Method to determine durability of ceramic items

FIELD: test equipment.

SUBSTANCE: at the first stage they determine process mode of manufacturing of ceramic items providing for required operability reserve. Using the produced operability reserve and knowing the suggested time, during which ceramic items must preserve strength parameters, they assess the permissible rated speed of produced reserves consumption. At the second stage, modelling conditions of real operation by means of reproduction of accelerated cyclic variations of temperature with simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors, they determine actual speed of consumption of the same reserves. Received results of rated permissible speed and actual speed produced for imitation of operation conditions are compared, and results are produced, making it possible to judge on ceramic items.

EFFECT: possibility to determine durability of ceramic items with regard to certain conditions of use.

3 dwg

 

The present invention relates to methods of testing the strength properties of products made of fragile material by the application thereto of repetitive mechanical, thermal and other efforts and can be used, in particular, to determine the longevity of ceramic products.

Under durability means a temporary period (hours, years), after which the strength properties of ceramic products reach the minimum allowable values.

The prior art methods for determining the durability of products made of fragile material, which consists in the fact that the samples of the material load at different levels of the relationship of voltage to the maximum voltage, which is set for each of the samples non-destructively. Determine the maximum tension of the product and judge its durability against voltage to the initial voltage (see SU 1647356, G01N 3/32, publication date 07.05.1991; SU 1620930, G01N 29/00, publication date 15.01.1991; SU 1536251, G01N 3/00, publication date 15.01.1990). The drawback of such solutions is the low reliability of the findings, because not counted commodity options and real conditions of use of our products.

The way to determine the longevity of the material of construction, known from AC 901887 (published 05.02.1982), provides the ability to determine the longevity of the ri different loading regimes. The essence of the solution lies in the fact that determine the ultimate strength of the material by non-destructive method, using an additional set of samples that load with constant speed up destruction set according to the probability distribution of fracture when tested with a constant loading rate and test at a constant voltage, and durability of the material is judged on these dependencies and the tensile strength of the material. This solution allows you to cull the weakest designs and products, but does not provide a definition of durability of products in time depending on the actual conditions of their use.

The method disclosed in RU 2359244, G01/N 3/32, date of publication, 20.06.2009, is that:

- determine-Intrusive load limits for the product and for each sample a representative sample of material,

all samples of the material was tested under any kind of strain, but at a constant ratio of the load characterizing the mode, the threshold load, yet not reduce the strength of the pattern

- determine the value of a threshold load of the product and the attitude of the load characterizing the upcoming stationary loading products

when determining the threshold load, the product or the sample is oriented relative to the load so is e, as subsequent use,

- on samples to determine the durability at a known ratio of the current load to the limit.

This solution allows to reduce the duration of the tests required to assess the durability of a particular product at a given mode of loading, and to provide the possibility of testing regardless of the type of product deformation, however, the method does not take into account the conditions of use of the products and for this reason does not allow prior to use to determine the necessary raw materials of the product.

Obviously, smoovie phenomena of various ceramic products, for example, in the southern parts of Russia and Siberia. Ceramic products used in buildings and structures under mechanical effects, such as shock, vibration, etc. that occur in the production environment near Railways, construction sites, etc. will also be characterized by its specificity course smoovah phenomena other than the same phenomena in terms of the static.

The present invention is aimed at solving urgent at the present time, the task of obtaining accelerated evaluation of durability of ceramic products taking into account the actual conditions of use of ceramic products.

The technical result when using the claimed invention is enabled, the STI determine the longevity of ceramic products with respect to certain terms of use.

The technical result is achieved due to the fact that:

- at the first stage determines the technological mode of production of ceramic products, providing the necessary performance margin;

using the obtained performance margin and knowing the estimated time during which the pottery must maintain strength parameters (tg)evaluate the allowable current consumption rate obtained reserves;

in the second stage, simulating the real conditions of operation (reproducing accelerated cyclic temperature changes during the simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors)determine the actual speed (ϑf) spending those same resources;

- compare the results obtained (calculated allowable speed and the actual simulated operating conditions) and have the opportunity to judge the durability of ceramic products.

The invention is explained illustrate materials, where

Figa - block diagram of the method;

Figb - planning matrix of experiment);

Figure 2 - picturegram progress in the implementation matrix of experiment planning;

Figure 3 is a set of picturegram (corridor responses) for the proposed method.

The proposed method is as follows. Cook the dough on the I manufacture of ceramic products of the possible options of raw materials, which in the experiment are the input factors (xI), and the factor x1- raw materials 1, factor x2- raw materials 2.

