Method of minimising energy consumption in water heater with heat accumulator
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of controlling the maintaining water temperature in the water heater with the heat accumulator controlled by the electronic regulator. The method of controlling the water heater with a heat accumulator in which water heating is carried out by the heating element, controlled by the regulator, which can bring the water temperature to a variable target temperature, and which comprises: defining moment (tONk; t'ONi) of the start of heating to ensure intakes (Pk; Pi) of water comprises the following stages: at short time intervals (δW) all the w intakes are accounted (P1, …, Pi, …, Pw), which moment of start (ti) falls on the specified time window (Δtw) immediately following the current moment of time, and the time window (Δtw) is selected based on the type of water supply system, for which the water heater (1) is designed, and is sufficiently extended to include the moment (ti) of start of all the intakes (Pi), which moments (t'ONi) of the start of imaginary heating presumably precede the moments (t'ON) which correspond to (i-1) preceding intakes (P1, …, Pi-1), at the said moment (ti) of start of intake which falls on the time window (Δtw), the same number of imaginary intakes (P'1, …,P'i, …, P'w) is constructed each of which has the same moment (tw) of start as the start moment of the corresponding real intake (Pi), and the initial temperature (T'set.i) of the imaginary intake determined by adding the initial temperatures (Tset1, Tset2, …, Tset (i-1)) of all water intakes accounted for the time window (Δtw) and preceding the intake itself (Pi), and the corresponding initial temperature (Tset.i) of real intake, on the basis of which each initial temperature (Tset1, Tset2, …, Tset (i-1)) is determined of the optimum temperature (Topt) of discharge according to the formula T'set.i=Tset.i+(Tset1-Topt)+(Tset2-Topt)+…+(Tset(i-1)-Topt), for each of the imaginary intakes (P'1, …, P'i, …, P'w) the moment is calculated (t'ONi) of start of imaginary heating according to the formula t'ONi=ti-(T'set.i-Tm)/VTh, on reaching the earliest of the moments (t'ONi) of start of heating the target temperature (Ttarget) is set at an initial temperature level (T'set.i) of the corresponding imaginary intake (P'i), at that it is understood that the upper limit of the said target temperature (Ttarget) is the maximum set temperature (Tset.max), and to achieve the earliest of the moments (t'ONi) of the start of heating the temperature is maintained (Ttarget) equal to the maintaining temperature (Tstand-by), and the said maintaining temperature (Tstand-by) is the temperature maintained at moments of time remote from the moments of the intake.
EFFECT: invention enables in the planned mode to change with the passage of time the temperature in the water tank.
29 cl, 4 dwg
The present invention relates to a new method of regulation supporting the water temperature in the standard water heater with a thermal battery that is managed by an electronic controller. Heater with instant hot water is able to provide hot water consumption, proportional to the installed thermal capacity. Installation of higher capacity is usually difficult, and this limits the distributed flow.
The advantage of water heaters with heat storage is their ability to provide a very high consumption of water with limited installed thermal capacity. The amount of water that can be distributed for one water at a temperature Tuconsumption may exceed the capacity of the water tank, because it is supported by the temperature exceeding the temperature Tuconsumption, and selected water is then mixed with cold water.
Because the water tanks are expensive and bulky, usually used tanks as a smaller amount, in high temperature (typically 75°C), and the actual temperature Tuconsumption, which typically ranges from 35 to 40°C is achieved at the sampling points by mixing with cold water; however, water is often more the high temperature, than the temperature Tuconsumption to compensate for its cooling while passing through the distribution pipes.
Usually the selected volume of the tank is enough to ensure that most of the alleged fences water to a particular water system and to maintain the temperature in the tank at the highest possible level, with installed thermal capacity should be such as to resume adequate supply of water for the next intake of water.
Thus, the water of different categories corresponds to many models of water heaters with heat storage (hereinafter for brevity referred to as heaters). It is clear that for maximum performance, that is the greatest of the proposed water intake, most of the time the heater support such a high temperature, which is inappropriate for most further fences water.
It is known that as a consequence the main reason for the ineffectiveness of water heaters with a thermal battery is heat dissipation, which can be very significant and often useless throughout the day, even with a large time interval between the fences of water. Accordingly, the simple application of a more or less accurate way is to limit the dissipation of heat and maintain the temperature in the water heater at the minimum level, acceptable, to ensure health. The minimum requirement for health, which always should be done, is to keep the heater minimum temperature is not lower than the temperature Tuconsumption to ensure a small unexpected fences water, the volume of the tank should be sufficient to ensure the greatest alleged in this system water while maintaining the temperature at an acceptable level.
Usually the water is distributed very unevenly throughout the day as the flow rate and time, and have a tendency to be concentrated in certain time intervals. Further, the distribution of water in time and quantity referred to as the profile of the water intake.
It is known that the profile of water intake during the day is very uneven, often repeated over specified time periods that are repeated with the same intervals, in particular at intervals of one week. In fact, since the mode of operation of the water supply system almost does not change, there may be a typical profile of the water intake for Monday, Tuesday, etc., in particular with a clear distinction between work and the holidays, and, of course, taking into account public holidays and periods of leave.
Accordingly, this cyclic the ski character profiles of water abstraction allows us to predict them with some degree of certainty and thus to carry out the methods of regulating the temperature in the heater, so it was changed during the day. Next, each of these intervals is called the cycle of water.
On a regular larger water is usually pretty random, especially in the case of small water systems are the so-called "small water", for example, for rinsing dishes or washing hands, which as such do not cause significant power consumption, but can, as is known to experts in the field of technology, to trigger thermal relay, resulting in a temperature increase does not apply to high level thereby increasing the heat dissipation.
To limit the scattering is always an easy way, in which the heating element is switched on and off by a timer in order to provide the desired temperature only during the period of time assumed to be water.
Another simple way is less effective from the point of view of energy consumption for water user, but more profitable for him, is the actuation of the heating element only during time periods with lower consumption, while water may unnecessarily be supported excessively hot with some proactive about the needs, but in any case the cost of production is otnositelno low.
In these methods, simply set at a fixed level adjustable temperature Tsetthermal relay, but the temperature in the tank decreases, because the heating element is forcibly shut down.
More effective to restrict flow are ways in scheduled mode change over time of the temperature in the tank.
For this to be possible, it is necessary to know the profile of water intake.
In the patent EP 0866282 described a device that allows you to program the desired sequence of abstraction, i.e. the profile of the water intake. Record the number of selected water at n fences within a temporal sequence t.1, t.2, t.k..., ... t.n by establishing for each time t.k temperature Tset.kin which presumably is provided a multiple k of the water intake. One disadvantage of this method is the complexity of proper programming, since the user may not be known, what should be set to the actual periods of intake of hot water or the actual values of Tset.kto obtain the desired quantity of hot water with a temperature Tuconsumption. Thus, the programming method requires a number of adjustments by trial and error with a high probability that the user will cease to whom Richterova program, when he decides that the task is completed, not knowing that this could be done more efficiently. Another difficulty is that the actual time to achieve the desired temperature depends on the duration of heating, which are difficult to estimate and which in any case changes over time in the same water heater for various reasons, such as the formation of scale, seasonal fluctuations in room temperature, in which a water heater is installed, reducing the effective heat capacity of the heating element over time.
On the other hand, in patent GB 2146797 described that the information about the periods and amounts of selected water get through sensors of the flow rate of each water intake, while the temperature in the water tank set at an intermediate level between the permissible minimum and maximum and proportional to the estimated volume of water intake. The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of flow sensors for registration of fences water; in addition, it is not possible to make adjustments, which means that the method takes into account the variability of the water intake, but for each water intake fixed in an unchanging temperature, because it is determined according to a given formula, and it cannot be adjusted if it is too high or low is.
According to the patent EP 0356609 is equipped with a digital processor, which establishes a sequence of periods of water intake and the corresponding temperature in the water tank, and the processor sequentially determines which regulated the temperature must have a thermal relay for each time interval. Subsequently, such a temperature change, for increasing intervals, during which were not reached desired temperature in the water tank, and decreasing it in the opposite case. One of the disadvantages of the method, as in the case of the first mentioned document is the need for pre-installation periods of the proposed abstraction of water; another disadvantage, as in the case of the second of the above document, is that the tank is supported by the desired and preset temperature, although this may not be the best way to ensure the most effective performance.
