Determination of underground gas store tightness

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: in compliance with this method, seam is subjected to cycling, every cycle including gas injection therein with subsequent gas withdrawal. Cycling includes at least 10 cycles. Current seam pressure ( P t f ) and gas withdrawal (or injection) volume are measures at regular intervals in every cycle. Measured parameters allowed for design pressure in underground storage facility ( P t d ) is determined for facility operation without gas leaks and with leaks. Function (F) is defined as mean arithmetic value of ( P t d ) deviations from ( P t f ) obtained at every ith measurement for operation without leaks and function (Fl) for operation with leaks. Given Fl<F, leaks are considered available.

EFFECT: simplified control, higher safety and reliability.

1 tbl

 

The invention relates to oil and gas industry and can be used to control the safe operation of underground gas storages (UGS) with gas mode.

Known hydrogeochemical method of determining inter-layer flows of gas in gas fields (Agishev A.P. Cross flows of gas at the development of gas fields. - M.: Nedra, 1966, S. 79-88 [in Russian]), which is in the exploration stage define constant hydrogeochemical background around the vertical incision. Then the accumulated data on the geochemical environment of the studied section intervals compare with the natural background of the field and identify emerging trends change on a particular area. The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its implementation due to the need to study the initial hydrochemical background prior to injection of gas into storage. In addition, the application of the above method for UGS is associated with significant costs for the drilling of monitoring wells, as hydrogeochemical studies should be carried out in specially drilled test wells located in the path of the gas reservoir, and water samples should be selected in a well-isolated wells, retaining reservoir conditions (temperature and pressure), which causes errors when Oprah is the bookmark tightness UGS.

The closest to the proposed method (prototype) is a method for studying dynamic processes gas environment UGS (RF patent No. 2167288, E21B 47/00, publ. 20.05.2001), including the introduction into the reservoir through different injection wells indicators in gas media, sampling of gas from the producing wells and the determination of concentrations of indicators over time in the production wells. In the period of maximum gas pressure chosen by the Central injection well, located in one or more operational levels, based on the location of production wells by area, using the indicators of multiple colors, and upload the indicator of the same color in the form of a gas-filled micro granules with the degree of dispersion of 0.5-0.6 μm, consisting of a mixture of polycondensation resins and organic luminescing substances in the estimated quantity. During the pressure reduction to the minimum weighted average by area size at the same time take samples of gas from wells located in one or more operational levels, and determine the time variation of the concentration of indicators of each color and volume rate of all gas production wells are the total number of the indicator of each color received in each production well, for the Anna formula. Build maps and largest share of migrating gas identify areas in-situ casting and cross flows and framing gazodinamichesky different zones. The disadvantage of this method is the need for identification of indicators by five parameters, which complicates the implementation of the method and reduces the reliability of the study of dynamic processes of the gas environment.

The task to be solved by the invention is to develop a method to determine the tightness of the underground gas storage facilities gas mode that enables to determine the leakage of gas from underground storage facilities during the entire period of operation.

The technical result, which directed the present invention is to simplify the control of the leak, which leads to increased reliability and safety of operation of UGS.

This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the proposed method of determining the tightness of UGS carry out cyclical effects on the reservoir, wherein each cycle includes a gas injection through wells into the reservoir until the value of the reservoir pressure not exceeding the maximum allowable design value, with subsequent selection of gas until the value of the reservoir pressure is not below the minimum dopustimogo the design value. The stimulation is carried out, at least for 10 cycles. Thus in each cycle periodically simultaneously measure the current reservoir pressure(Ptf)and volume selection (or injection) of gas, then taking into account the measured parameters determine the design pressure in underground gas storage(PtP)for the operation mode storage without leakage of gas from the relationship

ΩoPtP/Zt-ΩoPo/Zo=0tqtdt,(1)

where Ωo- gas-saturated pore volume UGS,

Pothe initial reservoir pressure,

PtP- estimated reservoir pressure at the time t,

Zo- the initial factor sverkhlineinoi gas

Ztis the coefficient of sverkhlineinoi gas at time t,

qt- volume injection (or selection) of gas at time t;

and mode of operation of the store with gas leakage ratio

ΩoPtP/Zt-ΩoPo/Zo=0tqtdt-Cy0tPtPZtdt,(2)

where Cythe proportionality coefficient of the gas leak.

