Plasma jet engine based on hall effect

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to plasma jet engine based on Hall Effect used for driving the satellites with the help of electricity. Proposed jet engine includes the main circular ionisation and acceleration channel. Sais channel has exposed end. Engine comprises at least one cathode, circular channel, pipeline with distributor to feed ionising gas to circular channel and magnetic circuit for magnetic field generation in said main circular channel. Said node is arranged aligned with said main circular channel. Said main circular channel comprises inner circular wall section and outer circular wall section located nearby exposed outlet end. Every said section comprises stack of conducting or semiconducting plate-like rings. Plates are separated thin layers of isolating material.

EFFECT: longer life, higher power efficiency.

9 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

The subject of the invention is the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel of ionization and acceleration with an open output end, at least one cathode, an annular anode concentric with the main annular channel, pipeline and distribution system for supply capable of ionizing the gas in the channel and the magnetic circuit a magnetic field in the main annular channel.

In particular, the invention relates to a plasma shunting jet engine based on the Hall effect is used to move satellites using electricity.

The level of technology

The durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect is essentially determined by the erosion of the insulating ceramic channel under the action of ion bombardment. Due to the topography of the electric potential in the channel portion of the generated ions are accelerated in the radial direction to the walls.

Lengthening the lifetime of telecommunication satellites and increase desired speed of ejection of the plasma (in particular, for the so-called engines with high specific impulse) requiring greater durability, which can not provide the usual ceramics based on boron nitride.

High resistance to ion is th bombardment of some conductive or semi-conductive materials, such as graphite, theoretically, make them ideal candidates for the manufacture of exhaust channels jet engines based on the Hall effect. The idea of using conductive materials and, in particular, graphite was investigated in the U.S. by a group of authors Y.Raitses and others (Princeton University). These studies showed the advantages of graphite in respect of durability, however, no attempt to solve the problem of loss of efficiency associated with the short circuit of the plasma.

Identified low efficiency due to the use of conductive materials so far hindered their widespread use in the construction of canals acceleration plasma jet engines.

Thus, in the present exhaust of jet engines based on the Hall effect are made of homogeneous insulating ceramics, often on the basis of boron nitride or silicon dioxide (materials BN-SiO2). Ceramics based on boron nitride provides jet engines on the basis of the Hall effect increased efficiency, but are subject to rapid erosion by ion bombardment, which reduces the service life of jet engines up to about 10,000 hours and limits their performance at high values of specific impulse.

Disclosure of inventions

The invention aims to eliminate the above disadvantages and, in particular, increasing the durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect while maintaining a high level of energy efficiency.

In accordance with the invention the solution of this problem is achieved by the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel of ionization and acceleration with an open output end, at least one cathode, an annular anode concentric with the main annular channel, the pipeline distribution system for supply capable of ionizing the gas in the channel and the magnetic circuit for creating a magnetic field in the main annular channel, wherein the main annular channel contains located near the open end section of the inner annular wall and the area of the outer annular wall, each of which contains the package adjacent to each other conductive or semi-conductive rings in the form of separate plates that are separated by thin layers of insulating material.

In the optimal case, each conductive or semi-conductive ring is divided into segments along the angular sectors and isolated from each other.

Preferably the segments of each conductive or semi-conductive rings are staggered relative to the segments adjacent conducting them or semiconducting rings.

According to a preferred characteristic of the invention, thin layers of insulating material are placed on all surfaces of a conducting or semi-conducting rings except for a surface that defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel.

The package conductive or semi-conductive rings may be the length of the inner and outer annular walls may be a length of less than the total length of the main annular channel.

According to the private embodiment, conductive or semi-conductive ring is made of graphite, and subtle layers of insulating material are made of pyrolytic boron nitride.

The thickness of the conductive or semi-conductive rings is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron.

Their maximum thickness as determined in accordance with the expression:

a<83r

where r is the Larmor radius of the electrons,

when this occurs, the following condition determines the azimuthal angle separation:

R,α<5 abs (EZEt),r

where EZEt- electric field volosi and azimuth

R is the radius of the edge segment of the ring in contact with the plasma,

α is the angle of the segment rings.

According to the embodiment, the conductive or semi-conductive rings have a thickness of from 0.7 to 0.9 mm, and thin layers of insulating material have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm

According to the invention pseudosclerosis outlet is made of a set of rings or parts of rings, made of conductive or semi-conductive material and covered with a thin layer of insulating ceramics.

