Method of protection of soil from erosion on slopes in gardens and forest plantations
SUBSTANCE: method comprises sowing of perennial grasses and embedding of the grown mass into the soil. At that sowing with simultaneous fertiliser application is carried out in every third aisle preserving the growing mass during 3 years. Sowing in neighbouring aisles is carried out respectively on the second and third years. Plowing with embedding of the grown mass in the aisle is carried out on the third year after sowing.
EFFECT: method enables to provide effective protection of soil from erosion by reduction of effluent and reduction of washout.
The invention relates to the field of agriculture and forestry, in particular to methods of preventing soil erosion during cultivation of gardens and plantations on the slopes,
The known method of controlling soil erosion, including planting green manure crops and their embedment in the soil, and grown the crop green manures rolled down and keep it in this form on the surface for a while, adverse temperature and water regime for the main crops. Then picatinney mass buried in the soil (A.S. USSR №383419, MCL A01B 13/16, 1973).
The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of protection of soil from water erosion during runoff. When rolling green manure addition is soil compaction, which reduces water infiltration in the arable horizon and increases runoff. It does not provide any protection of soils from the destructive actions of runoff, resulting in erosion of the soil.
Object of the invention is the provision of effective protection of soils from erosion by reducing runoff and reduce flushing.
The invention consists in the fact that produced the sowing of perennial grasses, sealing grown mass in the soil, and sowing with simultaneous application of fertilizers produced in every third row spacing with increasing mass conservation within 3 years (figure 1), planting in adjacent rows are produced respectively on the second and third years (figure 2), plowing with the incorporation grown mass in the produce aisle three years after planting (figure 3).
The effect is achieved by the prevention of washout and erosion of soil saved herbage in adjacent rows, improving soil structure with its saturation of organic substances in the periodic seeding, fertilizer and sealing it grown mass, thus increasing its permeability, which prevents the formation of flow.
The way to protect soils from erosion on the slopes in the gardens and forest plantations, including planting of perennial grasses, sealing grown mass in the soil, characterized in that the seeding with simultaneous application of fertilizer is produced in every third row spacing with increasing mass conservation within 3 years of planting in adjacent rows are produced respectively on the second and third years, plowing with the incorporation grown mass in the produce aisle in the third year after planting.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises sowing with minimum tillage. At that the band sowing seeds is carried out in stubble simultaneously with performing for one pass of technological operations of paring and preparing the soil, cutting weeds, harrowing, post-sowing compacting and levelling in extreme weather conditions. For optimisation of the ratio of high-protein crops as part of the grain-haylage the plants are grown at the same sowing rate, but at different stages of development and ratio of species within this rate, namely for the early-maturing grain-haylage, legumes - lupins, sorghum and base silage crops - sunflower or corn, they correspond to ratio of 40:40:20, for middle-maturing grain-haylage - lupine- sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 60:20:20, and for late-maturing grain-haylage - lupine-sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 50:40:10.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of drought-resistant high-protein feed.
1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preplant tillage, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with droppers built in their cavities, planting of sprouts of vegetable crops, weed suppression, application of herbicides and mineral fertilisers, harvesting and fall plowing. Before processing of the array the base station of the satellite navigation system is permanently mounted at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array. The boundaries of processed array are determined using the satellite navigation system. Size of the array is divided into parallel bands with the width of 1.40±0.02 m and their conventional boundaries are determined. At that the alternating bands are annually assigned for intensive use and fallow. On the bands for intensive use two irrigation pipelines are placed at a distance for each of 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands. The following year, before processing the array the conventional boundaries of the array and bands are restored using the satellite navigation system; the last year assignment of bands is changed, and the alternation of bands in years is carried out with biennial cycles.
EFFECT: method enables to restore annually the conventional boundaries of the processed array and bands with an error less than 0,02-0,05 m and to obtain the guaranteed annual yield of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.
2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of mixtures of annual cereal and leguminous crops to be used as green mass. The method is as follows: one uses multicomponent mixtures of peas + oats + barley + wheat, at optimal ratio of feed crops being (10:30:30:30) respectively, or vetch + oats + barley + wheat (10:30:30:30) or peas + oats + barley (20:50:30).
