from graphite.
7. The plasma jet engine according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the thin layers (152) of insulating material is made of pyrolytic boron nitride.
8. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron.
9. Plasma is hydrated jet engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) has a thickness of from 0.7 to 0.9 mm
10. The plasma jet engine according to claim 7, characterized in that the thin layers (152) of the insulating material have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: in compliance with first version, this cathode comprises electron emitting hollow elements, pipeline with channels to feed working body to said elements, common heat duct around every hollow element composed by the body of revolution. Heat duct material features heat conductivity factor not lower than that of the material of said hollow elements. Every said element is connected to separate channel of said pipeline while throttle is arranged in every channel of working body feed side. Note also that throttle orifice cross-sections are identical. In compliance with second version, said common heat duct entwines every said hollow element over its outer side and over its outlet end. Common heat duct outlet end is provided with holes, their axes being aligned with those of hollow electron emitting elements. Note also that flow sections of said holes in said common heat duct is not smaller than that in holes of said emitting electron hollow elements.
EFFECT: longer life, higher reliability, uniform distribution of working body over said elements.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for tests of plasma source cathodes or those for high-current plasma engines. Proposed method comprises cathode independent fire tests. Here, cathode is switched on many times. Cathode basic degradation parameters are measured and tests are conducted at forced operating conditions. Tests are divided into steps. At every step, one of cathode degradation factors is augmented and cathode is simultaneously subjected to all other degradation factors under operating conditions. Every degradation factor is augmented at least one time.
EFFECT: accelerated test procedure, possibility to analyse the effects of every degradation factor to cathode life.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to jet-propelled moving facilities, predominantly in free outer space. Proposed moving facility contains body (1), payload (2), control system and at least one ring system of superconductive focusing-deflecting magnets (3). Each magnet (3) is attached to body (1) by load-bearing element (4). It is preferable to use two described ring systems located in parallel planes ("one above the other"). Each ring system is designed for long-term storage of highest-energy electrically charged particle flux (5) (relativistic proton flux) circulating in this system. Fluxes in ring systems are mutually antithetical and are inserted in these systems before flight (on launch orbit). To output of one of the magnets (3) of "upper" ring system a device (6) for part of flux (7) extraction to outer space is attached. Similarly, part of flux (9) is extracted via device (8) of one of the magnets of "lower" ring system. Fluxes (7) and (9) create jet propulsion. Devices (6) and (8) can be made in the form of deflecting magnetic system, neutraliser of flux electric charge and undulator.
EFFECT: higher energy-conversion efficiency of working medium creating thrust.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to beam engineering and can be used to compensate (neutralise) for spatial charge of a beam of positive ions of electro-jet engines, particularly for use in propulsion devices of micro- and nanosatellites. The method of neutralising spatial charge of an ion stream of an electro-jet propulsion device by emitting electrons through multiple autoemission sources. Sources are placed around each of the electro-jet engines of said device. Emission currents of separate autoemission sources or groups of said multiple autoemission sources are controlled independent of each other.
EFFECT: reduced consumption the working medium of an electro-jet engine, including a multimode electro-jet engine or a multi-engine apparatus, minimum time for switching to neutralisation operating mode and fast switching of electron current according to the operating mode of said electro-jet engine, optimising transfer of electrons into the neutralisation region in order to reduce divergence of the ion beam or deviation thereof, thereby changing the direction of ion thrust.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to space engineering, particularly, to electric jet engines and is designed to control space craft of low thrust (up to 5 N). Cyclotron plasma engine comprises plasma accelerator housing, solenoids (inductors) and electric circuit with compensating cathodes. Note here that self-contained ion source, electron and ion flow splitter. Asynchronous cyclotron makes said plasma accelerator. Cyclotron is divided into dees by two coaxial pairs of parallel grids with clearances. Said dees make homogeneous, identical and invariable electric fields of opposite-direction of electric-field vectors. Cyclotron comprises the ferromagnetic adapters with inductors in quantity complying with the number of plasma accelerator outlet channel thrust development directions. Outlet straight gas dielectric channels of this engine communicate with said main adapters via pass electric valves. Said channels are communicated via ferromagnetic adapters wit inductors.