The temperature and duration of firing are external factors (xVNS). The internal factors may include the percentage of moisture in the test and the percentage of additives (xEIT). Output parameters (CRP) - strength, density, thermal conductivity, etc. For simplicity of the invention the number of factors selected minimum.

These factors are used to form the matrix of experiment planning (Figb), which reflect all the sets of combinations of levels of factors a variable at a maximum level indicated by "+", and a minimum - "-". The planning matrix of the experiment is the source of the information base for the development of technological process of experimental research, the definition of technological equipment, modes and test conditions. The results of the implementation of the matrix experiment planning is reflected in the last column of the table (Figb).

Figure 2 presents picturegram, which illustrates the results of the matrix experiment planning. On the x-axis is the number of experiments according to the planning matrix (the first column of the table. Fehb), and the y - axis values of output parameters (CRP), polucen the e in the respective experiments. The results are marked on the respective axis of ordinate points, which for clarity are connected by straight lines.

Raw materials, even within the same commodity group, is not so homogeneous to ensure the reproducibility of experiments. Accordingly, since the raw material 1 and 2 differ in the repeated experiments get the offset results from the k repetitions give k picturegram (Figure 3), which simultaneously show the total for all of the results trend (increment CRP in the transition from experience to experience).

Given that the number of iterations (k) is usually not large (small sample), predict possible variations of the results obtained in mass production of products, such as tolerance limits:

ΠNt=Πcp±ktS(N)where

ΠNttolerance limits (Π_Nt- bottom,ΠNt - top) in each experiment (1, 2, 3, ..., N);

Pcf- the average value of CRP in every experience;

kttolerance factor (tabulated);

S(N) is the estimate of the standard deviation of the CRP in every experience:

S(N)=Σ1k[ΠN-Πcp]2k-1,

- k is the number of tested samples (see figure 3)

If the results apply limits for the studied parameter, for example the tensile strength in compression (Pmin apprPmax appr), the difference between the tolerance limits (Π_t,Π_t) and the allowable limits, the stock health of ceramic products in relation to the specified limit (limit):

ΔΠ_=Π _t-Πmindaboutpwith respect to the lower limit and

ΔΠ_=Πmaxdaboutp-Π_twith respect to the upper limit (Figure 3).

Taking into account the variation of density and other parameters of ceramic products, variations of health can also beΔΠ_min,ΔΠmaxdefined by the boundaries of the corridor responses (Figure 3).

Thus, the results of the matrix experiment planning allow you to choose the technological process of manufacturing ceramic products (depending on the needs, available resources, etc.), which, providing the necessary output parameters, such as tensile strength in compression, can be used taking into account the actual conditions of use KERS is ical products.

If you need to have a certain amount of inventory performance (for example,ΔΠ_(C)min), choose the modes and conditions of manufacture defined, for example, experience 3 (temperature, duration of firing, the percentage of impurities, raw materials and others). Further experimentally simulate operational modes and conditions and determine how long ceramic products will maintain the necessary output parameters within the acceptable range (Πmindaboutp).

As known minimum stock of healthΔΠ(C)minand time tgfor which the manufacturer guarantees the preservation of CRPS is not below the Pmin apprthis allows us to estimate the minimum consumption rate of the specified stock

ϑmin=ΔΠ(C)mintg .

Then experimentally confirm the actual consumption rate of the stock of health, defining equal to or less than the obtained estimates.

The introduction of the concept of stock performance required for quantitative evaluation of strength reduction during long-term operation as part of buildings and structures as a function of time (i.e. a decrease in strength over time). If there are no reserves, the samples of ceramic products corresponding mark on the strength of the lower boundary of the corridor responses (Figure 3), can be destroyed in the process of construction.

Samples with inventory efficiency, reduce it due to the occurrence of internal defects, progressing in time.

One of the prevailing reasons - porosity ceramic products. The increase in pore size, the occurrence of microcracks leading to the unification of the pores in the cavity of considerable size, reduce the strength of ceramic products.

The porosity of the ceramic causes the water absorption of the latter. Moisture, pore-filling, when the temperature drops to freezing, expanding and leads to the formation of microcracks connecting adjacent pores. After thawing increases the pore volume and decreases the amount of moisture, which reduces the pressure and suction complement Inoi moisture, filling the pores.

These cyclic processes characteristic for the spring and fall transition time, when night frosts are replaced daily positive temperature, the number of cycles is typical for a particular region given its climatic conditions.

In addition, the development of internal defects, reducing the strength of ceramic products, promote related impacts arising from the proximity of Railways, piling and other production conditions.

Given this model, the accumulation of defects in the rapid identification of potential strength reserves health when testing is possible by eliminating the time intervals between the cyclic changes in temperature (winter-summer), as well as information to process at least the duration of the cycles of freeze-thawing, which is equal to 8-12 hours.

