Method of obtaining ultrathin polymer fibres

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology of obtaining ultrathin polymer fibres by method of electrospinning and can be used for spinning non-woven porous fibrous materials, applied as separating partitions, for instance, for filtration of gases and liquids, for manufacturing diffusion partitions, separators of chemical sources of current, etc. Solution for spinning contains 2.5-4 wt.p. of phenolformaldehyde resin, 2.5-4 wt.p. of polyvinyl butyral, 92-95 wt.p. of ethyl alcohol and as modifying additives 0.02-0.2 wt.p. of tetrabutylammonium iodide or 0.01-0.1 wt.p. of lithium chloride.

EFFECT: invention provides increase of solution electroconductivity, increased output of ultrathin fibres with diameter less than 0,1 mcm.

1 tbl, 7 ex

 

The invention relates to a solution for forming ultrafine polymer fibers by the method of electrotorture of which form a non-woven fibrous materials used as dividing walls, for example, for filtration of gases and liquids, to produce diffusion barriers, separators, chemical power sources, etc.

Known electrodynamic (electrostatic) method to obtain an ultrafine fibers from solutions of fibre-forming polymers. Precipitation grounded surface may be in the form of a continuous moving conveyor belt or rotating the movable drums [U.S. Patent N 2158415, CL 264-10, 1939].

A disadvantage of the known method is relatively stable dosing of a solution of polymer through the die plate.

A method of obtaining ultrafine fibers [RF Patent 2242546, CL D01D 5/00, publ. 20.12.2004]. Spinning the solution gets on the dosing nozzle, to which is attached a high voltage. Dripping from the nozzle, the jet of polymer solution is split into individual fibers, which are then solidified and, drifting, deposited on a grounded metal sheet. According to the invention, by adjusting the distance between the nozzle and the grounded metal sheet and the magnitude of the electric voltage, to achieve the maximum the CSOs splitting of the jet of polymer solution and precipitate most thin hardened polymer fibers by drift on the rotating drum, attached additional voltage.

The disadvantage of this method is the relative complexity of the hardware design process due to the presence of rotating rolls, which summed voltage.

The closest in technical essence to the invention is a method of obtaining a polymer fibers with diameters from 0.1 to 7 μm by the method of electrotorture from a solution containing two polymer and an organic solvent as the polymer used neurotraumatology phenol-formaldehyde resin and polyvinyl butyral, and as the organic solvent of ethyl alcohol and/or dichloroethane in the following ratio, parts by weight:

Phenol-formaldehyde resin3-21
The butyral3-7
Ethyl alcohol or dichloroethane5-94/0-89

The disadvantage of this solution is the impossibility of obtaining from him fibers with a diameter less than 0.1 µm (RF 2065513).

The technical result of the invention is to obtain ultrafine polymer fibers with diameter less than 0.1 microns.

This technical result dostigaet the same time, that ultrafine polymer fibers produced by the method of electrotorture of the solution for forming, containing as polymer neurotraumatology phenol-formaldehyde resin and polyvinyl butyral, and as the organic solvent is ethyl alcohol, which additionally contains as a modifying additive lithium chloride or tetrabutylammonium iodide in the following ratio of components, parts by weight:

Phenol-formaldehyde resin2,5-4
The butyral2,5-4
The lithium chlorideof 0.01-0.1
Ethanol92-95

or

Phenol-formaldehyde resin2,5-4
The butyral2,5-4
Tetrabutylammonium iodide0,02-0,2
Ethanol92-95

The practical implementation of the proposed invention discloses the following examples are run.

Example 1.

Hanging is originalbytes and phenol-formaldehyde resin added to ethyl alcohol in accordance with the formula (see table 1), then the components are mixed for 3-5 hours at a temperature of 30-40°C. the Solution polymer was used in a laboratory setup, containing a single capillary, installed at a distance of 30 cm from the surface of the precipitation grounded electrode in the form of a flat metal plate with a diameter of 30 cm Through the metering capillary was set solution flow rate polymers of 0.03 cm3/C. When applying a high voltage potential of 25-30 kV of the capillary was himself charged jet, which is in the form of dry fiber was deposited evenly on the grounded electrode.

9,2-10-2
Table 1
IndicatorsExamplesThe placeholder
123456
The solution composition, parts by weight
The FSF2,5 42,5' 42,543-21
The butyral2,542,542,543-7
Ethyl alcohol,95929592959271-94
or dichloroethane,------
or a mixture of ethyl alcohol and------rest
dichloromethane in the ratio --
3,6-89/3,6-89------
Modifying additives, parts by weight:
The lithium chloride000,01-ml--
Tetrabutylammonium iodide00-0,02-0,2-
The conductivity of the solution, Cm/m3,1·1010-44,5·10-45,0-10-38,7-10-35,9-10-2-
The diameter of the fibers, mcm0,10-0,300,12-0,350,06-0,280,09-0,300,05-0,120,06-0,14from 0.1 to 7
The content of fibers with diameter less than 0.1 μm %002583027-

The table below shows the conductivity of the polymer solution, which is an important technological characteristic for polymeric fibers by the method of electrotorture. The low electrical conductivity of a solution of the polymer (example 1 and 2) does not allow to obtain a polymer fibers with diameters less than 0.1 ám.

Examples 2-6 are carried out analogously to example 1 according to the formulations shown in table 1.

The introduction of modifying additives in quantities of 0.01 to 0.2 parts by weight (examples 3-6) provides increased conductivity of solutions in 10-100 times, making the resulting polymer ultrathin fibers containing up to 25-30% of fibers with diameter ranging from 0.05 to 0.1 μm.

Further Uwe is ikenie content modifying additives leads to reduction of the yield of polymer ultrafine fibers with diameters less than 0.1 μm and is therefore not appropriate.

The method of obtaining ultrafine polymer fibers by electrotorture from a solution of polymers comprising neurotraumatology phenol-formaldehyde resin and polyvinyl butyral, using as the organic solvent is ethanol, wherein the solution further comprises modifying additive is lithium chloride or tetrabutylammonium iodide in the following ratio of components, parts by weight:

Phenol-formaldehyde resin2,5-4
The butyral2,5-4
Ethanol92-95
The lithium chlorideof 0.01-0.1
or
Tetrabutylammonium iodide0,02-0,2

and the resulting fibers have a diameter of from 0.06 to 0.1 μm.



 

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