Then define the function (F) as the average of the deviations of(PtP)(Ptf)received at each i-th dimension for the operation of the store without gas leaks

F=mfrac> 1ni=1n|(PtiP-PtiF)|,(3)

where n is the number of measurements of reservoir pressure,

i - ordinal number of the measurement reservoir pressure;

and the function (Fyfor operation mode store with gas leaks

Fy=1ni=1n|(PtiP-PtiF)|,(4)

and when the inequality Fy<F conclude that the presence of gas leaks in the repository.

During the operation of UGS gas leak mostly fixed in the later stage of their development, that is, when the manifestation of the gas to the surface and pollution control horizons, which further complicates the search for the specific cause of the gas leak, and can cause serious complications during the operation of UGS.

For UGS treason is their volume of gas in place in time is determined from the equation

dVt/dt=qt(5)

where Vtthe volume of gas in the reservoir at time t;

t - time;

qt- volume selection (or injection) of gas per unit of time t.

Turning to the integral form, we obtain

0tdVt=0tqtdt(6)

Vt-Vo=0tqtdt,(7)

where Vothe volume of gas in the initial moment of time.

From the material balance equations (S. Zakirov. "Design and development of gas fields". - M.: Nedra, 1974, S. 28-35) known

VttPt/Zt, (8)

where Ωt- gas-saturated pore volume of the reservoir at time t;

Pt- formation gas pressure at time t;

Ztis the coefficient of sverkhlineinoi gas at time t.

Equation (3) for UGS gas regime takes the form

Ω0PtZt-ΩoPoZo=otqtdt(9)

The coefficient of sverkhlineinoi (Z) depends on the gas composition, temperature, pressure, and is the reference indicator (Trebinje FA "natural gas Production". - M.: Nedra, 1976, S. 78-85). Z one can accurately be approximated by a polynomial of the form

Zt=aPt2-bPt+c (10)

where a, b, and C are the polynomial coefficients.

Thus, the mode of operation of the underground gas storage facilities gas regime describe through the measured parameters selection (injection) gas and pressure the following system of equations

{ΩoPtZt-ΩoPoZo=0tqt dtZt=aPt2-bPt+c(11)Z0=aP02-bP0+c

Tightness (presence of gas flow), i.e. the mode of operation of the underground gas storage facilities gas leaks equation (5) takes the form

dVt/dt=qt-qty, (12)

whereqtythe flow rate of gas leakage from storage per unit of time t.

The flow rate of gas leakage from underground storage facilities can be described by an equation of the form (S. Zakirov. "Design and development of gas fields". - M.: Nedra, 1974, S. 220-226)

Qy=Cy0tPtZtdt,(13)

where Cy- coefficie the t of a gas leak.

Then for the operation of the underground gas storage facilities gas leaks equation has the form

ΩoPt/Zt-ΩoPo/Zo=0tqtdt-Cy0tPtZtdt(14)

To calculate the reservoir pressure(PtP)operation of the underground gas storage facilities gas regime can be described by a system of equations

- no gas leaks

{ΩoPtpZt-ΩoPoZo=0tqtdtZt=aP 2-bPt+c(15)Z0=aP02-bP0+c

- gas leaks

{ΩoPtpZt-ΩoPoZo=0tqtdt-Cy0tPtpZtdtZt=aPt2-bPt+c(16)Z0=aP02-bP0+c/mrow>

To estimate the variance of the estimated reservoir pressure(PtP)from the actual(Ptf)use the function (F), obtained by solving equations (15) and (16), relative to the reservoir pressure(PtP)

F=1ni=1n|(PtiP-PtiF)|(17)

The method is as follows.