Given the equivalence in the simulation 25-30 annual cycles of operation after 250-300 cycles from the party of subjects ceramic extract samples, which test the strength loss (CRP) due to smoovah processes. Other ceramic products continue modeling tests (cycles), each time determining the value of reducing the use of stock health. Since all repeated cycles is equivalently APR, the obtained results allow to determine the moment of reaching the maximum allowable level (Pmin apprand reveal a picture of the accumulation of internal defects, reducing the strength of ceramic products from group to group, with increasing number of cycles, simulating the conditions of real operation, as well as estimates of actual speed ϑfstrength reduction with increasing number of cycles.

Comparing it with the minimum (ϑfmin, ϑfminallows you to judge the durability of ceramic products. For the final solution must be brought to the results ofΔΠ_(C)maxΔΠ(C)cpthat, as with any statistical estimates allow us to evaluate the possible variations durability test of ceramic products, from minimum to maximum.

Thus, the proposed method can accurately and reliably estimate the durability of ceramic products taking into account the actual conditions of use ceramics in C the dependence on climatic conditions and mechanical damage and at the preparation stage of production to choose technological modes of production CI, who will provide the necessary durability.

Sources of information

1. V.V. Belov and other Laboratory determination of the properties of building materials. M: Association building Universities, 2008.

2. Pushes L.Y., Stepanova PPM fundamentals of theory of accelerated test for reliability. Minsk: Science and technology, 1972.

3. Perrote A.I., Storchak M.A. Questions the reliability of the CEA. M: Owls. radio, 1976. - p.114-115.

4. Panikov A.S. Reliability of machines. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1978. - str.

5. N. Johnson, F. Lyon. Statistics and experimental design in engineering and science. M: Statistics, 1978. - str.

The method for determining durability of ceramics, namely, that
- at the first stage determines the technological mode of production of ceramic products, providing the necessary performance margin;
using the obtained performance margin and knowing the estimated time during which the pottery must maintain strength parameters, evaluate the allowable current consumption rate of the received inventory;
in the second stage, simulating the real conditions of exploitation by replaying accelerated cyclic temperature changes during the simultaneous impact of possible mechanical factors that determine the actual consumption rate of the same stock;
- compare recip is by the results of the estimated speed and the actual simulated operating conditions and get results allows you to judge the durability of ceramic products.



 

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FIELD: technologies for testing properties of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in method for determining compositions of bi-senary friable filled-separated type systems in fractions with core sizes d1>d2>…>d6 when d2/d1,…,d6/d5 less than 0.155 volumetric mass and denseness of core material is determined as well as emptiness value, empty spaces fill grade coefficient, volumetric separation coefficient, and fraction volumes are determined from formulae for binary systems V1=1 m31, m3,