One of the objectives of the present invention is to maintain in the tank of the water heater so the temperature at which are provided all proposed fences of water during normal operation of the water system and minimizes heat dissipation.
The second objective of the present invention is the automatic study and conservation of at least Pimentel is the weekly cycles water profile, water intake, including time and quantity, without the need for manual installations or flow sensors.
A third objective of the present invention is the detection of changes in the mode of operation of the water system that modifies the corresponding studied and saved the profile of water intake.
One of the additional objectives of the present invention is to prevent changes to a stored profile of the water intake in the random small fences water.
These and other objectives are achieved by the method discussed in the following description and described in the accompanying claims, which is an integral part of the description.
Figure 1 schematically shows a cross section of a tank water heater,
figure 2 schematically shows a logical device that controls the heater proposed in the invention methods,
on figa, 3b and 3C shows the temperature distribution of the water inside the water heater with heat storage, respectively, at the end of the heating stage, after collection of water using only parts of water and after water extraction using mostly all water only with high enough, high temperature,
on figa, 4B, 4C and 4D shows the schema changes in water temperature in the water heater with a thermal battery for BP is like as water abstraction and water heating method according to the invention.
Figure 1 shows a heater 1, containing tank 2, which has an inlet 2.1 for cold water inlet 2.2 for hot water, the bottom of 2.3 and dome 2.4. For water heating is used the heating element 3, which is shown in figure 1 in the form of electrical resistance, but which may be any similar device, such as a gas combustion unit or heat exchanger, etc.
The heat of the heating element 3, regardless of mode two-position or modulating control is performed using the controller 4.
As shown in figure 2, the slider 4 has a feature IN that allows you to enter it from the outside first data, for example, at the time of manufacture through the entrance IN.1 and(or) after installation through the entrance IN.2 and(or) later by the user through input IN.3.
In addition, through the entrance IN.4 in the controller 4 receives the second data from the one or more sensors S; S1, S2, which define one or more corresponding temperatures T, T1, T2 of the water in the immediate vicinity of the inside of the tank 2.
In the case of a single sensor S; S1, it is placed where there is usually a sensor Thermoswitch known from the prior art water heater 1, i.e. mainly at the point located at a distance of one third of the distance from the bottom of 2.3. When using the optional sensor is S2, it is installed in a lower point close to the bottom of 2.3.
When using additional sensors all they are distributed so that with a certain accuracy to determine the temperature change along the vertical axis; however, it was found that for proper implementation of the method according to the invention only two sensors S1 and S2.
For example, in a vertical heater 1 with capacity from 80 to 150 liters and a diameter of about 400-450 mm, which is hereinafter referred to as the standard water heater 1, two sensors are used S: sensor S1 located at a distance of about 30 mm from the bottom, and the sensor S2 located at a distance of about 230 mm from the bottom.
As for the controller 4, it is additionally equipped with a memory MEM for storing:
the first data received from the outside,
the second data received from the one or more sensors S; S1, S2,
as well as additional parameters that handles the controller 4 on the basis of the first and second data.
In addition, the controller 4 is equipped with a processing unit UE for processing the first and second data to obtain parameters and timer CLOCK for associating at least some of the parameters with the corresponding moments of time.
Finally, the controller 4 is equipped with means U1 transmission output signal two-position or modulating control on revealing element 3, and the second tool U2 for transmitting output signals of the state system of water and(or) operator. The tool U2, for example, may include a display capable of displaying the temperature in the water tank, water intake, etc.
In particular, the controller 4 is capable of processing data to build a profile carried out by the water, the actual water that is distributed in a predetermined cycle water intake (in particular, the duration of one week), after which he is able to control the heating element 3 so that during the following after the first cycle of the cycles of water, during which the mode of operation of the water supply system is expected to be mostly similar to its work during the previous cycles of water temperature in the tank is maintained at the minimum level necessary to ensure as many single fences water as it is physically possible.
In addition, the controller 4 is able to detect during subsequent cycles of water intake any significant change in mode of operation of the water system, which may require a corresponding change to the registered and stored profile water intake, while it does not take into account deviations due to the low water, which is not flauta sign change behavior.
Consider now the method according to the invention is capable controller 4 in order to achieve the above results and in which after the first start the heater 1 starts to maintain the temperature in the tank 2 according to the values stored in the memory MEM controller 4, after which he is able to study the profile of water intake (i.e. time intervals and the number of selected water at particular fences) simply by processing data received from one or more sensors S; S1, S2 during the actual work.
In accordance with the invention by processing the same data from one or more sensors S; S1, S2, the controller 4 is able to calculate thermal inertia of the heater 1 or, better, the characteristic speed of the heating water heat system, consisting primarily of tank 2 and the heating element 3.
Essentially, it should be noted that by simply monitoring one or more temperature T, T.1, T.2, by means of sensors S; S1, S2, it is possible to appropriately determine the characteristics and mode of operation of the heater 1 and the water system. For example, if the water temperature decrease is very slow, it should be attributed to a simple scattering of heat, and if the reduction is very fast, this means that the origin is it the water intake, the duration of which can be calculated from the moments of the beginning and the end of the rapid reduction in temperature, on the basis of lowering the temperature, you can determine the number of selected hot water. If the temperature of the water at the end of the water intake exceeds the temperature Tuconsumption, this means that the required water intake was provided, and a lower temperature than the temperature Tuconsumption, means that the water got too cold water, that is, the requested function was not fully implemented. Similarly, at the stage of heating when the heating element 3, the rate of temperature rise allows to determine the time necessary to ensure that any first temperature is changed to the second target temperature without the need to know the heat capacity of the tank 2, the insulating capacity and thermal capacity of the heating element 3.
Accordingly, at the end of the study the internal properties of the heater 1 and the water supply system the water heater 1 is able to maintain the temperature in the tank 2 at levels that change over time and are as low as possible, but always sufficient to ensure single fences water, with the temperature information received from the outside through the first data is used to control the water heater is only 1 at least during the first period of the first cycle of fences water, in the result after the first start is always provided for the needs of the user.
Before the detailed description of the proposed invention method is to define some parameters that are used in the method.
Temperature Tmwater in General is the temperature defined by averaging one or more temperature T, T1, T2, defined by one or more sensors S; S1, S2, although this average is not necessarily the arithmetic mean, and can also be a weighted average to give more importance to one or another of one or more of the temperature T, T1, T2.
Tm.effmeans the average of the actual water temperature, which does not necessarily coincide with the temperature Tmwater according to the indications of the sensors S; S1, S2, and accurately determined only by laboratory tests. Of course, that the average actual temperature Tm.effnot used in the method according to the invention and hereinafter referred to only when the explanation of the method.
Tset.kmeans the temperature of the water To which should be provided in early times to the water intake Pk.
Temperature Tset.kwater withdrawals have preset the initial value of Tsetgreater than or equal to a value to ensure the most is our estimated water intake; subsequently, they take the values computed by the controller 4 for each k the alleged fences water.
Tset.maxmeans the maximum set temperature (typically 75°C), which according to the safety condition is a temperature not exceeding dangerous levels.
Tstand-bymeans supporting the temperature, which should be provided during periods separated in time from the fences of water; it has the specified value, preferably equal to the temperature Tuconsumption, and is in the range from 35 to 45°C to ensure unexpected small fences water. It is not treated over time, but can be adjusted manually if the given value is unacceptable or considered to be excessive.
Ttargetmeans the target temperature. The target temperature Ttargetpre-set at the level of Tset. Subsequently, the controller 4 sets the level of support temperature Tstand-byon removal of the time periods of water intake, but it should reach a temperature Tset.kwater intake with proactive interval ∆ Tantthe heating time before the time tkthe beginning of the proposed water withdrawal.