During operation of the underground gas storage facilities gas regime carry out cyclical effects on the producing formation. In each cycle from production wells are injecting gas into the reservoir, followed by selection of gas. The gas injection is carried out before reaching the reservoir is Alenia in UGS, no more than the maximum design value. The gas sampling conducted before reaching the reservoir pressure is not below the minimum allowable design value. Cyclical effects on the producing formation is carried out for not less than 10 cycles. During each cycle time per day measure the current reservoir pressure and injected volume (selection) gas. Then calculate the pressure in UGS(PtP)mode of operation of the store without gas leaks and mode of operation of the store with gas leaks by the formulas (1) and (2). Then calculate the function (F)characterizing the operation mode storage without leakage of gas by the formula (3) and gas leaks (Fythe formula (4). Perform a comparison of values (F) and (Fy). If Fy<F, conclude that the presence of gas leaks in underground gas storage, i.e. the tightness of the store.

The proposed method was investigated Kaluga UGS. Obtained during the study measured values of reservoir pressure and volume of injection (selection) gas, as well as calculated values of formation pressures given in the table.

The results of the comparison of measured and calculated parameters, the conclusion was made about the presence of gas leaks in the specified UGS (Fy=to 6.19, F=8,08, i.e. Fy/sub> <F).

Thus, the proposed method can improve the reliability and safety of operation of UGS by simplifying control the tightness, as well as by improving the reliability of determination of the tightness.

Table
How to determine the tightness of underground gas storage
Measured parameters (actual data)Design parameters (gas mode)Design parameters (gas
mode with a gas leak)
No.
measurement
Injection/Sampling(is),
m3
The pressure is measured,(Ptf),PAPressure(PtP), PA(PtP)-( Ptf), PAPressure(PtP), PA(PtP)-(Ptf), PA
1234567
1055,455,4055,40
252,872,660,811,863,39,3
3115,996,372,523,8 80,7the 15.6
472,7106,479,826,691,714,7
555,7114,185,428,7100,213,9
622,3114,887,727,1103,411,4
715,3113,189,223,9105,67,5
8the 11.6113,190,422,7107,25,9
9-80,0to 92.182,39,893,3 1,2
10-116,478,070,67,4to 75.22,8
11-8,780,169,710,473,76,4
1281,497,477,919,585,911,5
1377,1109,285,723,597,6the 11.6
1455,0to 114.7for 91.323,4106,28,5
1530,2or 115.194,420,7110,84,3
16 17,8113,596,317,2113,50
1717,1113,598,115,4116,12,6
18a 4.9byr111.498,612,8116,55,1
19-74,095,190,94,2102,57,4
20-133,3to 75.277,42,281,46,2

62,9
1234567
21-104,066,94,065,42,5
2265,6to 85.273,511,775,010,2
2375,698,581,117,486,312,2
2455,5103,986,717,294,69,3
2547,9byr111.4to 91.619,81029,4
263,6109,892,017,8102,27,6
27-1,3107,591,9 the 15.6101,75,8
28by 12,4105,290,614,699,45,8
29-104,886,879,96,982,84,0
30-90,173,570,92,668,94,6
31-47,768,466,12,361,56,9
3244,685,770,615,168,117,6
3384,698,679,119,580,7 17,9
3472,7109,486,423,0to 91.617,8
3544,6111,79120,798,413,3
3640,1of 112.8for 95.217,6104,58,3
3722,3of 112.897,515,3107,85,0
38-31,3103,3a 94.29,1102,40,9
39-153,374,878,6the 3.877,62,8
40 -144,253,064,111,155,52,5
4178,080,371,98,467,113,2
4297,397,681,715,981,715,9
4365,9104,688,416,291,513,1
4460,8110,094,715,3100,99,1
4553,2113,3100,313,0109,24,1
4620,9113,8 102,511,3to 112.41,4
47-5,5104,1101,92,2to 110.76,6
48-13,596,9100,53,6108,111,2