This improves the durability of the jet engine 3-4 times without the potential loss of efficiency. This design allows to use the advantages of low erosion rate of conductive materials without the associated disadvantages, and the channel can behave as electrically insulating with respect to the plasma with a maximum limit of electric currents arising in the discharge channel.

Thus, the invention optimizes the design of the outlet of the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect due to the separation of conductive or semi-conductive walls of isolated segments of small size, which causes a significant reduction in short circuit current and prevents significant loss of efficiency.

Moving telecommunications satellites associated with a high E. the economic costs and any improvements plasma sources traction based on the Hall effect, currently considered the most effective for extending the life of the satellite, are of great interest. The present invention is directly responds to the need to increase the service life of geostationary satellites by increasing the durability of the plasma jet based on the Hall effect.

The invention also enables the operation of jet engines with higher specific impulses (Ispwhile maintaining substantial durability. Thus, it provides an important competitive advantage moving through the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect.

Brief description of drawings

Other features and advantages of the invention will be clear from the following description of embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings:

1 schematically depicts in the form of a perspective view with pulling the plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, which can be used in the invention,

Fig, 2 illustrates in the form of a perspective view of one quarter of the outlet plate structure in accordance with an example embodiment of the invention,

figure 3 depicts in the form of a perspective view of a suggested plate design discharge channel p is azmanova jet engine based on the Hall effect in accordance with the invention,

figa depicts in enlarged view, the proposed variant of the segment of conductive or semi-conductive material with an insulating coating, used in a plate design in figure 3, and

figv depicts a view in section along the line IIIB-IIIB in figa.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows an example of performing a plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, also called stationary plasma jet engine, which can be used in the invention and which may serve to provide electrical traction satellites.

Jet engine of this type is based on the Hall effect contains the following elements:

- the discharge channel or main annular channel 120 of the ionization and acceleration

ring anode 125, concentric with the main annular channel 120,

pipe 126 and the valve associated with the anode 125 and with the main annular channel 120 for submission to the channel capable of ionization of a gas, such as xenon,

- hollow cathode 140,

magnetic circuit 131-136 create magnetic fields in the main annular channel.

The anode 125 and dispenser capable of ionizing the gas to allow injected into the engine oil (such as xenon) and get the electrons of the plasma discharge. Hollow cathode 140 is used to generate electrons, which allows you to create the jet engine and plasma to neutralize the jet stream of ions, from the engine.

The magnetic circuit contains an internal pole 134, the outer pole 136, the yoke of the magnet, which connects the inner and outer pole 134, 136 and consists of a Central ferromagnetic core 133 and the peripheral ferromagnetic cores, one or more windings 131 around the Central core windings 133 and 132 around the periphery of the rods 135.

The magnetic circuit provides the possibility of plasma confinement and create a strong magnetic field E at the output of the engine, which allows you to accelerate ions to velocities of about 20 km/s

To create a magnetic circuit, there are various options, and the invention is not limited to the embodiment described with reference to figure 1.

The outlet channel 120 allows us to keep the plasma, and its composition determines the operating characteristics of the engine.

Traditionally, the exhaust channel 120 is made of ceramics. Engine thrust is provided by the emission of a jet of ions with high speed. However, as the stream diverges slightly, the collision of high energy ions with the wall of the channel causes the erosion of ceramics at the output of the engine.

Therefore, in accordance with the invention, an exhaust channel 120 includes at least one section 127 of the inner annular wall and at least one portion 128 of the outer annular wall located near opened the second end 129 of the channel, which are made of non-ceramic. Each of these sections contains a package located next to each other conducting or semi-conducting rings 150 are composed of individual plates, separated by a thin layer 152 isolation (see figure 2).

The invention aims at a significant reduction in erosion with the outlet of a jet engine. It also allows you to reduce energy losses and the volatility of the issue, usually characteristic of jet engines based on the Hall effect, which uses a discharge channel of conductive or semi-conductive material. Through the use of these more resistant to ion bombardment compared with ceramic materials, such as graphite and carbides, and thanks to a set of conductive or semi-conductive rings (e.g., graphite), separated by thin layers of insulating material (e.g. boron nitride), the invention allows to reduce erosion of the channel and to reduce the instability of release.