ΔThysteresismeans hysteresis corresponding to the target temperature Ttarget. To the to and normal thermal relay, the controller 4 includes a heating element 3, when the temperature Tmwater falls below a value of Ttarget-ΔThysteresis(that is, when Tm<Ttarget-ΔThysteresis), and turns it off when the temperature Tmwater exceeds a value of Ttarget(that is, when Tm>Ttarget). The value of hysteresis ∆ Thysteresisis predefined; it can be very small, as in all electronic temperature controllers (for example, 0.5°C), when the heating element 3 is a group of electrical resistance controlled by the controller 4 through the triac. At the same time, if the controller 4 controls the heating element 3 through the relay hysteresis ∆ Thysteresisis far more important to prevent excessive switching frequency switching frequency on-off relay. In this second case, the value of the hysteresis ΔThysteresispreferably set at 5°C, if the target temperature Ttargetset at the level of support temperature Tstand-byso with sufficient accuracy to ensure acceptable water temperature Tmwater; and, if the target temperature Ttargetset at the temperature Tsetwater intake, hysteresis ∆ Thysteresismay have a higher value (the example 8°C).
Hysteresis ∆ Thysteresisnot mentioned later in the description, and it is implied that it is used in the way that the controller 4 controls the heating element 3.
Toptmeans optimum temperature emptying. At the end of the heating stage all the water in the tank 2 is mostly the target temperature Ttarget(see figa). At the same time water is its stratification due to the fact that from the bottom of the cold water enters, therefore, if the sensors S; S1, S2, as is commonly accepted, are near the bottom, they do not determine the actual temperature at the outlet (see figb, 3b). However, between the temperatures determined at the bottom of 2.3, and temperatures near the dome 2.4 in the process of replacing the water in the tank 2 there is a correlation. The optimal temperature Toptdischarge temperature is defined at the bottom of 2.3 when the tank 2 selected all the water with a temperature Tmexceeding temperature Tuconsumption, and only the temperature of the water near 2.4 remains at temperature Tuconsumption.
Accordingly, an optimum temperature Toptemptying at the bottom of 2.3 at the end of the water intake means has been provided the required water intake, the temperature Tmthe water in the tank 2 has reached a minimum in comparison with the temperature at the water intake, result is what those in the tank 2 has created conditions of minimal dissipation of heat.
Of course, that the optimum temperature Toptemptying depends not only on temperature Tuconsumption, but also on the size and proportions of the tank 2. For example, if the temperature Tuconsumption in the above mentioned standard water heater 1 is 40°C, the optimum temperature Toptemptying is from 18 to 24°C, more preferably may be set at 21°C.
VThmeans the rate of water heating when the heating element 3. After you have defined the key parameters used in the method according to the invention, consider the corresponding stage of the study aimed to define the default settings of the heater 1 and the water system.
Next will be described the stage of measuring the inertia of Iwhwater heater 1 to determine the heating rate of the water to decide which interval ∆ Tantrelative to the beginning of each water intake Pkit should be powered heating element 3, so that the temperature Tmwater has reached the desired temperature Tset.kwater intake. To implement this stage in the time when the heating element 3 includes:
record the value of Tm1temperature Tmwater at a given point in time,
record the value of Tm2, dost is bent temperature T mwater after a specified interval Δt measurement,
calculate the speed value VThheating according to the formula
If at this stage is logged reduced temperature Tmwater (reflecting off for any reason, the heating element 3 or the successful diversion of water), the calculated speed value VThwater heating can not be considered reliable, and the stage must be repeated. The speed value VThheat can significantly affected by a number of factors, some of them in the long term, as, for example, the performance degradation of the heater 1 or seasonal fluctuations in room temperature, in which you installed the heater 1 and the other in the short term, as, for example, the effect of small fences water, which, because they were creating stratification lead to significant discrepancies between the actual temperature Tm.effwater and temperature defined by one or more sensors S; S1, S2.
Accordingly, the speed VThheating is preferably calculated periodically, aprimarily times when the controller 4 activates the heating element 3, or even more preferably, the re-calculation is performed continuously when the heating element 3; for example, every 15 minutes set interval At measured every 15 minutes.
Sudden fluctuations sequentially computed values can be restricted using various well-known alternative mathematical methods.
For example, there may be used a moving average of a given number of the last calculated values, or even more preferably last time the result can be filtered using constant τ of time, preferably equal to one and a half hours. The used filter is a recursive filter type IIR, i.e. with an infinite impulse response) of the first order, has the following known formula:
in which, in particular, Ts denotes the sampling interval Δt (15 minutes), x represents the time constant of the filter (90 minutes), y(n) is the filtered sample values u(n) (i.e. the calculated speed VThheating) in m is the moment in time n*Ts.
Next will be described the stage of registration of the profile of water intake.
Profile water intake recorded during the first cycle of water, which is called the learning cycle, but is mainly a characteristic and typical for subsequent cycles of water intake.
Then registration may again be carried out during the following cycles to reflect any changes in operation of the water system.
Registration may begin at any time t cycle time, while logged moments tkthe beginning of each sampling Pkof the total number n of fences water, which are carried out during the cycle (where k is a serial number of 1 to n), and values of Tmikand Tmfkthat has a temperature Tmwater at the beginning and end of the fence, respectively.
Moments t, tktime in any case can be determined on the basis of time taken for the beginning of the cycle (for example, with 0 hours of Monday, if the weekly cycle has duration, and this means the beginning of the algorithm, if the equipment is not equipped with a user interface for managing calendar events).
Mentioned stage is divided into alternating sequence of n first sub-stage, at the end of each fence Pk(k extending t is from 1 to n) determine the time t kbeginning a multiple k of the fence and the corresponding initial temperature Tmiksampling followed the same second sub-stage, at the end of which define a corresponding finite temperature Tmfksampling and counting the number of selected water.
On each of the first sub-stage monitor temperature Tmwater during the time interval ∆ tcsample.
Fence Pkis considered to have begun if the following two conditions.
According to the first condition, the absolute value of the velocity VTccooling water should exceed the specified cooling rate VTP.
To install it, at time tctime at the end of the interval ∆ tcsample test decreased if the temperature Tm(tc)measured in the above-mentioned time tctime, compared with a value of Tm(tc-δtc), measured in the previous time tc-δtcthe number is equal to or greater than a given first value reduction δTp1selected in such a way as to exclude the assignment of the mentioned reduction of the temperature by cooling due to heat dissipation.
Since VTc=[Tm(tc-δtc)-Tm(tc)] / ∆ tca VTP=δTp1/δtcshould be made a condition represented by the following formula:
The mentioned intervals δtcsampling can be quite short, it is preferable to be 60 seconds; accordingly, the above-mentioned decrease in ∆ tp1the temperature is preferably 0,33°C, and the set speed VTPcooling 0.33°C per minute.
However, this condition is considered to be insufficient, because the temperature decrease may in fact be due to random small water intake, which should not be taken into account, as it does not reflect the actual circular profile of the water intake, or even because of the cycles of on-off of the heating element during the normal temperature control if the temperature sensors are located near the heating element.
Accordingly, there is a second condition under which the execution of the first conditions continue to check until the temperature Tmwill not decrease to a predetermined second value δTP2reduction, which is considered the tsya an indication of the lack of small or accidental intake of water.
Of course, that the above-mentioned second value δTP2the reduction depends on the model of heater 1 and the type of water supply system for which it is designed.
For example, in the case of a standard water heater 1, the preferred value of the second value δTP2the reduction is from 4 to 13°C, even more preferably about 6.5°C.
Time tkthe beginning of the fence may be considered as coinciding with the time tctime, if the first condition and at the same time, the temperature Tm(tc), measured at time tctime, used and stored as the initial temperature Tmikfence or the following formula expression:
However, because of thermal inertia of the sensors S; S1, S2 and their distance from the inlet 2.1 for cold water the actual time tkthe beginning of the fence may occur with certain proactive in what arvalem δt antsince tctime at which registered a decrease of temperature, according to one of the variants proposed in the invention method, it can be taken into account when the condition
Of course that is proactive interval
Achieving this status means that the diversion of water has ceased, and, accordingly, such minimum measured value corresponds to a temperature Tmfkthe water at the end of the fence. In particular, if the temperature Tmfkthe water at the end of the fence is lower than the optimum temperature Toptemptying, this means that he was not provided with all fence Pkand the water user at least at the final stage of sampling Pkin fact, given enough hot water.
Then we can calculate the temperature Tset.kfence Pkwater.