EFFECT: method allows to enhance yielding capacity and the mixtures production quality thus to enhance efficiency of green mass production due to optimisation of mixtures composition and components ratio in them.
2 dwg, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of growing linen flax comprises the main autumn and spring presowing treatment of soil, seed treatment, planting and treatment of crops. The crops are treated in phase "herringbone" at the plant height of 3-12 cm with the aqueous solution of the biologically active substance "Floravit ®" in an amount of 1·10-4 g/l with a flow rate of working fluid of 200-400 l/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve crop yield of the culture and quality of the obtained flax product.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises pasturing by animals, destroying of not eaten, harmful and poisonous plants, levelling animal excrement, and removal of uneaten residues by harrows and rakes, fertiliser application, as well as creation of tree and shrub shelterbelts. At that on the area intended for hayfields and pastures area after pasturing by animals the fertilisers are initially applied, and then the uneaten plants are destroyed, tilting them and applying herbicide by method of smearing it on their biomass, including stems and lower surface of leaves. Harrowing and treatment the grass with rake is carried out after the start of regrowth of plants eaten by animals. The device comprises a reservoir for the herbicide, as well as a pump for feeding it to the tubular perforated rods with means for application of the herbicide to the plants. The perforated rods are mounted behind each other in parallel with the ability of horizontal and vertical displacement, and the device for application of the herbicide to the plants is made in the form of capillary cloth located between the pressure plates and attached on the perforated parts of the said rods which are connected and framed with the cloth and placed in the tubular casings with longitudinal slots through which the cloth is passed, compressed by the pressure plates fixed on the edges of the slots. And the perforated tubular rods are communicated with each other by the hose, at that the inlet end of the front tubular rod is connected to the pump and the outlet end of the rear rod through the drainage tube with the valve - with a reservoir for the herbicide to form a flow regulated system. Furthermore, the perforated tubular rods and their casings are attached to the frame, mounted on the propellers, with freedom of vertical and horizontal displacement.
EFFECT: inventions enable to simplify the technology of creation of forage land on fallow lands with simultaneous formation of tree-shrub belts.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises creation of deep vertical cavities, which enable to connect thawed zone of soil with the atmosphere during the period of its thawing, soil treatment, sowing Raphanus sativus subsp. acanthiformis. At that the grown harvest of the culture is left in the soil under the snowpack.
EFFECT: method enables to optimise soil conditions for growth and development of crops of agricultural cultures with the biological method of control of soil fertility.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises application in autumn of organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, deep autumn ploughing, application of nitrogen fertiliser in spring and carrying out cultivation. In that artichoke is cultivated on the southern lit slope. In autumn organic fertilisers are applied at the rate of 30-60 t/ha, also phosphorus-potassium fertilisers are applied at a dose of P40-90K60-120 on soils with high acidity - lime. After 1-2 days deep autumn ploughing of the site is carried out. In spring to accelerate the melting of snow the darkening agents are thrown on it - ash, phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, peat or loose soil. After snow melting, the nitrogen fertiliser at a dose of rate of application of 60-90 kg/ha are applied, and harrowing soil is carried out twice cross-diagonally to a depth of 5-7 cm with the help of tooth harrows on the hitches. After 2-5 days cultivation is carried out at a depth of 10-15 cm. The presowing treatment of seeding material of early varieties of artichoke of tuber purpose is carried out in advance, the healthy not affected by disease tubers are selected, they are decontaminated against infection in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate in a concentration of 1:10000, germinated in the nutrient medium of humus half with sawdust or peat. The seed tubers are laid in one layer inside the nutrient substrate placed a layer of 6-10 cm, and kept moistened constantly at 15-20°C for 1-2 weeks until emergence of buds and start of emergence of sprouts, then the temperature is lowered to 8-10°C for formation of 1-2 cm sprouts and roots. The identified diseased tubers are removed, then the germinated tubers with the nutrient medium are transplanted into the soil warmed up to 3-5°C in wells and covered with the opaque film. Small tubers weighing 20-30 g are placed on the scheme 40×40 cm, the middle - weighing 40-60 g - on the scheme 50×50 cm, and the tubers are located in chequered order. Over the tubers location the cross-shaped cuts are made with the size of 5×5 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to simplify weed control in the cultivation of culture and to obtain the early harvest of tubers of artichoke.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, pre-sowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is carried out by their moisture, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass. The seeds are kept at a temperature of +5°÷+10°C for 20 days, then the seeds are packed and stored till sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and sowing is carried out at the seeding rate of 100-150 kg/ha. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is started with selection of germinable seeds.