EFFECT: higher specific burn, decreased weight and overall dimensions, lower power consumption.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cathode (1) and anode (2) of an eroding pulse plasma accelerator (EPPA) are of flat shape. Between discharge electrodes (1 and 2) there are two dielectric pellets (4) made of ablating material. An end wall insulator (6) is installed between the discharge electrodes in the area of dielectric pellets (4) placement. An electric discharge initiator (9) is connected to electrodes (8). A capacitive storage (3) of the power supply unit is connected through current leads to the electrodes (1 and 2). The EPPA discharge channel is shaped by surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2), the end wall insulator (6) and end walls of the dielectric pellets (4). The discharge channel is made with two mutually perpendicular middle planes. The discharge electrodes (1 and 2) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the first middle plane. The dielectric pellets (4) are mounted symmetrically in regard to the second middle plane. A tangent to the surface of the end wall insulator (6) faced to the discharge channel is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. In the end wall insulator (6) there is a well with (7) a rectangular cross-section. In the well (7) from the cathode (1) side there are electrodes (8). A tangent to the front surface of the well (7) is oriented at an angle from 87° up to 45° in regard to the first middle plane of the discharge channel. The well (7) along the surface of the end wall insulator(6) has a trapezoid shape. The larger base of the trapezoid is located near the anode (2) surface. The lesser base of the trapezoid is located near the cathode (1) surface. At the end wall insulator (6) surface there are three straight-line grooves oriented in parallel to surfaces of the discharge electrodes (1 and 2).
EFFECT: increase in service life, reliability, pulling efficiency, efficiency of the working agent use and stability of the EPPA pull characteristics due to even evaporation of the working agent from the working area of the dielectric pellets.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises at least: one primary ionisation and acceleration circular channel 21 with open end, anode 26 accommodated inside said channel, cathode 30 located outside said channel, at its outlet, and magnetic circuit 4 to induce magnetic field in a portion of said circular channel. Magnetic circuit comprises at least circular inner wall 22, circular outer wall 23, and bottom 4 connected said walls to make magnetic circuit outlet part. Note here that said circuit 4 can induce magnetic field at circular channel outlet 21 independent of azimuth.
EFFECT: increased probability of ionising collisions between electron and inert gas atoms.
46 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises main circular ionization and acceleration channel, at least one hollow cathode, circular anode, pipe with header to feed anode with ionised gas, and magnetic circuit to induce magnetic field in said main circular channel. Said main circular channel is composed around engine axis. Said node is arranged aligned with said main circular channel. Magnetic circuit comprises at least one axial magnetic core surrounded by first coil and inner rear polar tip that makes a solid of revolution, and several outer magnetic cores surrounded by outer coils. Said magnetic circuit incorporates extra, in fact radial outer first polar tip making the concave inner peripheral surface and, in fact, radial inner second polar tip making the convex outer peripheral surface. Said peripheral surface represent corrected profiles. The latter differ from circular cylindrical surface to make variable-width clearance there between. Maximum clearance is located at sections aligned with location of outer coils. Minimum clearance is set at sections located between said outer coils to produce uniform radial magnetic field.
EFFECT: higher power output, decreased amount of wires and their weight.
7 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: stationary plasma engine model comprises circular dielectric discharge chamber accommodating circular gas distribution anode, magnetic system and cathode. Extra ring-shape gas distributor is arranged inside said discharge chamber and attached via insulator to gas distribution anode. Said ring has coaxial blind holes arranged uniformly in azimuth, each being stopped by cover with a through calibrated bore. Every said blind bore and cover makes a vessel filled with crystalline iodine. Note here that extra ring-shape gas distributor is arranged inside said discharge chamber so that said calibrated holes face said gas distribution anode.
EFFECT: stationary plasma engine running on crystalline iodine, lower costs at first stage of the analysis of engine efficiency and characteristics.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: engine is composed by anode, cathode and electrode gap filled with liquid film-like working fluid. Said anode and electrode are made of m-metal while magnetic field source is electrically insulated from electrodes by ferrite core pickups.
EFFECT: higher engine efficiency and specific performances.