On the basis of the temperatures measured by the sensors S; S1 and S, calculated reduction Δtktemperature Tmwater, equal to the difference between the initial and final temperatures Tmikand Tmfkwater, that is:
It should be noted that each specified water intake corresponds to the exact reduction in the energy intensity of the water heater 1 and, respectively, the exact decrease in the average actual temperature Tm.effwater regardless of the values of the temperature at the beginning of the water; if one or more sensors S; S1 and S2 were distributed across the height of the heater 1, the calculated reduction in ∆ Tktemperature would be unchanging value for each water intake regardless of the initial values average actual temperature Tm.effwater. In fact, it is easy to verify that, if taken Qp for the mass of extracted water, V is the volume of the tank 2, cpand γ, respectively, for the specific heat and density of water, and Thfor the temperature of the water in the water system, reducing ∆ Tm.effthe average actual temperature Tm.effwill be the value of
(in which Qp·cf·(Tu-Thmeans the heat energy taken from the tank 2), not depending on the average temperature Tm.effalthough the amount of water used for the abstraction of water heater 1 water temperature Tuconsumption increases as well as decreases the actual average temperature Tm.eff.
Accordingly, it would seem, you can simply set the temperature Tset.kwater at optimal temperature Toptemptying, increased by a decrease in the temperature drop ∆ Tkor the following formula expression:
In this case, should be provided for water intake with achievement at the end of the optimal temperature Toptemptying.
However, one or not is how many sensors S; S1 and S2, for practical reasons, preferably placed near the bottom of 2.3, and during fences water record temperature Tmwater that is significantly different from the average actual temperature Tm.effbecause (see Fig, SV) of the incoming cold water is partially mixed with hot water almost exclusively on the bottom of 2.3 in volume Vp, much smaller than the volume V. Accordingly, the reduction of ∆ Tmregistered by the sensors S; S1, S2, at least approximately expressed by the dependence of the following type:
However, it should be noted that the volume of the Vp in which mixing takes place indirectly depends on the average actual temperature Tm.eff. Essentially, the lower the temperature, the greater is the amount of water selected to provide mass Qp selected water temperature Tuconsumption, and, consequently, the greater is the amount of Vp, in which mixing takes place, and the smaller one is by what is happening in practice, the reduction of ∆ T m.
Thus, in practice, the reduction of ∆ Tmregistered by the sensors S; S1, S2 from the beginning to the end of the water intake is not constant over the water intake, and decreases with a decrease in the average actual temperature Tm.effat the beginning of the water intake, which, however, is not registered by the sensors S; S1, S2, if they are low. Thus, since the relationship between the decrease in ∆ Tmtemperature and the average actual temperature Tm.effis mostly insignificant in the case of relatively high final temperature of the fence (which is a sign of not very large water intake and(or) high initial temperature Tmikfence), whereas it is more important at a relatively low final temperature of the fence (which is a sign of great fences of water and(or) low initial temperature Tmikfence), which leads to incorrect estimates of the number of selected water, in accordance with the invention, such an incorrect calculation is adjusted with the use of the rule, according to which, when the end temperature Tmfkthe fence is lower than the specified boundary value Tsin the formula reduction ΔTk=Tmik-Tmfk(b) introduces an additional member ΔT"k.
Of course, this rule and boundary value zavisaet model of water heater 1 and the characteristics of the water supply system, therefore, they must be defined empirically; as a General rule, the specified boundary value Tsis between 20 and 30°C, and such a correction member ΔT"kis not more than 50% reduction ΔTktemperature.
The method of application of such rules, which is preferred due to its simplicity and obtained good experimental results, is as follows:
if the final temperature Tmikthe fence is higher or equal to the optimal temperatureTopt control paragraphsemptying (which is a sign, including the fact that water intake was fully secured), as already mentioned, the temperature Tset.kwater intake is set at the optimal level of temperature Toptemptying, increased by the amount of temperature ΔTkreduction, that is:
if the final temperature Tmfkthe fence is lower than the optimum temperature Toptemptying (which is a sign, including the fact that water intake was not fully secured), enter tachyporinae member ΔT" kwhose value is the difference between this optimal temperature Toptemptying and finite temperature Tmfkfence, that is:
Stage registration profile water lasts throughout the entire cycle of the alternating first and second sub-stages, which are automatically terminated at the beginning and end of each appropriate water intake and the total number of which is equal to the number of fences water.
Thus, define and maintain the profile n fences water, in which each fence k is described by two characteristic parameters, namely, tkthe beginning is the abortion practices and the reduction of ∆ T kthe temperature that caused them. In one of the embodiments of the invention at the stage of registration of the profile of water intake during the training cycle may also be a small adjustment of the real characteristics of the water supply system.
Essentially, in this embodiment, provided that in the case of a weekly cycle of initial specified value of Tsetcan be changed and equal to the value of the maximum temperature Tset.gwater saved before, provided that this does not lead to excessive changes to initial preset value Tset(for example, in the range Tset±3°C).
Accordingly, if the initial specified value of Tsetit was excessive to ensure the actual water consumption as a result of its reduce already limited scattering, and if it was insufficient for larger fences water, already increases the efficiency. Of course, in this embodiment, it is assumed that the amount of water taken at particular fences water (optional number), does not change significantly from day to day.
Next will be described the ways to control the heater 1 according to the invention after during the training cycle we studied the profile of water intake. In accordance with the invention, the target temperature Ttarget/sub> can always supported equal support temperature Tstand-byon removal from the fences of water, but is brought to a temperature T'set·knot lower than the temperature Tset·kfence when Δtantsince tkthe beginning of the fence, sufficient to provide such a fence.
On figa shows some of the points P1 ... P4, showing the same fences, characterized by the corresponding moments of time t1, ... t4the beginning of tkthe fence and the corresponding temperatures Tset.1, ... Tset.4fence Tset.k.
In addition, figb shows a graph of temperature Tmwith linear increases in R1 ... R4 to achieve the temperatures T1 ... T4 fence.
Mentioned linear increase R1 ... R4 have the character change, which depends on the speed VThheating; as you know, the nature of the change is exponential, but can be approximated by a straight section without significant errors on the order of the size of the time constant of the temperature of the heater (for example, significantly more than 106s for standard water heater 1).
It would seem that the time tONkheating for each sampling k can be calculated according to the formula
in which (Tset.k-Tra)/VThmeans a preemptive interval ∆ Tantheat regarding the moment tk beginning of fence required to bring the temperature Tmfrom the current value to the value of Tset.kfence, and such calculation shall be carried out within short time intervals, such as 60 seconds, taking into account the nearest fence, i.e. sampling with near time tkstart.
In fact, this method is unsatisfactory.
It should be noted that according to the illustrated Fig example is provided by the fence P1but in the end there's not enough time to bring the temperature Tmthat after water intake decreased to the optimal temperature Toptdischarge temperatures of up to fence T2required for fence P2. For the same reason, also not ensured fence P3and the small fence P4distant in time from the previous fences, is provided.
In practice it is impossible to supply water to the manner in which individually take into consideration what are the closest of fences water.
At the same time, in accordance with the invention uses the following method "imaginary fences", which is essentially constructed imaginary fences water.
For a sufficiently short time intervals δwfor example 60 seconds, taking into account all w fences P1, ..., Ri, ..., Pw, tithe beginning of which is fixed and specified time window (hereinafter called the time window ∆ Twdirectly following the current time.
In the above-mentioned time twthe beginning of fence per time window ∆ Tw, design the same imaginary fences P'1, ..., R'i, ..., P'w, each of which is characterized by:
the same time twearly as the beginning of the corresponding real fence Pi,
but initial temperature T'set.iimaginary fence determined by adding the initial temperature Tset1, Tset2, ..., Tset(i-1)all fences of water per time window ∆ Twand prior to the fence Piand the initial temperature Tset.ireal fence, on the basis of which was determined optimum temperature Toptemptying or the following formula expression:
The result of this operation is shown on figv and 4G, in which imaginary fences P'1, P'2, P'3, P'4shown above the corresponding real fences P1P2P3P4. Imaginary fence P'1coincide with the real fence P1because it is the first time window ∆ Twand its initial temperature Tset.1no added another temperature.
