Method of guiding aircraft to ground facilities

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of guiding aircraft to ground facilities. In the method, guidance to ground facilities is controlled simultaneously in an inclined plane whose position is determined by the flight path direction of the aircraft, and in a vertical plane, based on a condition for providing and stabilising the required resolution of radar images of ground facilities, using a proportional navigation technique with offset of the line of sight rate of the ground facility in both aircraft control planes. Offset values are generated such that the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft in the vertical plane at moment in time matches the direction towards the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the projection of the line of sight of the ground facility on the horizontal plane, which coincides with the ground surface, passing through the ground facility and belonging to said horizontal plane, with the vertical plane in which the velocity vector of the aircraft is located.

EFFECT: high accuracy of guiding aircraft to ground facilities.

10 dwg

 

The invention relates to guidance systems of aircrafts (AIRCRAFT) on ground objects, in particular for systems of Autonomous homing (homing) LA, incorporating on-Board radar tools (radar), which provides guidance of aircraft on ground objects on radar images (SAR) of these objects obtained using synthetic antenna aperture (CAP).

Under way aiming similarly [1, 2, 3] refers to the law of formation of the desired phase trajectory induced object-defined rule generating signals for trajectory control.

A specific feature of Autonomous hover LA with airborne radar that uses modes CAP on ground objects is the necessity of forming a curvilinear trajectories LA guidance to ensure the desired linear resolution radar data generated by the radar in these modes.

Under certain assumptions specified in [4, str,..., 152], to provide the desired linear azimuthal ΔlTresolution radar images of the ground object generated by the radar is provided with a CAP, the trajectory of LA should be such that the side bearing of the object φGTto satisfy the condition

φGT=arcsin (λD2VPTWith aΔlT),(1)

where: D - is the distance from direct LA to ground object;

VP- value of ground speed LA;

λ - wavelength airborne radar;

TWiththe time of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar.

Obviously, for terrestrial objects, the rate of change of position which, as a rule, is negligible compared to the velocity induced AIRCRAFT trajectory guidance LA, satisfying (1)with fixed initial values of D and VP, a determined law changes VPand fixed ΔlT, λ, ∆ TWithare determined only on the basis of the required values of φGT. With this in mind, the task of targeting aircraft with a radar that uses a CAP on ground objects can be considered as the task of forming a curvilinear trajectory guidance, most approaching demanded.

Known [2] a method of targeting aircraft on ground objects using radar with CAP, in accordance with which the measured values range from direct LA to ground object and the speed of their sblizhenie is, values of airborne bearing ground object and the angular velocity of its line of sight in the horizontal plane, the value of the velocity induced LA and its acceleration in the horizontal plane and form the control signal ΔGthe aircraft in the horizontal plane ratio

ΔG=qφGkjGVWith aB(φG-φGT)+qωGkjGDωG-jG,(2)

where: qφ, qωthe factors that determine the pointing accuracy on-Board bearing and the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

kjthe factor that determines the efficiency of the LA guidance in the horizontal plane;

D - value range from direct LA to ground object;

VSAT- the value of the speed of convergence induced an aircraft with a ground object;

φG- testing the giving side bearing terrestrial object in the horizontal plane (assuming, what side bearing ground object is defined as the angle between the projection of the velocity vector LA on the horizontal plane (surface) and the direction of ground object in this plane);

ωG- is the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

jG- the value of the acceleration induced LA in a horizontal plane;

φGT- the angle of pre-emption, which provides the required linear azimuthal resolution of the radar images generated by the radar is induced LA in the horizontal plane, which is calculated by the ratio

φGT=arcsin(DλΔFVΔlT),(3)

where: λ is the wavelength of the onboard radar;

ΔF is the bandwidth of the Doppler filter;

V is the velocity (directional) direct LA;

ΔlTrequired linear resolution in the horizontal plane.

The disadvantages of this method [2] are:

1. The formation of a trajectory of LA-induced on-ground object implementation through the Xia only in the horizontal plane.

2. Provided is not accurate, and preemptive guidance on Board bearing formed with regard to the desired lead angle, or the angular velocity of the line of sight. "The weight of the errors on the aircraft, the bearing and the angular velocity of the line of sight" [2] can be changed through manipulation of the values of the coefficients of qφ, qω.