V2=V11·Ve1 + α 1-1), m3, Y1=1-d2/d1, α 1=(1+d2/d1)3, Ve1=1-γ 11, for ternary systems V1=1 m31, m3, V2=V1((Y· Ve11-1)/α 2), m3, V3=V2(Y· Ve22-1), m3, y1=1-d2/d1,y2=1-d3/d2, α 1=1-d2/d1, α 2 =(1+(d2 + 2· d3)/d2)3, Ve1=1- γ 1/ρ 1 Ve2=1-γ 22, for quaternary systems V1=1m31, m3, V2=V1((Y1Ve11-1)/α 2), m3, V3 =V2((Y1Ve22-1)/α 3), m3, V4=V3(Y3 Ve33-1), m3, у1=1-d2/d1, y2=1-d3/d2, y3=1-d3/d3, α 1=(1+(d2+2· d3+4· d4)/d1)3, α 2=(1+(d3+2d4)/d2)3, α 3=(1+d4/d3)3, Ve1=1-γ 11,Ve2=1-γ 22, Ve3=1-γ 33, for quinary systems V1=1m31, m3, V2=V1((Y1Ve11,-1)/α 2), m3, V3=V2((Y2Ve22-1)/ α 3), mз, V4=V3((Y3Ye33-1)/α 4), m3, V5=V4(V4Ve44-l), m3, У1=1-d2/d1, y2=1-d3/d2, y3=1-d4/d3, y4=1-d5/d4, α 1=(1+(d2+2· d3+4· d4+8· d5)/d1)3, α 2=(1+(d3+· 2· d4+4· d5)/d2)3, α 3=(1+(d4+2· d5)/d3)3, α 4=(1+d5/d4)3, Ve1=1-γ l1, Ve2=1-γ 22, Ve3=1-γ 33, Ve4=1-γ 44, for senary friable systems V1=1 m31, m3, V2=V1((Y1Ve11-1)/α 2), m3,V3 =V2((Y2Ye22-1)/α 3), m3, Y4=Y3((Y3Ye33-1)/ α 4), m3, V5=V4((Y4Ve44-1)/α 5), m3, V6=V5(Y5Ve55-1), m3, Y1=1-d2/d1, Y2=1-d3/d2, Y3=1-d4/d3, Y4=1-d5/d4, Y5=1-d6/d5, α 1=(1+(d2+2· d3+4· d4+8· d5)/d1)3, α 2=(1+(d3+2· d4+4· d5)/d2)3, α 3=(1+(d4+2· d5)/d3)3, α 4=(1+d5/d4)3, α 5=(1+(d6/d5)3, Ve1=1-γ 11, Ve2=1-γ 22, Ve3=1-γ 33, Ve4=1-γ 44, Ve5=1-γ 55, where V1, V2, V3, V4, V5, V6 - volumes of fractions with cores sizes, respectively, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, d6, m3; Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5 - coefficients for large core size fractions' empty spaces fill grade with fractions having lesser core sizes, dimensionless quantities; 0<Y<1; α1, α2, α3, α4, α5 - volumetric separation coefficients for fractions with large core sizes by all fractions with lesser core sizes, dimensionless quantities, in binary systems 1<α<8; Ve1, Ve2, Ve3, Ve4, Ve5 - values of fractions emptiness with core sizes, respectively, d1, d2, d3, d4, d5, dimensionless quantities (relation of emptiness' volume to fraction volume), ρ1, ρ2, ρ3, ρ4, ρ5 - denseness of cores material, kg/m3, γ1, γ2, γ3, γ4, γ5 - volumetric share of cores material, kg/m3.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader range of functional capabilities.

8 ex

FIELD: technologies for testing properties of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in method for determining compositions of friable condensed-filled-separated type systems in fractions with sizes of cores D1>D2>…>Dn-1>Dn when D2/D1, D3D2,…,Dn/Dn-1 greater than 0.155, d1>d2>…>dn-1>dn when d2/d1, d3/d2,…,dn/dn-1 less than 0.155, where Dn>d1, cores material denseness is determined, as well as volumetric mass, emptiness value and average fraction cores size, compaction level value is calculated, composition of mixture of condensed type is determined on basis of fractions with core sizes D, emptiness value and average cores size of said mixture, value of grade of filling of empty spaces of mixture with fractions with core sizes d is calculated, value of separation level of condensed mixture by fractions with core sizes d is calculated, and compositions of friable systems of condensed-filled-separate type are determined from formulae in following order: , m3, where Vmx - volume of mixture of condensed type on basis of fractions with core sizes D, m3; α - coefficient for condensed type mixture separation by fractions with core sizes d; Vd - volume of fraction with sizes of cores d, m3; Y - level of filling of empty spaces of compacted type by cores of fractions with sizes d, limits of value measurement being 0<Y≤1; Vemp - condensed type mixture emptiness value - relation of empty spaces volume to mixture volume, Dav.mx2 - average size of cores in a mixture.

EFFECT: higher precision, lower laboriousness.

4 ex

FIELD: nondestructive testing.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises drilling hole in concrete, securing anchor device inside the hole, and pulling out the anchor with applying destroying force. The strength of concreter is determined form the formula , where N is the destroying force, D is the diameter of the specimen, m, and d is the diameter of the hole, m.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises securing anchor device connected with the instrument in the concrete, applying breaking load, and determining the strength form the breaking load. The concrete is provided with hole and ring groove coaxial to the hole. The depth of the groove is equal to the height of the specimen. The anchor device is then secured in the hole and breaking force is applied by pressing the anchor device until the specimen is spalled. The strength is determined from the formula where N is the breaking load, in N, h is the height of the specimen, in m, D is the diameter of the specimen, in m, and d is the diameter of the hole.

EFFECT: decreased labor consumption.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: building, particularly to perform nondestructive testing of structure concrete strength.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling bore-hole in concrete body; cutting annular groove in concrete body coaxial to bore-hole; arranging metal cylindrical ferrule in annular groove, wherein cylindrical ferrule has dimension comparable with that of sample; securing anchoring head in bore-hole and pressing anchoring head into concrete body up to sample destruction. Concrete strength is determined from the following formula: R = (N·10-6)/2πdh, where R is concrete strength, MPa, N - destructive force, H, h is sample height, m.

EFFECT: possibility to determine physical and mechanical concrete characteristics directly in structure body.

1 dwg

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