At this stage, for each sampling Pifrom w fences per time window ∆ Twcalculate the time t'ONibeginning imaginary heating according to the formula
where (T'set.i-Tm)/VThmeans a preemptive interval ∆ Tantheating since tkthe beginning of fence required to bring the temperature Tmfrom the current value to a temperature value T'set.iimaginary fence.
Upon reaching the earliest moments t'ONiheating set the target temperature Ttargaat primary level, temperature T'set.ithe corresponding imaginary fence P'i, this implies that the mentioned target temperature Ttargetnever exceed the maximum set temperature Tset.max.
The result of this method is illustrated in figv on which the earliest of moments t'ONiheating is a time t'ON3corresponding imaginary fence P'3; upon reaching the heating element 3 is driven, and the temperature Tmbegins to rise. On reaching the point ti the beginning of the intake temperature Tmwhich is much greater than is strictly necessary initial temperature Tset.ireal fence, falls abruptly by an amount equal to the red eye reduction is the temperature ΔT1, which corresponds to this abstraction of water, then rises again, reaching to the time t2beginning water intermediate temperature between the initial temperature Tset.2real fence and initial temperature T'set.2imaginary fence, and then decreases again at time t3the beginning of the fence and arrives exactly at the initial temperature Tset.3real fence, resulting ensured all three water intake P1P2and P3and the fence p4not taken into account, as appropriate the beginning of heating t'ON4=tON4accounted for a significantly later time.
The process is recursively repeated within a relatively short time intervals, such as 60 seconds, each time the time window ∆ Twmoves forward at the same time, resulting in a considered and provided all fences P water, but within the capacity of the water heater 1.
On Figg, for example, it is shown that the linear change of R is locked in its growth due to the fact that until time t1the start of water diversion was achieved the maximum set temperature Tset.max. This does not affect the fences P1and P2but when this cannot be achieved the initial temperature Tset.2fence P3.
Which is over this time window ∆ T wshould be considerably larger than the intervals between multiple serial fences water.
In more detail, this time window ∆ Twmust be sufficiently long to enable time tithe beginning of all fences Piwhose moments t'ONibeginning imaginary heating presumably precede the moments t'ONthat correspond to the i-1 preceding fences P1, ..., Pi-1. To improve accuracy, as shown in figv, fence P3whose beginning t'ON3imaginary fence precedes the start-time t'ON2and t'ON1imaginary fence, will not be fully achieved if the time t3the beginning was not included in the time window ∆ Twthat still includes the moments of t1and t2the beginning of the preceding fences P1and P2. In other words, if the regulator 4 is not able to take into account the fence P3along with earlier fences Piand P2it will start heating at the time t'ON2and the fence P3will not be completely secured. This time window ∆ Twit is easy to determine if a known type of water supply system, which is designed for a water heater 1.
For example, if the cycle of water intake for one week, the time window ∆ Twmay have a length of 24 hours; in addition, compliance with the specified conditions also is provided unquestionable presence nightly pause in the water.
As shown, the described method provides for the construction of imaginary fences P'1..., P'i, ... P' water, calculation of the corresponding temperature T'setbeginning imaginary fences water, then the calculation of the corresponding points t'ONistart heating and, finally, the actuation of the heating element 3 upon reaching the nearest of these moments t'ONiheating by setting the target temperature Ttargetequal to the initial temperature of an imaginary fence T'set.i.
This method ensures the fulfilment of the needs of water users, as it is considered in General, all fences Riwater that occur so close together in time that would not remain time to ensure fences water, following behind the first fence P1from the group, if necessary heat energy is stored in advance by actuation of the heating element 3.
This is achieved by calculating the time t'ONibeginning imaginary heating during extraction Piwater also taking into account the time of heating, which should be given to all the preceding water.
It should be noted that the initial temperature T'set.iimaginary fence almost never achieved in reality, as the heating rate is of atur T mwater decreases because the intermediate fences water.
In practice, the way "imaginary fences water allows you to apply thermal energy is strictly necessary to ensure fences water consistently to maintain the temperature Tmat the minimum level required for such security fences water, and calculate the duration of the periods of switching the heating element 3 without having to explicitly know its heat output.
Needless to say that at the expense of the maximum achievable energy savings, but with the benefit of security mentioned points t'ONiheating can be slightly shifted forward (valid preemption Δto1to account for differences between the actual moments (ti) start of water diversion and moments that were captured during the training cycle water intake). Essentially, if the registration of the profile of water intake continues throughout the cycles of water, following the first training cycle, the controller can be trained, what value should be assigned to such a valid pre-emption Δto1.
1. The method of controlling the heater (1) with a heat accumulator, in which water heating by the heating element (3)controlled by a controller (4), which can reduce the temperature (Tmwater to the variable target temperature (T
target), which includes:
the first stage in which record data profile water intake (P1, ..., Pk, ..., Pn), repetitive largely unchanged during subsequent cycles of water intake, and data speed (VTh) heating, typical water heater (1),
the second stage in which, before (tk) the beginning of each intake (Pkfrom all n fences (Pnwater, included in each of the cycles of water, adjusting the temperature (Tmwater at least up to the temperature (Tset.k; T'set.i) fence, sufficient to provide the above-mentioned intake water temperature (Tu) consumption by heating at the time (tONk; t'ONiprovided that in any case, the temperature (Tmwater is maintained below or equal to the maximum set temperature (Tset.maxwith a value below a dangerous level, while the temperature (Tset.k; T'set.i) sampling and the time (tONk; t'ONi) start of heating is determined on the basis of the registered data,
characterized in that the registration of the profile data of the water intake is at least throughout the training cycle water intake and consists in calculation of time (tk) start sampling and temperature (Tset.k) intake for each of the n fences (Pk) when this calculation is carried out only by data processing, obtained by estimating the temperature (Tmwater, which is the average of one or several temperatures (T; T1, T2), measured at different altitudes (S, S1, S2) tank (2) in times (∆tctime,
and characterized in that the determination of the point (tONk; t'ONi) start heating for the fences (Pk; Piwater includes the following stages:
over short time intervals (δW) take into account all w fences (P1, ..., Pi,..., Pw), time (ti) beginning which falls in the specified time window (∆Twdirectly following the current point in time,
during this time window (∆Tw) is selected based on the type of water supply system, which is designed for a water heater (1), and is sufficiently long to enable time (ti) all fences (Pi), whose moments (t'ONi) start an imaginary heat presumably precede the points (t'ON), which correspond to the (i-1) preceding fences (P1, ..., Pi-1),
in the above-mentioned point (ti) the beginning of fence per time window (∆Tw), construct the same imaginary fences (R'1, ..., P'i, ..., P'w), each of which has the same point (tw) beginning, as the beginning of the corresponding real intake (Pi), and began the absolute temperature (T' set.i) imaginary fence defined by adding the initial temperature (Tset1, Tset2, ..., Tset(i-1)all fences of water per time window (∆Twand prior to the fence (Pi), and the initial temperature (Tset.ireal fence, on the basis of which was determined each of the initial temperature (Tset1, Tset2, ..., Tset(i-1)) optimum temperature (Topt) emptying according to the formula T'set.i=Tset.i+(Tset1-Topt)+(Tset2- Topt)+...+(Tset(i-1)-Topt),
for each of the imaginary fences (R'1, ..., P'i, ..., P'w) calculate the time (t'ONi) start an imaginary heating according to the formula t'ONi=ti-(T'set.i-Tm)/VTh,
upon attaining the earliest of moments (t'ONi) heating set target temperature (Ttargetat the level of the initial temperature (T'set.ithe respective imaginary fence (P'i), this implies that the upper limit mentioned target temperature (Ttarget) is the maximum set temperature (Tset.max),
and to achieve the earliest moments (t'ONi) heating keep the temperature (Ttarget) is equal to supporting the temperature (Tstand-by)if e is ω specified maintenance temperature (T stand-by) is the temperature to be maintained at times, distant from the moments collection.
2. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the said short time intervals (δW) is 60 seconds.
3. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that when the weekly cycle time water the length of the time window (∆Twis 24 hours.
4. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 3, characterized in that the points (t'ONi) started heating is preceded by a valid pre-emption (Δto1) to account for differences between the actual moments (ti) start of water diversion and moments that were captured during the training cycle is water.
5. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 4, characterized in that the registration of the profile of water intake continues during cycles of water, following the first training cycle, and during cycles fences water following the first training cycle, training is provided for a valid prediction (Δto1).
6. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the maintaining temperature (Tstand-by) is equal to the temperature (Tu) consumption.
7. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the fence (Pkwater is considered to be n the stage,
if you consistently executed first and the second condition,
according to the first condition at the time (tc) time at end of interval (δtcsample noted that the temperature (Tm(tc)water, registered in the above-mentioned point (tc) time decreased relative to the value (Tm(tc-δtc))registered in the previous point (tc-δtc), by an amount greater or equal to the first value reduction (∆tp1temperature, that is, the condition Tm(tc-δtc)-Tm(tc)>δTp1(3),
said value reduction (∆tp1temperature is selected in such a way as to prevent the cooling due to heat dissipation,
according to the second condition continues for verifying whether the first condition, while the temperature (Tm) drops to a predetermined second value (Delta tP2) reduction, which is selected in such a way as to prevent the fulfillment of the first condition due to the small water or a temperature, which is undesirable to take into consideration,
and the fact that to determine the value (Tset.k) the temperature of the water intake by the following stages, which are:
keep temperature Tmregistered at the time (tk) the beginning of the fence, as the initial temperature (Tmik) fence
keep temperature, ZAR is registered at the moment when the temperature (Tmwater ceases to decrease, that is, at the moment when it ceases to satisfy the condition [Tm(tc-δtc)-Tm(tc) ≥ ∆ tp1] (3), as the target temperature (Tmfk) fence
if one or more sensor (S; S1, S2) located near the bottom (2.3) water heater (1), check whether the final temperature (Tmfk) intake below the specified limit values (Ts; Topt),
take reduction (Delta tto) temperature (Tmwater for the value of the difference between the initial and final temperatures (Tmik, Tmfk) sampling, namely ∆ Tk=Tmik-Tmfk,
if one or more sensor (S; S1, S2) located near the bottom of (2.3), and the final temperature (Tmfk) the fence is lower than the specified boundary value (Ts; Topt)adjusted value reduction (∆Tk) temperature by making a correction member (Delta t"k), determined empirically for each model of water heater (1) and the appropriate type of water supply system, namely ∆ Tk=Tmik-Tmfk+ΔT"k,
determine the temperature (Tset.k) water intake by summing the values decrease (∆Tk) temperature, which is not necessarily adjusted, as described above, and the optimal temperature (Topt) emptying and property named the T set.k=Topt+ΔTk,
where the specified optimum temperature (Topt) discharge temperature is near the bottom (2.3) water heater (1), when all the water otobreda at a temperature (Tm), higher temperature (Tu) consumption, and only water in the upper part of (2.4) remains at the same temperature (Topt) emptying.
8. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that the time interval (δtcsample is 60 seconds, and the first value (δTp1) reducing the temperature of 0.33°C.
9. The method of controlling the heater (1) at least according to claim 7, characterized in that the second value (Delta tP2reduction is from 4 to 13°C.
10. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 9, characterized in that the second reduction (Delta tP2) is 6.5°C.
11. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that the time (tk) the beginning of each intake (Pkwater is preceded by a pre-emptive interval (δtadv) with respect to time (tctime when the first condition or in a formula expression tk=tc-δtant.
12. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that the boundary value (Ts; Topt) is from 20 to 30°C, and a correction member (Delta t"k) is equal to the decrease (∆Tk) pace is atory 50%.
13. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7 characterized in that the boundary value (Ts; Topt) is equal to the optimal temperature (Topt) emptying, and a correction member (Delta t"k) is equal to the difference between the optimum temperature (Topt) emptying and finite temperature (Tmfk) water.
14. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that a preemptive interval (δtadv) ranges from 0 to 180 seconds.
15. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that a preemptive interval (δtadv) is equal to an interval (δtc) sample.
16. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 1, characterized in that the data recording speed (VTh) heating is carried out at least during the training cycle water intake during the period when the temperature (Tmwater increases continuously, and provides the stage on which:
register value (Tm1) temperature (Tmwater at a given point in time,
register value (Tm2)reached a temperature (Tmwater after a specified interval (Δt) measurement
calculate the value of the velocity (VTh) heating according to the formula VTh=(Tm2-Tm1)/Δt.
17. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to item 16, wherein the data recording speed (VT
18. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to item 16, wherein the data recording speed (VTh) heat repeats continuously when the heating element (3) at intervals equal to the specified interval (Δt) measurement.
19. The method of controlling the heater (1) at least according to item 16, wherein the specified interval (Δt) measurement is 15 minutes.
20. The method of controlling the heater (1) at least according to item 16, wherein the data recording speed (VTh) heating is also carried out during the cycle of water intake following the training cycles of water intake.
21. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to 17, wherein the successively calculated values of velocity (VTh) re-heating process for reducing the degree of divergence between them.
22. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to item 21, wherein the value adopted for the speed (VTh) heating, is set equal to the moving average of a given number of the last calculated values.
23. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to item 21, wherein the value received for speed (VTh) heating is last received in the HRO is ideological order result filtered using a constant (τ) of time, preferably equal to one and a half hours, the filter is a recursive filter (IIR).
24. The method of controlling the heater (1) according to claim 7, characterized in that when the weekly cycle time water intake at the beginning of each day following the first day, reduce or increase the initial specified value (Tset) temperature water maximum 3°C, in order to bring it closer to the maximum value of the temperature of the fence saved before (Tset.g).
25. The regulator (4) heater (1), containing:
funds (IN, IN.1, IN.2, IN.3) input into it from the outside first data at the stage of manufacture and(or) after installation and(or) late water user,
funds (IN, IN.4) enter him in the second data (T, T1, T2) temperature water heated in the tank (2) and registered one or more sensor (S; S1; S2),
memory (MEM) for storing the first data received from the outside, the second data received from the one or more sensors (S, SI, S2), as well as additional parameters that are processed on the basis of the first and second data,
the processing unit (UE) for processing the first and second data to determine parameters
the timer (CLOCK) to associate at least some of the parameters with the corresponding moments of time,
lane is the first tool (U1) output two-position or modulating control of heating element (3),
any second tool (U2) for transmitting output signals of the state system of water and(or) operator,
when the specified controller (4) is suitable for data recording, processing and regulation of the heating element (3) by means of one or more of claims 1 to 24.
26. The heater (1), containing:
the regulator (4) A.25,
the heating element (3),
one or more sensor (S; SI, S2) for registration of temperature (T, T1, T2) inside the tank (2),
characterized in that the heater is supplied with a regulator (4) and A.25 suitable for performing methods according to one or more of claims 1 to 24.
27. The heater (1) p, wherein the one or more sensor (S; S1, S2) are the only sensor (S; S1), which is placed where there is usually a sensor Thermoswitch known from the prior art water heater (1).
28. The heater (1) p, characterized in that the heater (1) is a standard model, and one or more sensor (S; S1, S2) contain the first and second sensors (S1, S2), respectively, which are placed at a distance of about 30 mm and 230 mm from the bottom (2.3).
29. The heater (1) p, characterized in that it uses more than two sensors (S; S1, S2), which are distributed so that with a certain accuracy to define the schema (which, T1, T2) temperature change on the vertical axis.