1234567
49-32,196,9to 97.10,2102,55,6
50-117,982,484,92,583,71,3
51-126,163,172,2 9,164,31,2
52of 101.589,082,46,679,49,6
53103,9104,1br93.111,095,19,0
5472,6110,0100,79,3106,53,5
5529,8110,5103,96,6111,10,6
569,4109,4104,94,5112,32,9
57-21473,482,69,2 of 76.83,4
58-99,4to 59.472,613,261,52,1
5976,277,880,32,572,9a 4.9
60127,497,693,34,3to 92.15,5
6188,2to 108.2102,65,6105,92,3
6145,6110,9107,53,4of 113.22,3
63-228,069,583,614,174,75,2
64-118,953,471,718,356,53,1
6556,0to 66.377,311,064,91,4
66106,291,088,03,080,810,2
67105,4108,499,09,496,8the 11.6
6864,7113,5105,97,6107,06,5
6929,3113,8109,24,6111,52,3
70-41,0 99,6104,75,1103,23,6
71-47,0of 92.799,66,995,42,7
72-61,084,693,28,685,40,8
7328,085,796,110,489,43,7
7420,0a 94.2of 98.24,092,31,9
7537,398,5102,23,797,60,9
7647,1104,6107,3 2,7104,80,2

88,5
1234567
77of 37.9108,7111,52,8110,82,1
781,6107,1111,74,6to 110.73,6
79-71,5for 95.2to 103.88,698,63,4
80-19,696,4101,75,3for 95.21,2
81-41,789,097,38,30,5
82-77,478,189,311,276,41,7
83-1,878,1of 89.111,075,92,2
8422,088,991,42,578,8the 10.1
8554,996,4to 97.10,786,89,6
8650,7101,7102,40,794,47,3
8761,9109,2109,20103,95,3
8836,1112,5113,30,8109,62,9
89is 6.2104,8112,67,8107,83,0
90-69,5a 94.2104,910,796,22,0
91-89,579,2for 95.316,182,12,9
92-73,867,487,720,370,73,3
93-47,361,082,9of 21.963,32,3
946,8 68,483,615,264,04,4
9590,088,992,8a 3.977,511,4
96102,9106,2103,72,593,013,2
9771,1111,2111,50,3104,17,1
9837,1111,6by 115.74,1109,81,8
99-62,996,4108,612,2the 98.92,5
FunctionF=8,08 Fy=to 6.19

How to determine the tightness of underground gas storage to gas regime, characterized by cyclical impact on the formation, wherein each cycle includes a gas injection through wells into the reservoir until the value of the reservoir pressure not exceeding the maximum allowable design value, with subsequent selection of gas until the value of the reservoir pressure is not below the minimum allowable design value, and the stimulation is carried out, at least for 10 cycles, with each cycle periodically simultaneously measure the current reservoir pressure(Ptf)and volume selection (or injection) of gas, then taking into account the measured parameters determine the design pressure in underground gas storage(PtP)for the operation mode storage without leakage of gas from the relation
ΩoPtP/Zt-ΩoPo/Zo= 0tqtdt,
where Ωo- gas-saturated pore volume UGS,
Pothe initial reservoir pressure,
(PtP)- estimated reservoir pressure at the time t,
Zo- the initial factor sverkhlineinoi gas,
Ztis the coefficient of sverkhlineinoi gas at time t,
qt- volume injection (or selection) of gas at time t;
and mode of operation of the store with gas leaks from the relation
ΩoPtP/Zt-ΩoPo/Zo=0tqtdt-Cy0tPtPZtdt,
where Cythe proportionality coefficient of a gas leak,
then define the function (F) as the average is the arithmetic value of deviations of (PtP)(Ptf)received at each i-th dimension for the operation of the store without gas leaksF=1ni=1n|(PtiP-PtiF)|,
where n is the number of measurements of reservoir pressure,
i - ordinal number of the measurement reservoir pressure; and a function (Fyfor operation mode store with gas leaks
Fy=1ni=1n|(PtiP-PtiF)|,
and when the inequality Fy<F conclude that the presence of gas leaks in the store.