EFFECT: method enables to provide full use of seed resources due to increasing the yield of spring spiked cereals.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of sowing seeds of winter spiked cereals comprises pre-sowing treatment of seeds, for which the viable seeds are selected first. Then the seeds are moisturised, bringing the moisture content of seeds to 45-50% of their weight. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature of +4°…+6°C for 2.5-3 days. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature in the range of -3°…-5°C for 35-50 days, allowing short-term periods to 12 hours of temperature fluctuation in the range of +5° … to -30°C. Then the seeds are kept before sowing at a temperature below 0°C. Sowing is carried out in spring in time of sowing spring spiked cereals on the area of the fields, allotted for the winter and spring spiked cereals with a seeding rate of 100-200 kg/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to provide the use of full seed resource due to elimination of crop losses from freezing in the field.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular irrigated agriculture. The method comprises ploughing soil, levelling its surface and watering. Ploughing is carried out in spring upon the occurrence of physical maturity of soil, the soil levelling is carried out, followed by grooving of the irrigation network and pre-sowing water-charging irrigation. Then two post-irrigation cultivations and levelling soil with low leveller is carried out. After sowing, pre-sprouting and post-sprouting harrowing is carried out with toothed harrows, the furrows are cut for irrigation with simultaneous top dressing. The terms of carrying out of methods of the main soil tillage and water-charging irrigation are transferred from autumn to spring at the time of onset of physical maturity of soil for reduction of weed infestation and increase in crop yield.
EFFECT: method enables to avoid soil deflation, to reduce weed infestation of crops and to increase yield of phytomass.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing soil as enclosures across the slope to form back ridges and detached intermittent furrows - furrows with jumpers intercepting runoff flow. At that upwards the direct slope having incline not less than 0.015, the width of each previous enclosure Bi is smaller than the width of each subsequent Bi+1, such as Bi-1<Bi<Bi+1, where i is the number of enclosure, growing up the slope, and the width of the ith enclosure is determined by the formula Bi≈B ki, where B is the width of the enclosure that is set from the maximum performance condition of the applicable unit that takes into account the length of the pass, the width of the grip of one plough body, the number of bodies and the minimum turning radius of the unit; ki is the correction factor taking into account inequality of solid and liquid precipitation on the slope and its exposure, absorption and water runoff and defined by the formula
EFFECT: method enables to reduce soil washout on the lower parts of the slope, to ensure the termination of planar and linear soil erosion, to increase crop yield on the slope, and to prevent siltation of rivers and water reservoirs.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises subsurface tillage together with cutting slits and formation of cavities. At that the cavities are formed to the depth of 30 to 60 cm due to low-frequency vibrations at a frequency of 1 stroke per second of blade cultivator trapezoidal semi-hoes on the sides of the rack. Sealing of the walls of the cavities is carried out by exposure to high-frequency vibrations with a frequency of 250 Hz by means of roller elements. The device comprises a hinged frame with support wheels and working elements. The boardless working elements are mounted chequerwise and comprise the made C-shaped racks with chisels fixed at the end and at the sides by the blade cultivator trapezoidal semi-hoes. Behind the racks the mole blades are attached, the trapezoidal semi-hoes in front part are pivotally mounted on the axes rigidly fixed on the sides of the rack, and at the rear part they have a kinematic connection to the mechanism of a wobble plate connected in turn to the power takeoff shaft of the power means. The mole blades are made in the form of brackets rigidly attached to the racks, equipped with axes with two pivot roller elements. At that the axis with the rollers is equipped with a vibrator and is mounted with the ability of displacement relative to the bracket.