FIELD: space engineering; ground tests and operation in space of plasma jet engines and electric jet engine plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes performance of shortened endurance tests which are part of total service life; in conducting these tests, erosion of discharge chamber (δt), change in thrust at the beginning (Fo) and in the course (ft) of shortened endurance tests are measured, regressive analysis for determination of approximating dependences is performed in form of monotonic function of erosion of discharge chamber and thrust versus time of operation; prediction of behavior of thrust is performed by definite dependence Ft=f(Fo, t), at the beginning of shortened tests and in the course of conducting these tests erosion areas (So, St) are additionally determined; approximating dependence of erosion area versus time St=f(t) and functional dependence of thrust versus erosion area F=f(k,S) are determined by regressive analysis, where k is proportionality factor between thrust and erosion area which are taken into account in prediction of thrust behavior during total service life; thrust is determined by dependence Ft=f(Fo, k,.St, So)
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of prediction of parameters of stationary plasma jet engine.
FIELD: jet engine plants.
SUBSTANCE: reactive thrust is created by means of energy source of long-duration operation, for example, nuclear and energy converter containing energy radiators, steam generator, pump, pipe line, nozzle, bottle with heat conducting gas-tight walls and converter of pulse escaping from vaporous working medium nozzle which is mounted in bottle cavity behind nozzle outlet symmetrically relative to its axial line 0-0. Pulse converter is made in form of turbine with two rotors of similar power at opposite direction of rotation which are mounted on coaxial shafts; each shaft is connected with electric current generator; generators have similar power and are interconnected by means of mechanical linkage consisting of three gear wheels at gear ratio equal to unit of working medium pulse acting on rocket engine components. Proposed engine ensured protracted creation of thrust and generation of electric energy and artificial gravity due to constant acceleration excluding transmission of reaction torque to spacecraft due to equal loading of both rotors revolving in opposite directions.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and reliability.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: space engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises short-term service life testing, measuring liner sizes of the erosion profiles of the walls of discharging chamber, predicting new erosion profiles, measuring the area of erosion, determining dependence between the measurements of thrust and total area of erosion, and determining proportionality coefficient between the thrust and total erosion area.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of predicting.
FIELD: plasma technologies.
SUBSTANCE: device has two electrodes, dielectric blocks, made of special material, discharge channel with open end portion, walls of which are formed by surfaces of electrodes and dielectric blocks, energy accumulator, current feeds, connecting electrodes to energy accumulator, which together with electrodes and accumulator form an external electric circuit, isolator, mounted between electrodes near end portion of discharge channel, opposite to open end portion, and charge initiation device. Characteristics of external electrical circuit of accelerator are selected from condition : 2≤C/L, where C - electric capacity of external electric circuit in micro-farads, and L - inductiveness of external electric circuit in nh, value of which satisfies the condition: L≤100 nh. Plasma acceleration method includes ignition of charge in discharge channel of plasma accelerator in pulse feed of discharge voltage from energy accumulator to electrodes of plasma accelerator. In discharge channel of accelerator quasi-periodic pulse discharges are ignited and maintained with value of discharge voltage U no less than 1000 volts and above-mentioned characteristics of accelerator electric circuit.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electric arc-jet engine units, plasma accelerators, and generator units.
SUBSTANCE: converter cells are divided into two groups. All cells limit discharge current under short-circuit conditions. In addition, cells of one group regulate discharge voltage and those of other group stabilize cathode heater current; operation thresholds with respect to discharge current are different for all cells so that only one cell may be run in limiting mode at a time.
EFFECT: reduced input current ripples and noise, input filter mass, and maximal power requirement of device.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: jet engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electric jet engines employing for operation electronic detonation type of discharge. Proposed engine consists of anode and cathode with discharge gap between which movable surface is installed with directed and controlled displacement and contact with source of liquid or gel-like working medium. Movable surface can be made in form of curvilinear surface, for instance, cylinder, or plane, for instance, disk, with drive providing speed of rotation proportional to frequency of supply of discharge pulses. Discharge gap is essentially generatrix of curvilinear surface or zone on plane between anode and cathode. Invention makes it possible to create impulse plasma engine self-eliminating defects of surface of working medium in zone of discharge gap and self-recovery of serviceability under different unfavorable factors in process of impulse discharges.