 

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method lies in continuous monitoring of the total mass flow rate Mli and volumetric gas discharge Qgi and calculation of the coefficient Ki=ΔMliΔQgi, where ΔMli and ΔQgi respectively for the difference of the previous (stored) and current average numerical values of the total expense parameters of the well pad M¯li and Q¯gi. When the numerical value Ki deviates from the range of the preset values, the total flow mass rate of the liquid Mli(n-1) and the total flow mass rate of free gas Qgi(n-1) for (n-1) wells, where n is the total number of wells in the well pad, the flow mass rate of the liquid (water-oil mixture) Mli=Mli-M(n-1), the flow mass rate of free gas Qgi=Qgi-Qgi(n-1) and Ki=MliQgi coefficient is calculated for each well. Thereafter the numerical values of Ki are compared for each well with the current numerical value Ki, and the well with a variable flow mass rate in the well pad is identified against the minimum difference between the numerical value Ki of one well in the well pad and the numerical value of Ki coefficient.

EFFECT: identification of the well with the variable flow mass rate of the liquid in the well pad directly in the process of the well flow rates measurement.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: determination is carried out in a well equipped with a tubing string with an electric-centrifugal pump and a return valve at the end. In order to determine water cut the well is selected in the middle of an oil deposit with production modes close to the average values for the deposit. The well is operated not less than the time required to reach full operation. The well is stopped and process holding is made till gas separation from the well product and breakage into oil and water. Height of the liquid column is measured, volume of the water cut is determined against the boundary line of liquid and gas and water and oil.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of the water cut determination in the well.

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises the going-in string of hollow sealed pipes and logging instrument for well survey. Flow string used as said going-in string of hollow sealed pipes has bottom end with openings to accommodate blown valves while inner circular groove is made under holes in said flow string to receive split lock ring. Note here that hydraulic standoff device is arranged at bottom end of said flow string for it to get into open well of multihole horizontal well. Besides, this device is equipped with squeezing plug to slide over flow string, driven by fluid overpressure to destruct blown valves for opening of holes in flow string and locking by lock ring in said string under said holes. Logging instrument is lowered into flow string by stiff cable against the stop to squeezing plug.

EFFECT: reliable operation, accurate determination of watered interval.

3 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention suggests procedure for survey of the multi-hole horizontal well that includes stages of bottomhole apparatus running-in to the well, performance of hydrodynamic research and removal of a geophysical tool from the multi-hole horizontal well. At that, before bottomhole apparatus running-in, at the head of the multi-hole horizontal well a hydraulic whipstock with drill out breakable cap, metering orifice and fixing breaking pin is installed at the lower end of the pipe string. The pipe string with the hydraulic whipstock is run in with simultaneous washing up to space of the surveyed side-tracking. Herewith in process of running-in the pipe string is equipped with kick-off valves. Then excess hydraulic pressure is created in the pipe string and the string is run in into the surveyed offshoot and excess pressure in the pipe string is increased till the breaking pin is destructed and the breakable cap is disconnected from the hydraulic whipstock. Then at the well head the bottomhole apparatus is connected to a rigid cable and the apparatus is run in into the pipe string until it leaves the string and appears in the offshoot. Thereafter fluid influx is stimulated from the stratum by gas injection to tubing-casing annulus through kick-off valves and hydrodynamic research is carried out in the surveyed offshoot by the bottomhole apparatus pushing up to the bottomhole. After hydrodynamic research the rigid cable with bottomhole apparatus from the pipe string and the pipe string with hydraulic whipstock are removed in sequence.

EFFECT: improving accuracy and efficiency of hydrodynamic research in offshoots of the multi-hole horizontal well.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to oil producing industry. The method includes procedures for measurement of initial gas content in the fluid and of the volume of gas released from the fluid. At that initial gas content in the fluid is determined for each group of oil producing wells operated in the common pipeline. Remaining gas content in the pipeline liquid is determined after gas extraction from skim pile according to the following formula: G=i=1n(GiQi)Qgi=1nQi, where Gi is initial gas content in the fluid in the i well; Qi - liquid rate for the i well; n is a number of wells in the group operated in the common pipeline; Qg is volume of gas released from the pipeline liquid in skim pile per a time unit.