SUBSTANCE: essence of information-measuring and control system of optimisation of production and consumption of heat energy at the distributed facilities of heat supply comprises a first circuit with a heat source (gas boiler), a heat exchanger, a second circuit of the heat network, a temperature sensor in the straight pipeline of the first circuit, a temperature sensor in the return pipeline of the second circuit, a pressure sensor in the straight pipeline of the second circuit, a gas supply regulator, a gas flow sensor, a fan, an air temperature sensor, an air flow rate sensor, a temperature sensor of waste gases, a metre of produced heat energy, a multichannel microprocessor control unit of energy saving in production of heat energy, a memory unit, a control centre of receiving the information, a unit of control the combustion process in the boiler, a heat supply system, a control unit of heat energy consumption, and the first circuit with a heat source (gas boiler), the first output of which is connected to the input of the temperature sensor of waste gases and through the heat exchanger is connected to the second circuit of the heat network, is connected to the input of the temperature sensor in the straight pipeline of the first circuit, three outputs of the second circuit are connected to the inputs of the temperature sensor in the return pipeline, the pressure sensor in the straight pipeline, the metre of produced heat energy, the outputs of which are connected to the inputs of the multichannel microprocessor control unit of energy saving in production of heat energy, the output of the gas supply regulator by the of gas flow rate sensor is connected to the first input of the boiler, the output of the fan through the air temperature sensor, the air flow rate sensor is connected to the second input of the boiler, the outputs of the gas flow rate sensor, air flow rate sensor, air temperature sensor, temperature sensor of waste gases are connected to the inputs of the multichannel microprocessor control unit of energy saving in production of heat energy, the first output of which is connected to the input of the memory unit, the second output is connected to the input of the control centre of receiving information, the second, third, fourth inputs of the control centre of receiving information are connected to the outputs of the heat supply system by the control units of heat energy consumption, which fourth, fifth, sixth outputs of the second circuit are connected to the inputs of heat supply systems, the output of the control centre of receiving information by the control unit of the combustion process in the boiler is connected to the inputs of gas supply regulator and the fan. Thus, the information-measuring and control system of optimisation of production and consumption of heat energy at the distributed facilities of heat supply enables to optimise the process of production and consumption of heat energy at the distributed facilities of heat supply and to improve energy efficiency of operation of the presented facilities.
EFFECT: enhancing the technological capabilities of the device by controlling a variety of distributed facilities of heat supply in order to increase their efficiency in accordance with the concept of best available techniques.
SUBSTANCE: information and measuring system for monitoring of energy saving at production of thermal energy includes the first circuit with a heat source (a gas boiler), a heat exchanger, the second circuit of a heat network, a temperature sensor in a direct pipeline of the first circuit, a temperature sensor in a return pipeline of the second circuit, a pressure sensor in the direct pipeline of the second circuit, a gas supply control, a gas flow sensor, a fan, an air temperature sensor, an air flow sensor, a waste gas temperature sensor, a produced thermal energy metre, a multi-channel microprocessor energy saving monitoring unit at production of thermal energy, a memory unit, a dispatch information receiving centre; besides, the first circuit with the heat source (gas boiler), the first outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the waste gas temperature sensor and through the heat exchanger is connected to the second circuit of the heat network, is connected to the inlet of the temperature sensor in the direct pipeline of the first circuit; three outlets of the second circuits are connected to inlets of the temperature sensor in the return pipeline, a pressure sensor in the direct pipeline, a produced thermal energy metre, the outlets of which are connected to inlets of the multi-channel microprocessor unit for monitoring of energy saving at production of thermal energy; the outlet of the gas supply control is connected by means of the gas flow rate to the first boiler inlet; the fan outlet is connected by means of the air temperature sensor, the air flow sensor to the second boiler inlet; outlets of the gas flow sensor, the air flow sensor, the air temperature sensor, the waste gas temperature sensor are connected to inlets of the multi-channel microprocessor unit for monitoring of energy saving at production of thermal energy, the first outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the memory unit, and the other outlet is connected to the inlet of the dispatch information receiving centre.
EFFECT: invention allows optimising a thermal energy production process at distributed heat supply facilities and improving energy efficiency of operation of the presented items.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: control system includes a source of heat, supply and return pipelines, a unit of coolant flow rate control, comprising a flow rate controller and sensors of flow rate, temperature and pressure, installed on supply and return pipelines, a circulating pump, a heat energy processor, linked to sensors and the controller. To achieve the technical result, the unit of coolant flow rate control is equipped with sensors of temperature of external and internal air, at the same time the unit of coolant flow rate control, the circulating pump and the heat energy processor are installed on a load with higher thermal load, other loads of the system are equipped with sensors of coolant flow rate and sensors of internal air temperature, connected to the heat energy processor.
EFFECT: control of heat consumption of a group of loads without installation of a full complex of automatics devices with preservation of the temperature mode, which are connected to heat networks of buildings, which makes it possible to save capital costs, service costs, saving of thermal and electric energy.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: first output of the first circuit with heat source, a gas boiler, is connected with discharge gas temperature gage input and, via heat exchanger, with heat network second circuit. Second circuit three outputs are connected with return pipeline pressure age, forward pipeline pressure gage, their outputs being connected with inputs of multichannel microprocessor unit for control over power saving control in heat power production. Gas feed controller output is connected via gas flow rate metre with boiler first inlet. Blower outlet is connected via air temperature gage and air flow rate gage with boiler second outlet. First output of said microprocessor unit is connected with memory unit with its second output connected to dispatcher data acquisition centre input. Output of the centre is connected via boiler combustion control unit with gas feed and blower controller inputs.
EFFECT: optimised heat production and higher efficiency.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system comprises at least two temperature control circuits 2, 3, 4. Pressure control unit 18, 19, 20 is arranged to simplify and to optimise power consumption in every circuit 2, 3, 4. Pressure control units 18, 19, 20 allow invariable pressure difference in appropriate circuit 2, 3, 4. Pressure control units 18, 19, 20 equalise pressure difference in all said circuits.
EFFECT: power savings, better convenience.
11 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to adjust and control the flow in heating and cooling systems, in which the flow is controlled with a complete valve, which is a combination of a differential pressure valve (5) and a flow control valve (6). In this device the design of the complete valve provides for flow/passage of water via that piping system, in which this valve is mounted. At the same time the levels of pressure difference P1 at the inlet (2), P2 in the intermediate chamber (4) and P3 at the outlet (3) are measured with metering nipples (27a and 27b), while the pressure difference of P2 and P3 during operation may be controlled.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of a device.
8 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: three-way valve includes body 1 with inlet 2, outlet 3, discharge and valve 5 branch pipes and controlled valve block 6 with sleeve 7, stock 8 and valve plate 9. Inlet 2 and outlet 3 branch pipes of housing 1 are located on one and the same axis and separated with solid partition wall 10. Discharge branch pipe is located at a right angle to branch pipes 2, 3 and interconnected with cavity 11 of inlet branch pipe 2. Valve branch pipe 5 is located perpendicular to the plane of axes of inlet 2, outlet 3 and discharge branch pipes. Its cavity 12 is interconnected through hole 13 with cavity 11 of inlet branch pipe 2, and through channel 14 with cavity 15 of outlet branch pipe 3. On surface 16 of inlet branch pipe 2 inside cavity 12 of valve branch pipe 5 there is valve seat 17 for fitting of valve plate 9. Stock 8 of valve block 6 is installed in sleeve 7 with possibility of back-and-forth movement with projection of its end 18 on one side of sleeve 7 and with projection of end 19 on the other side. Valve plate 9 is fixed on end 19. Stock 8 is spring-loaded in sleeve 7 in the direction of displacement of end 18 from sleeve 7. Sleeve 7 is rigidly fixed in valve branch pipe 5 with possibility of contact of valve plate 9 with valve seat 17 at movement of stock 8 inside body 1 and provided with section 20 of external thread located on the outside to fix an element controlled by the valve. Minimum cross sectional area of channel 14, as well as cross sectional area of hole 21 is less than cross sectional area of hole 13 attaching cavity 11 of inlet branch pipe 2 to cavity 12 of valve branch pipe 5.
EFFECT: enlarging the number of devices for smooth adjustment of a heating degree of a heating appliance, and improving reliability.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: single-pipe heat supply system with heat carrier flow control, in which control means of flow rate and supply of heat carrier to the stand pipe of the single-pipe system of typical arrangement are used, for example for building cooperatives, for heat supply to radiators in compartments. The proposed control method relates to control of heat carrier temperature in response to changes of external parameters (temperature) and flow rate in response to changes of heat carrier temperature in return pipeline.
EFFECT: use in the single-pipe heat supply system of double control makes this single-pipe heat supply system high-efficient with power consumption depending on load.
15 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises the following: pressure sensors at the pump inlet and outlet, static power converter, temperature sensors and vibration measurement sensor and ratings of the pump together with a new flow rate characteristic Q=f(M). System is equipped with data transfer system, as per all controlled parameters, to the dispatch station equipped with the computer containing the data base for all measured parameters; received information is transferred via data transfer system to the dispatch station to be analysed and stored.