The closest analogue (prototype) of the present invention is a method of induction [3] aircraft on ground objects, in accordance with which the measured value of the speed of convergence induced aircraft and ground object, the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane, and lateral acceleration induced aircraft in the horizontal plane and form the control signal aircraft in the horizontal plane (parameter error) ratio, a corresponding method of proportional guidance offset

ΔG=N0(-D)(ωG+ΔωGTP)-jG,(4)

where: N0- navigation option is calculated based on the distances of start and end of guidance;

(-D)- the speed of convergence of an aircraft with a ground object;

φG- is the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

φGTRthe desired increment (offset) the angular velocity of the line of sight in the horizontal plane;

jG- the value of the lateral acceleration induced aircraft in the horizontal plane.

A desired increment (offset) the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane is determined on the basis of the conditions for ensuring the desired resolution Δl RI generated by the radar is provided with a CAP associated with side bearing & Phi;Gterrestrial object in accordance with the expression

Δl=DλΔF2(-D)sin(φG)=,(5)

where: D - distance from LA to ground object;

(-D)- the speed of convergence of an aircraft with a ground object;

λ is the wavelength of the radar;

ΔF is the bandwidth of the Doppler filter;

φGside bearing terrestrial object in the horizontal plane. In the expression (5), converted to the form

(-D)sin(φG)D=λΔF2Δl=,(6)

the left part in the first approximation corresponds to the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane when it is in sight of this plane with side bearing & Phi;G.

The value of ΔωGTRin [3] calculated with the factor KMOUTH,

defines the precision pointing and stabilization of the desired linear resolution (Δl=ΔlTin the horizontal plane ratio

Δω GTP=KYWith aTλΔF2ΔlT.(7)

The disadvantages of this method [3] are:

1. The formation of a trajectory LA induced on the ground the object is performed only in the horizontal plane.

2. The value of the desired increment (offset) the angular velocity of the line of sight in the horizontal plane generated according to (7), does not take into account possible variation and change the speed of the aircraft flight, the value of which, as is known, depends on the size of the synthesized aperture radar antenna, and hence the size of the linear resolution of the generated radar images of the ground object in the horizontal plane.

3. When implementing guidance LA on-ground object in accordance with a known method [3] does not check the degree of compliance to provide the angle φGside bearing terrestrial object in the horizontal plane of its desired value φGT.

The main disadvantage of this method [2, 3] aiming at the ground the aircraft using airborne radar (radar) with synthetic antenna rusk is IVA (CAP) is that this move is only in one (horizontal) plane.

There is no account of the influence of the vertical component of airspeed LA on the characteristics of linear resolution radar images of the observed terrestrial object generated by the radar is provided with a CAP in the process guidance LA.

The control signal forming LA in the vertical plane entails a change in the direction of the velocity vector in LA this plane and, accordingly, the change amount of the speed aircraft flight in the horizontal plane. In turn, this change entails a change in the value of the azimuthal linear resolution radar data generated by the radar is provided with a CAP. Due to the vertical component of airspeed LA, you may experience distortion RI, manifested in increasing blur and spread synthesized radar images.

On the other hand, the movement of LA in the horizontal plane in General entails changing the angle of the line of sight of the ground object. This can significantly change the conditions of sight of this object, manifested in undesirable fluctuations of the power of the reflected radar signals, and changes the resolution of the generated radar images along the horizontal range.

The technical result of the invention zaklyuche is camping in obtaining high precision guidance of aircraft on ground objects, carried out with the use of airborne radars with CAP.

The present invention is to develop a method of targeting aircraft equipped with a radar with a CAP on ground objects by implementing such a trajectory control LA, which simultaneously provided:

high precision guidance of aircraft on the ground using on Board LA the radar is provided with a CAP;

stabilization of linear resolution generated by the radar is provided with a CAP radar images of terrestrial objects, as in azimuth and horizontal distance;

minimum distortion RI terrestrial objects generated by the radar is provided with a CAP during the LA guidance on these objects.

It is known that the Doppler frequency of the radar signal reflected from a stationary ground point of the object observed from aboard an aircraft depends on the speed of the aircraft, relative to any fixed earth coordinate system, and the deflection angle of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the vector of the specified speed of the aircraft. The value of this frequency is determined by the ratio

Fd=2Vrλ=2Vcos(φmo> )λ(8)

where: Vr- the rate of convergence of media radar (LA) with the observed

object (radial velocity);

V is the velocity of LA relative to the fixed earth coordinate system;

φ is the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the observed object from the velocity vector LA (in the plane of sight of the object formed by the line of sight and the velocity vector LA);

λ is the wavelength of the probing radar signals.

Determining, using the radar is provided with a CAP value of Fd, the Doppler frequency of the radar signals reflected from the ground point of the object, knowing the speed of the aircraft flight, it is possible to obtain an estimate of the angle φ.