EFFECT: determining remaining gas content after degassing of a group of wells in gas separator before further extraction to oil pipeline.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: device consists of a vertical cylindrical vessel, input and output liquid lines made in the form of siphon pipe, a gas line, gas-phase pressure and temperature gauges, a computing element. Volume displacement metre and a stop valve are installed in the common line, one by another, before the line entry into the collecting reservoir, at that the gas line and the output liquid line connected by downward siphon pipe are communicated with hydraulic lock. Pressure and temperature gauges are installed in the gas line; the stop valve, the volume displacement metre and the computing element are interconnected through a pulse distributer for measurement of the working medium. The stop valve is a bypass valve of step-by-step action with magnetic locking, discharge and control of positions - open and closed.

EFFECT: improving accuracy and quality of well gauging.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: as per the proposed method a well is equipped with a pipe string with a swab. The string bottom is arranged below perforated interval of a productive formation. The well is equipped with a bottomhole thermometer on a cable in annular space. The swab is lifted via the pipe string and at the same time, the bottomhole thermometer in a recording mode is lifted via the annular space on the cable. During the swab lifting there is the change of liquid flow direction in the well from direction from the productive formation in an upward direction of the well at oil production, for direction from the productive formation in a downward direction to the pipe string column. Operations are repeated; thermograms are recorded at the changed direction of well fluid flow; thermograms are analysed and compared to the thermogram of the killed well. On thermograms at the changed direction of well fluid flow there indicated is rise of temperature at the investigated interval. It is assumed that behind-the-casing flows are available in a downward direction from overlying to underlying formations. A conclusion is made on flow of the fluid from the overlying formation in the direction of behind-the-casing flows to the perforated interval.

EFFECT: determination of the behind-the-casing flows at downward flow of fluid behind the well.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to hydrology, drilling and operation of wells and it can be used for geophysical study of well integrity. Technical result is achieved due to the fact that conventional thermal log system is equipped with thermal anemometer joined with thermal system into united scheme.

EFFECT: expansion of operational functionality due to unambiguous interpretation of thermal log results for cases with temperature anomalies in the well in result of fixed temperature gradients and fluid crossflows.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: well production rate is changed and temperature is measured during certain time period for fluid flowing to the well from each layer; temperature variation value ΔTP is measured for initial stage and steady-state value A of temperature-time logarithmic derivative is calculated for each layer. Specific yield value q for each layer is determined against the specified mathematical expression. Yield Q for each layer of the well is determined and influx profile is defined as totality of yields Q for all layers.

EFFECT: improving accuracy of well parameters determination.

7 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises filling measuring tank with well product via inlet valve to maximum level With water-oil mix reaching maximum level, tank inlet valve is closed to let free gas to escape from fluid. Water-oil mix discharge is defined by the rate of tank filling the volume of separated fluid. Inlet valve is opened to displace the product from tank into manifold for time interval equal to previous period of tank filling with well product. Gas is gradually derived and forced into manifold by compressor. Gas bleeding is performed via pressure control valve at compressor inlet to atmospheric magnitude. Associated gas discharge is defined by compressor output, time of pressure decrease in calibrated vessel to atmospheric values and volume of vessel filled at the time with gas phase.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of measurement and definition of oil gas factor with allowance for dissociated gas.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises construction of wells with exposure of geological structure with pods and pool cap, injection of gas into said structure to force formation water downward from pool cap with prevention of gas escape from the boundaries of geological structure and gas extraction from underground storage (UGS) top section. Note here that availability of superhigh-seam-pressure formation water deposits with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is checked in region with geological structure intended for underground gas storage. Production wells are made with exposure of said deposit, water with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is extracted there through and bypassed into aforesaid geological structure. Gas extraction from UGS is carried out after extraction of dissolved and/or dispersed gas from water and their immiscibility. Water with dissolved and/or dispersed gas is bypassed from superhigh-seam-pressure geological structure is carried out as pressure in UGS decreases owing to gas extraction.

EFFECT: use of dispersed and dissolved gas in abyssal aquifers.

1 ex, 1 dwg

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