EFFECT: inventions enable to increase the density of the walls of the cavities in the lower part and increase the cross section of the cavity by giving it a rectangular shape.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two rotary milling chisel ploughs located vertically symmetrically along the direction of travel of the device, mechanically connected to a common driver. The rotary milling chisel plough is provided with an annular milling chisel plough. The annular milling chisel plough is provided with outer cutting elements, provided along its outer side at the side surfaces alternately on the left and on the right. In front of the cutting element a container for receiving soil is made. The container for receiving soil is simultaneously a cavity of engagement of the gear drive on the outer side of the annular milling chisel plough. The container for receiving soil of the annular milling chisel plough is provided with a recess on its rear surface formed parallel to the plane of the annular milling chisel plough between the bottom of the container for receiving soil and the cutting element of the annular milling chisel plough. The rear surface in the direction of rotation of the pinion tooth is provided with a projection which width is 20-30% of the width of the pinion tooth, which lateral plane is made in one plane with the lateral surface of the tooth, directed towards the central plane of the pinion.
EFFECT: this constructive implementation enables to improve cleaning the container for receiving soil of the annular milling chisel plough and the cutting element of the annular milling chisel plough from the extracted soil, to reduce the tractive resistance and energy consumption, to improve reliability of the device.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and soil erosion. In the method on sloping lands oats, perennial grasses, winter rye, potatoes are cultivated. At that the cultures in the crop rotation are distributed as follows: oats with clover - clover - clover - winter rye - potato - winter wheat. At that after harvesting of winter rye vetch with white mustard are seeded, and after winter wheat - rape as green manure crop.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the output of environmentally friendly products, soil fertility and to reduce the degradation processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil erosion. The method includes mouldboard processing of complete fallow for accumulation of moisture, nutrients and for weed control, compacting in autumn after rains for formation of a soil crust, destruction of the crust and pre-plant soil loosening under it in the form of bands in spring of next year, with the formation of furrows for seeds in the loosened soil, formation at the bottom of the furrow on virgin soil of compacted bed, sowing seeds and their embedding by loosened soil layer. The destruction of the crust and pre-sowing loosening of the surface layer of the soil is carried out as bands to a depth of not more than 5 cm while maintaining of the crust between rows that protects the soil from wind erosion to complete germination.
EFFECT: method provides protection of soil from wind erosion in the autumn period the fallow year, the spring and early summer periods of sowing and increase of grain yield.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a vehicle with wedge-shaped mouldboards mounted in front. The trailed frame is made in the form of transverse beams connected to the hitch tongue. The device also comprises skis, the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards of the trailed frame are kinematically connected to the skis and the adjusting mechanism of ski and frame position in height. The mouldboards are mounted with the ability arranged to gauge the soil surface across the width of the device and are interconnected in pairs to form at least two ridgers with the output windows and forming chambers. The front part of each pair of the mouldboards is connected to the main crossbar via hinges with horizontal longitudinal axes. Part of the mouldboards connected to the forming chamber of each pair of mouldboards is pivotally connected to each other with the ability to move the forming chambers of the mouldboards in height. The edges of the lower edges cutting snow of each pair of the mouldboards, mounted on the sections of the additional beam, form the input windows.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to enhance the technological capabilities of the device due to reducing the tractive resistance, increasing performance and reliability while simultaneous improving the quality of snowfall capture by creation of snow banks of specified height.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular, to soil erosion. In the process the beardless vertical para-ploughing is carried out to a depth of 0.3 m and a surface mulching of top soil to a depth of seeding. At that the soil preparation is carried out in two phases, in the first phase in the autumn in the soil the vertical slits are made with shovel-shaped working elements with a size of k×b×h1 - respectively 0.05×0.3×0.3 m with a variable pitch S, which varies ranging from 0.1 to 0.3 m, with the placement of the slits in staggered order. Then, in spring the second phase is carried out by a solid surface loosening and mulching the soil with the tools with rotary working bodies to a depth of sowing seeds.