φ=arcos(λFd2V)(9)

Considering the Fdas a function:

angle φG- deviation of the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on the horizontal plane XOZ (surface, as shown in figure 1) from the projection of the velocity vector LA (coinciding in direction with the axis OX) on the same PLoS is awn (azimuthal angle);

the angle ε is the inclination of the line of sight of the observed ground point of the object

the relation (8) can be written in the form

Fd(φG,ε)=2(VPcos(φG)cos(ε)+VYsin(ε))λ,(10)

where:

VP- horizontal (ground) component of velocity of the aircraft flight;

VY- the vertical component of airspeed of the aircraft.

Using the decomposition (10) is a multiple of the Taylor series [5], in the linear approximation, for a point on the earth's surface, which is separated from the directions on the onshore facility at small angles ΔφGin the horizontal plane and Δε in the vertical plane can be written:

Fd(φG+ΔφG,ε+Δε)=Fd(φGmo> ,ε)+ΔFd(φG,ε,ΔφG)+ΔFd(φG,ε,Δε),(11)

where:

Fd(φG,ε,ΔφG)=Fd(φG,ε)φGΔφG,ΔFd(φG,ε,Δε)=Fd(φG,ε)εΔε(12 )

value, which characterizes the change in Doppler frequency of the reflected signal with the offset direction of sight of the considered ground object respectively by the angle ΔφGin the horizontal plane and the angle Δε in the vertical plane.

For ΔφG, Δε, given their presumed small, fairly

ΔφG=ΔlDG,Δε=-Δdsin(ε)D,(13)

where: Δl - linear azimuthal deviation of the observed object on the earth's surface corresponding to ΔφG. Sign Δl Δφ is determined by the signG;

∆ D is the linear deviation of the observed object on a horizontal plane (earth's surface) in the direction of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the object corresponding to ∆ Ε, as shown in figure 2.

D, DGaccordingly, the distance L is to ground the object and the horizontal distance from LA to ground object. From (11), taking into account (12), and that

VP=Vcos(Θ),VY=Vsin(Θ),(14)

where Θ is the angle of the velocity vector(tg(Θ)=VYVP)you can write:

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl)=-2Vcos(Θ)sin(φG)cos(ε)λDG,(15)

ΔFd(φG ,ε,Δl)=2VΔdsin(ε)λD(cos(Θ)cos(φG)sin(ε)-sin(Θ)cos(ε)),(16)

These expressions is determined by the difference

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl,Δd)=ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl)+ΔFd(φG,ε,Δd),(17)

Doppler frequency signals reflected from two point of ground objects observed in conditions characterized by the parameters (φG, ε, Θ, V, D, λ), and spaced from each other on the magnitude of ∆ D and Δl.

(17), per the om approximation, characterizes the width of the Doppler spectrum of the radar signals reflected small ground object or terrain, the length of ∆ D and Δl, respectively, the horizontal distance and azimuth when his radar observation on Board the aircraft.

If the value of ∆ D corresponds to the value of the element resolution radar range, formed due to amplitude or vnutripolostnoe modulation of the probing radar signals, when observing terrestrial object that has a negligible extent in azimuth (Δl=0), the value of ∆ FdG, ε, ∆ D) determines the degree azimuthal blur radar level from the observed object on radar images generated using the CAP.

If the value of ∆ D exceeds item resolution radar range, formed due to amplitude or vnutripolostnoe modulation of the probing radar signals, the value of ∆ FdG, ε, ∆ D) also determines the degree of reversal radar images of this object in the frequency domain.

Both of these effects can cause distortion of radar images of ground objects generated radar LA in flight when using CAP.

These distortions, obviously, there is no if condition

ΔFd (φG,ε,Δd)=0.(18)

Compliance with this condition, as follows from (16), is provided in the case, when

cos(Θ)cos(φG)sin(ε)-sin(Θ)cos(ε)=0,(19)

or at given φGand ε≠0, the angle of inclination of the flight path LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture

Θ=arctg(cos(φG)tg(ε)).(20)

In this case, the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the observed point of the ground object is tangent to isotope (lines of equal Doppler frequency shift [6]), passing through this volume of the CT scan in the horizontal plane (on earth surface), and the velocity vector of LA in the plane XOY is directed to the point (CC), as shown in figure 1, formed by the intersection of the perpendicular (NO-CC) to the horizontal projection (O-BUT) line-of-sight terrestrial object passing through the object and belonging to a horizontal plane, vertical plane XOY, which belongs to the velocity vector of the aircraft.