Thus, the exhaust channel 120 plasma jet engine according to the invention can contain upper stream traditional piece of ceramics with a bottom wall 123, the outer cylindrical wall 121 and the inner cylindrical wall 122 and the lower stream part located between the upper stream part and the open end 129 and terasul cylindrical outer wall 128 and the cylindrical inner wall 127. Each of them formed a lamellar structure consisting of spaced next to each other conductive or semi-conductive ring 150, which are separated by thin layers 152 of insulating material, but are not covered with insulating material surface 151 on the inner side facing the internal space 124 of the annular channel 120.

In addition, to avoid possible azimuthal currents of short circuit caused by fluctuations of the potential along the azimuth (due to defects of symmetry, the azimuthal waves and other reasons), preferably rings 150 are many isolated angular segments, each of which has a length angular sector Δθ (figure 3 and 3A). Thus, each ring 150 may include, for example, from 10 to 30 segments 150A, 150b.

Preferably the segments 150A one conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 are staggered relative to the segments 150b adjacent rings 150 (Fig 3).

As seen on figa, thin layers 152, 153, 154, 155 of insulating material deposited on all surfaces of the segment of conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 with the exception of the surface 151, which defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel 120.

As an example, the package conductive ring 150 is from 20 to 50%, preferably from 30 to 40% of the total on the ins inner and outer annular walls of the main annular channel 120, however, this range is not restrictive.

The dimensions of the conductive or semi-conductive ring 150 may be set based on the calculation of e-flows received and emitted by the walls. In the first approximation can be shown that circulating in the walls of the short circuit current is proportional to the collected ion current, which is at a constant electron temperature and plasma density is approximately proportional to the conductive surface in contact with plasma.

Thus for a given axial electric field potential difference on the conductive element is approximately proportional to its axial length. From this it follows that for a channel of a certain size, the aggregate losses from the Joule effect due to short circuit of the plasma is approximately proportional to the thickness of the rings. Can also be shown that the short-circuit current becomes small in comparison with the currents associated with the secondary electron emission (the only currents that are present in the case of an insulating material), when the thickness of the rings is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron. This determines the critical thickness of the rings, allowing you to get pseudosclerosis channel.

As an example, the conductive ring 150, for example, from graphite with a low coefficient of expansion can have the thickness from 0.7 to 0.9 mm, in a typical case, equal to 0.8 mm.

Thin layers 152-155 insulating material, for example, made of pyrolytic boron nitride may have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm in a typical case, is equal to 0.05 mm, and can be applied to the segments of the conductive ring 150 by means of chemical deposition from the gas phase in such a way as to cover each segment along all its surface except for a region 151 in contact with the plasma.

1. The plasma jet engine based on the Hall effect, containing the main annular channel (120) ionization and acceleration with an open output end (129), at least one cathode (140), the ring anode (125), concentric with the main annular channel (120), pipeline (126) with the distributor to supply capable of ionizing the gas in the main annular channel (120) and the magnetic circuit (131-136) to create a magnetic field in the main annular channel (120), wherein the main annular channel (120) contains located near the open output end (129) (127) of the inner annular wall and the plot (128) of the outer annular wall, each of which contains a package located next to each other conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) in the form of plates, separated by a thin layer (152) of insulating material.

2. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that each PR is undergoing or semi-conductive ring (150) is divided into segments, along the angular sectors and isolated from each other.

3. The plasma jet engine according to claim 2, characterized in that the segments of each conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) are staggered relative to the segments adjacent conductive or semi-conductive ring (150).

4. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the thin layers of insulating material located on a surface of a conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) with the exception of the surface (151), which defines part of the inner wall of the main annular channel (120).

5. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the package conductive ring (150) is a plot (127) of the inner annular wall and the plot (128) of the outer annular wall constituting from 20 to 50% of the total length of the main annular channel (120).

6. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) is made from graphite.

7. The plasma jet engine according to any one of claims 1 to 6, characterized in that the thin layers (152) of insulating material is made of pyrolytic boron nitride.

8. The plasma jet engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) is of the order larmorovskoi radius of the electron.

9. Plasma is hydrated jet engine according to claim 6, characterized in that the conductive or semi-conductive ring (150) has a thickness of from 0.7 to 0.9 mm

10. The plasma jet engine according to claim 7, characterized in that the thin layers (152) of the insulating material have a thickness of from 0.04 to 0.08 mm.



 

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