EFFECT: method enables to prevent water erosion, to accumulate a supply of water and to ensure optimal conditions for humus formation.
3 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame and two rotary slot-cutters. The rotary slot-cutters are mounted on the frame, are located vertically symmetrically along the direction of the device and are mechanically linked to a common drive. Under the drive a subsoil milling device is located. The slot-cutters and the milling device have shafts placed horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the ripper. The device has a gear pinion of drive of the annular slot-cutter located on the frame above the rotary slot-cutter and provided with outer engagement teeth performed alternately on the left and the right in the direction of rotation of the gear pinion. The rotary slot-cutter is provided with the slot-cutter disc and the annular slot-cutter. On the outer surface of the annular slot-cutter complementary to the outer engagement teeth of the gear pinion the engagement recesses are made. Along the inner surface of the annular slot-cutter alternately on the left and right engagement recesses are made. The slot-cutter disc comprises an idler, support and center drive gears, which engagement teeth are made alternately on the left and right along the outer cylindrical surface of each gear complementary to the engagement recesses on the inner surface of the annular slot-cutter. On the idler, support and center gears and the inside annular slot-cutter a cylindrical bearing surface is made, which diameter of the circle is equal to the diameter of the corresponding circle of the engagement. The annular slot-cutter is provided with cutting elements mounted along its outer cylindrical surface alternately on the left and right in the direction of rotation of the annular slot-cutter. In front of the cutting element on the side surface of the annular slot-cutter a container for ground intake is made which is open towards the side and the outer cylindrical surfaces of the annular slot-cutter. The milling device shaft is made with consoles. The engagement recesses of the gear transmission are made on the side surface of the annular slot-cutter and oriented to the outer side of the annular slot-cutter. The lateral plane of the engagement recesses is made on the same side of the annular slot-cutter as the container for ground intake of the annular slot-cutter relative to the appropriate side surface of the annular slot-cutter to a great 15-20% depth than the lateral plane of the container for ground intake of the annular slot-cutter.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to reduce tractive resistance and energy consumption, to increase the reliability of the device.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises two rotary slot cutters located vertically symmetrically along the direction of the device movement, and connected mechanically to a common drive. The device comprises a rotary intrasoil cutter located below the drive. The cutter shafts are located horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of motion of the ripper. The rotary slot cutter is provided with an annular slot cutter. The device has a pinion, idler, support and center gear wheels, the teeth which engagement is made alternately left and right along the cylindrical surface of the engagement on every detail of the engagement on which they mutually rest with the toothed wheel gearing. The annular slot cutter is provided with cutting elements made on his side surfaces alternately on the left and right, forming capacity for receiving soil. The device is equipped with intrasoil rotary cutter which shafts are located horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of the ripper movement. The rotary slot cutter is equipped with the sun pinion mounted on a separate shaft, located on the frame of the device in the bearings horizontally and perpendicular to the direction of the ripper movement. The annular slot cutter is made in the form of an outer planetary gear. The pinion, idler, support and center gear wheels are made planetary to the sun pinion and the annular slot cutter. The shaft of intrasoil rotary cutter of the lower soil layer is mounted to the idler planetary gears of the rotary slot cutter. The shafts of intrasoil rotary cutter of the topsoil are mounted in the support planetary gears of the rotary slot cutter.
EFFECT: constructive implementation enables to improve the quality of soil treatment by layer by layer loosening the soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture, in particular, to methods of protection from soil erosion on slopes and prevention the growth of gullies. The method consists in creating at the top of the gully an arcuate trench located on the level of the area, with water-detention earthworks. Then a water-retaining screen covering the bottom and the side of the trench is mounted. The trench is filled with inorganic filler which is plastic balls with through holes, and the filter material is strewn on top to the level of the soil surface.
EFFECT: water erosion of soil, increase of gully heads and the transfer of lands to the category of disturbed is prevented.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.