Method of electron beam welding

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electron beam welding and can be used for making butts of thick-sheet structures in various machine building fields. Proposed method consists in that edges of structure elements are assembled line-on-line with clearance. Welding is performed in vacuum with electron beam scanning for forming of weld root and part of its cross-section while other part of weld cross-section on face surface is built up by filler. Note here that one of edges is skewed and clearance between edges is increased towards face side while electron beam scan angle is shifted towards skewed edge. Clearance between edges on back side may no exceed 0.5 mm while clearance between edges on face side makes 1-2 mm. Electron beam is scanned in circle of diameter d=(3/2)b-(1/2)a with centre shift from unskewed edge to skewed edge of Δ=(a+b)/4, where: a is clearance between edges on back side, b is clearance on face side.

EFFECT: higher quality of welding of thick-sheet structures.

3 cl

 

The invention relates to the field of methods for electron-beam welding and can be used for welding of butt joints of plate structures in various engineering industries.

Known methods of electron-beam welding, in which the size of the butt joint welded edges does not exceed 0.1-0.2 mm when the thickness of the metal of 3.0-30 mm and 0.3 mm at a thickness of more than 30 mm [1]. However, when electron beam welding structures of large thicknesses (>15 mm) often there are specific defects, as long cavity in the volume of the weld.

There is also a method of electron-beam welding of structures [2], for example, wing devices for vessels with dynamic principle, which is that the panels collect end-to-end formed with a clearance of up to 3 mm Welding is carried out by electron beam in vacuum, when the scan beam symmetrically with respect to an imaginary line axis of the seam going down the middle of the gap between the edges of the panels. This ensures the formation of the main section and weld root without linings. Then the missing part of the cross section and the top seam of the front side napravlyayut filler material.

This method focuses on welding of butt joints of sheathing wing devices, the thickness of which is usually 10-0 mm

When welding butt joints in the thickness of the edges of 20-50 mm decreases the quality of the welding, since the presence of a uniform gap can cause defects in the seam type extended cavity and burns, due to the need of increasing the power of the electron beam.

The technical result of the proposed method is to improve the quality of electron-beam welding of structures of large thickness.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of electron-beam welding of structures, which consists in the fact that the edges of structural elements collected butt with a gap, the welding is carried out in a vacuum with a scanning electron beam, generating the main section and weld root, and the missing part of the cross section and the top seam of the front side napravlyayut filler material according to the invention one of the edges perform beveled to increase the gap to the front side, and the scan of the electron beam tilted to the side beveled edges.

The gap between the edges on the reverse side must not exceed 0.5 mm, and the gap between the edges on the front side is 1-2 mm Sweep of the electron beam is performed in a circular path with a diameter of d=3/2b 1/2A, with the shift from the non-beveled edge toward the beveled edges on the value of Δ=(a+b)/4, where: - C is Zor between the edges on the reverse side, b - gap between the edges of the front side.

The gap formed by the bevel one edge and increasing to the front side of the welded structural elements, improves the output of channel penetration of the vapor phase, preventing the formation of defects such extended cavity, and applying a circular sweep of the electron beam with offset center sweep in the direction of the beveled edge provides a uniform melt beveled and non-beveled edges.

At FSUE "CRISM "Prometey" carried out the implementation of the proposed method.

Installation ELU-20B produced welding butt joints in steel NM 50 mm thick with a gap of 0.3 mm from the back side up to 1 mm from the front side. Metallographic inspection revealed no defects such as pores and extended cavity around the weld section. The destruction of samples cut across the joint and tested on a static gap occurred in the base metal.

Compared with the prototype using the proposed method improves the quality of electron beam welding of structures of large thickness due to the decrease of porosity and exceptions welding defects such extended cavity.

The proposed method can be recommended for electron beam welding of structures of large thickness of the high strength steels.

Sources of information the purpose

1. Kaydalov A.A. Electron-beam welding and related technologies. Kiev, science, 2004, s, 136.

2. RF application 93029014 prototype.

1. The method of electron-beam welding of structures, including the Assembly of structural elements in a butt joint with a gap between edges and welding in vacuum with the scan of the electron beam, thus forming the root and part of the joint cross-section, and the remaining part of the joint cross-section from the front side to form a welding filler material, wherein one of the edges perform beveled, and the Assembly of structural elements provide increased clearance between the edges to the front side seam, and use a circular sweep of the electron beam with offset center sweep to the side beveled edges.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the gap between the edges on the front side seam is 1-2 mm, and on the reverse side does not exceed 0,5 mm

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the diameter of the circular sweep of the electron beam is d=(3/2)b-(1/2)a, and the offset of the center of its scan from the uncut edge and the beveled edge is produced by the value Δ=(a+b)/4, where
a gap between the edges on the reverse side,
b - gap between the edges of the front side.



 

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