EFFECT: improved operation reliability of engine.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plasma power source comprises two ion sources of opposite charge: the hydrogen (fuel) source with positive ions and the oxygen (oxidizing ) source with the negative ions. The both of the sources are arranged at an angle one with respect to the other so that the discharging ion jets are mutually intersected and compensate the chargers. The hydrogen source generates electrons near the bottom which flow to the grid of the oxygen source through the load (lamp or electric motor). The heated oxygen absorbs the electrons inflowing from the hydrogen source thus converting them into electrically negative ions. The current ring from the oxygen grid passes through the ion flows closed in the space over the plasma of the hydrogen source housing to the grid and, then, through the load to the oxygen electrode. The magnetic field is the main factor that separates electron and ion flows of fuel and oxidizer.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: engineering of ion accelerators, possible use, in particular, for processing surfaces in semiconductor engineering or as engine for spacecrafts.
SUBSTANCE: ion accelerator contains ionization chamber, electrode system and magnetic system, while ionization chamber in longitudinal direction has aperture for output of ions and transversely to longitudinal direction is limited by at least one side wall, and a influx aperture positioned at given distance from output aperture, through which through ionization chamber working gas is fed. Electrode system contains at least one cathode and one anode, forming an electrical field in ionization chamber for acceleration of positively charged ions of working gas in direction of output aperture. Magnetic system creates a magnetic field in ionization chamber, which in longitudinal direction has at least one longitudinal portion of first type with higher field component, perpendicular to longitudinal direction, and at least one longitudinal portion of second type with direction of magnetic field, practically parallel to longitudinal direction, adjacent to the previously mentioned longitudinal portion. Distance between oppositely positioned surfaces of walls on longitudinal portion of second type is less, than on longitudinal portion of first type, and shape of wall on second type longitudinal portion in longitudinal direction has monotonously bent convex portion directed towards ionization chamber.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: plasma engineering; process plasma sources for ion-plasma treatment of material surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cathode-compensator that can be used, for instance, in electric-arc jet engines for neutralizing ion beam has hollow holder 1 with face wall 2 and discharge hole 3 at outlet accommodating hollow capsule 4 with face wall 5 and through hole at outlet enclosed by heater and then by heat shields 8; this capsule accommodates thermal emitter 8 that has solid face wall 10 on one end and at least one working medium passage 11; cathode-compensator also has support insulator 16 and working medium supply pipe 17 communicating with hollow capsule 4; solid face wall of thermal emitter 10 is disposed so that clearance L1 is provided between this wall and face wall 5 of capsule 4 with through hole to form cavity between them; working medium passage 11 is formed in thermal emitter 9 at inlet by at least one blind longitudinal hole and at outlet, by at least one longitudinal slot on side surface of thermal emitter; they are intercommunicating through at least one transverse hole. Diameter d1 of through hole in hollow capsule 4 should be better smaller than diameter d2 of axial hole in thermal emitter 9. Insert 19 made of material of low heat conductivity may be installed between hollow capsule 4 and working medium supply pipe 17. Shield 20 may be installed coaxially to hole 3 of hollow holder 1 with clearance L2 allowed between this shield and face wall 5 of hollow capsule 4.
EFFECT: regulated parameters during cathode-compensator turn-on period, enhanced reliability.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: pulsating detonation engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pulsating detonation engines employing magnetohydrodynamic control of flow. Proposed engine contains pipe 12 with open front end 16 and open rear end 18 and fuel-air inlet 20 made in pipe 12 of front end 16. Igniter 24 is located in pipe 12 in place between front end 16 and rear end 18. Flow magnetohydrodynamic control system is arranged between igniter 24 and fuel-air inlet 20 to control detonation in pipe 12 before igniter 24. Flow magnetohydrodynamic control system employs magnetic and electric fields before igniter 24 to dissipate detonation combustion wave 34 propagating forward or at least reduce potential of ignition.
EFFECT: provision of operation of valve control or flow control system at high frequency for pulsating detonation engines, improved reliability.
30 cl, 7 dwg