EFFECT: automated information system provides continuous monitoring and analysis of each pump unit, volumetric and mass flow rate of pumped liquid, pressure created with the pump, consumed power, efficiency coefficient of the pump, specific consumption of electric power, time to failure, bearing temperature of the pump house, pump housing temperature and vibration level.
SUBSTANCE: present invention refers to hot water supply system heating the low temperature water by means of heating device, which is supplied to the inlet hole, to high temperature, and supplying the high temperature water through the outlet hole. The above system includes the following components: heat exchanger transmitting the heat of the heating device to incoming water so that the incoming water can be heated to the temperature specified by the consumer; flow metre measuring the water flow rate supplied to hot water supply system, water tank containing the water leaving the heat exchanger; temperature transmitter installed in the specified position on the pipe via which the water flows. Besides, the above system includes the control device equipped with input device by means of which the consumer can specify the required values of parameters.
EFFECT: control device controls the operation of the heating device by comparing the temperature specified by the consumer to the temperature measured with the temperature transmitter, as well as depending on the change of flow rate value measured with the flow rate metre, which allows maintaining the consumer specified temperature.
6 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device has indicator panels which number is equal to time period of indication.
EFFECT: simplified design.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heating plants.
SUBSTANCE: heating plant system has central unit 1 for producing heat and providing hot primary fluid, set of local units 5 any of which has heat exchange device 13, 14 and circuit of pipelines 2, 2' drawn inside circulation system from unit 1. Any local unit intends for getting hot primary fluid through unit 13, 14 of heat exchanger. First and second local units 5 have corresponding control 27. Control unit has first aid 17, 21, 27, 29-32, 33-40, 62 and 63 for providing at least one parameter relating to need of corresponding local unit 5 in hot primary fluid. Second aid 16 performs operation of corresponding local unit 5. Second aid has at least member 25, 26 for acting on flow by hot primary fluid through local unit 5. Local unit 5 has first secondary circulation system intended for heating. Heat exchanger unit has second heat exchanger 14 for second secondary circulation system 12 for producing hot water. Control unit 27 has communication device 50 providing info transmission on mentioned parameter 17, 21, 27, 29-32, 33-40, 62, 63 from at least second local unit to first local unit 5. Control unit 27 of first local unit 5 intends for controlling operation of local unit 5 correspondingly to parameter relating to second local unit 5. There are also descriptions of local unit of heating plant system, control unit for local unit of heating plant system and method of operation of heating plant system.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of control of heating plant system.
38 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises supplying fluid from the additional collector interposed between the fluid source and the system of the auxiliary supplying collector. The supplying auxiliary collector is made of cylindrical dropping supplying device with inlet port, outlet port, and freely moving plunger that can close the inlet port providing small passage for outflow. The heating system is connected with the source of fluid under pressure through the dropping device.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat supply systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dispatcher control and servicing of centralized heat supply system with great number of local (peripheral) units. Proposed system contains central heat-generating unit to supply great number of local units with hat primary liquid. Each local unit includes heat exchanger and pipeline network. Pipeline network includes supply pipeline to transfer primary liquid from heat-generating unit into each local unit. Each local unit is connected with supply pipeline and is made for receiving primary liquid through primary side of heat exchanger designed to transfer heat of secondary liquid which flows through secondary side of heat exchanger. Each local unit includes first devices made for obtaining at least one primary parameter which is related with efficiency of heat transfer. Each local unit includes first communication device which is made for transmission of instantaneous value of first parameter into second device of communication system. System includes second devices interacting with second communication device and made for revealing local unit servicing of which is most required depending on instantaneous value of first parameter.
EFFECT: improved checking of efficiency of centralized heat supply system.
34 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inserted radiator valve with connecting member comprises housing and seal zone for sealing the region of the connection with the supplying or discharging connecting pipe. The seal zone is made of the first radial inner seal that acts inside and the second radial outer seal that acts from outside. The first seal and the second seal are interconnected through the opening provided in the housing.
EFFECT: enhanced functional capabilities.
10 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises control of temperature of at least one of secondary flows of fluid in the secondary circuit which outflows from heat exchanger (1) by means of the primary flow in the primary circuit with the use of control members (5) and (11) that control the primary flow under the action of control unit (7), determining the difference of enthalpies of the primary flow that enters heat exchanger (1) and primary flow that leaves heat exchanger (1), measuring the secondary flow, measuring the flow in the primary circuit, and sending the parameters determined to control unit (7) for control of control members (5) and (11). As a result, the primary flow is controlled by the secondary flow so that the power supplied to the heat exchanger with the primary flow is, in fact, equal to the sum of the power required for the heating of the secondary fluid from the initial current temperature up to the specified outlet temperature, power required for the compensation of energy stored in heat exchanger (1), and power losses from heat exchanger (1). The description of the device for control of water temperature is also presented.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
13 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to a heating arrangement with a radiator equipped with branch pipes of feeding and taking off lines and also with a block of temperature sensors installed with possibility of heat exchanging with the indicated branch pipes of the feeding and the taking off lines.
SUBSTANCE: the heating arrangement is fulfilled with a radiator equipped with branch pipes of the feeding and the taking off lines, and also with the block of temperature sensors installed with possibility of heat exchanging with the indicated branch pipes of the feeding and the taking off lines. At that the branch pipe of the feeding line and the branch pipe of the taking off line pass through an adapter and the block of temperature sensors is installed with possibility of heat exchanging with the adapter. At that a data processing arrangement is fixed to the adapter with using a joint connection.
EFFECT: simplification of mounting.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: system for heating premises with heated floor.
SUBSTANCE: system for heating premises with heated floor contains floor heating system and room thermostat, equipped with room micro-climate sensor and connected to controlling block of floor heating system. Room thermostat has surface temperature sensor, determining floor surface temperature at a distance from it. Room thermostat is equipped with block for selecting minimal/maximal surface temperature value.
EFFECT: improved temperature control in premises.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: heat-power engineering, possible use in heat supply systems with dependent circuit of connection of heating systems in form of automated heating station.
SUBSTANCE: automated heating station of heating and hot water supply system contains feeding pipeline of heating network with flow controller mounted in it, feeding and reversing heating system pipelines, mixing pump, heating controller, inputs of which are connected to temperature indicators in heating system and environment, water-heating device for hot water supply system, installed between feeding and reversing pipelines of heating network, control input of flow controller being connected to control unit output, input of which is connected to outputs of heating system parameter indicators. Frequency transformer is introduced into heating station of heating system, and as mixing pump, pump with possible working frequency adjustment is used. Output of heating controller is connected to input of frequency transformer, output of which is connected to electric outputs of mixing pump. Mixing pump is installed in input-output direction between reverse and direct pipelines of the heating system. A variant of automated heating station of heating and hot water supply system is also described.
EFFECT: lower electric energy costs, increased lifetime of equipment, maintained consistency of heat carrier flow in heating system.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engineering of armature for measuring, controlling, cleaning and stabilizing pressure for liquid supply systems, possible use, in particular, for supplying water in domestic buildings, cottages, and other consumers in any industrial branch involving supplying of a liquid component.
SUBSTANCE: measuring, monitoring and cleaning device for liquid feeding systems contains body, locking element, pressure regulator, liquid meter. Device additionally includes filtration and washing device. Locking element, pressure regulator, liquid meter and filtration and washing device are assembled in single case. Locking element is positioned in liquid inlet connection. Pressure regulator is positioned between liquid inlet and liquid outlet connections, and detachably connected to the case. By means of detachable connection, filtration and washing device is mounted in the case. This device is connected by a collector to pressure regulator hollow and the hollow after the locking element. A filter is mounted at the inlet of pressure regulator hollow. Liquid meter is mounted in the body by means of detachable connection. Outlet hollow of liquid meter is connected to liquid outlet connection. Its inlet hollow by means of another collector is connected to the pressure regulator hollow.
EFFECT: minimized dimensions of device due to combination of locking armature and filtering means in one unit, stabilization of pressure, recording of water (liquid) consumption, possible replacement of devices and elements of armature without disassembly of the whole device and without disabling the liquid feeding system and without requirements for its flush, measuring and monitoring elements are protected from dirt in working mode and during maintenance operations (washing).
2 cl, 2 dwg