The last statement is proved by the following ratios:

tg(ε)=YLAndDG;tg(Θ)=YLAndDGInC;cos(φG)=DGDGInC(21)

where: YLAthe flight altitude of aircraft;

DCC- distance from LA to the point of EC,

DMCC- horizontal distance from LA to the point of EC,

when substituting in (20).

The point of CC can be considered as a virtual ground of the object, which should be pointing in LA the current time.

In terms of geometric constructions, corresponding to figure 1, the segment (NO-CC) is also perpendicular to the line of sight (LA) terrestrial object and thus we have the following relation:

Θ=arcsin(cos(φ)sin(ε)),(22)

where: φ is the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

This statement is confirmed by the ratios:

sin(ε)=-YLAndD;sin(Θ)=-YLAndDInthe ;cos(φG)=DDInC(23)

when substituting in (22).

The relation (22) reflects the conditions of formation flight path LA in the process of homing in on-ground object, in which the radar is provided with a CAP ensures the formation of radar images of the ground object with the least distortions arising due to the vertical component of airspeed of the aircraft.

In addition to providing minimal distortion of radar images generated by the radar is provided with a CAP in the process guidance LA on-ground object, it is expedient implementation of the stabilization of the linear resolution of these images in azimuth and horizontal distance. This significantly simplified the procedure of processing of radar data, which is putting LA on the ground object.

Stabilization of the desired resolution radar with CAP horizontal distance (∆DT=const) when used in radar modulated probe is the dominant signal, as can be seen from figure 2, requires the maintenance of a constancy of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane (ε=εT=const).

While ensuring the constancy of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane reduced the level and frequency fluctuations of the radar signals reflected from the object, due to the irregularity of his chart back-scattering in the vertical plane.

To stabilize the desired linear azimuthal resolution (ΔlT=const) form RI when the sight of the ground object, is presented in figure 1, you want to ensure that the deviation of the direction of the line of sight of this object on the direction of the velocity vector LA in the plane formed by the velocity vector of the aircraft and the specified line of sight (plane-of-sight terrestrial object), as in (I):

φT=arcsin(λD2VTWith aΔlT),(24)

where: TWiththe time of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar;

V is the velocity of LA relative to the stationary earth with the system of coordinates.

The values (ΦT, εTin accordance with (22) determine the desired angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar

ΘT=arcsin(cos(φT)sin(εT))(25)

When you hover over ground objects are stabilized in roll of aircraft managed by the formation of normal and lateral (transverse) acceleration, which is the projection of vector full acceleration LA on the axis O1Y1O1Z1rectangular shown in figure 1 of the moving system of coordinates O1X1Y1Z1starting at the (O1same as LA, the axis O1X1coincides with the vector airspeed AIRCRAFT axis O1Y1belongs to a vertical plane passing through the axis O1X1and the axis O1Z1complements the coordinate system to the right, for synthesizing the antenna aperture radar, corresponding to figure 1, should be the following ratio

tg(φTB)=cos(ΘT)cos(εT)tg(φT),(26)

where: & Phi;BT- the desired value of the angle φBlateral deviation of the projection of the line of sight of the ground object on an inclined plane X1O1Z1(in which longitudinal movement of LA in the direction of axis O1X1and lateral control LA) on the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

The values of φBTΘTobtained using ratios(24), (25), (26), determine the desired flight path LA in the process of homing in on-ground object, for a given εT=const. Path providing minimal distortion of radar images generated by the radar is provided with a CAP in flight, and stabilization of the desired linear resolution of these images, as the horizontal distance and azimuth.

The discrepancy between the current values of the parameters (φB, ε, Θ), describing the trajectory of LA in the process of its guidance on nasinnyevykh, their desired values (ΦBT, εTΘT) necessitates the implementation of the corresponding trajectory of the flight control of the aircraft.

Hovering aircraft on ground objects using the proposed method should be carried out to assess the current deviations (residuals) from the required values:

angle φB- lateral deviations of the projection of the line of sight of the ground object on an inclined plane side of the aircraft control on the direction of the velocity vector LA (figure 1),

ΔφB=φBT-φB;(27)

the angle ε is the inclination of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane,

Δε=εT-ε;(28)

the angle Θ of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the vertical plane,

ΔΘ=ΘT-Θ.(29)

For conditions of sintezirovany the antenna aperture radar, corresponding to figure 1, taking into account the relations (26) in the linear approximation, the value of ΔφBassociated with the value

Δφ=φT-φ(30)

the current deviation of the angle φ, measured by the ratio of (9)from its desired value φTratio

ΔφB=KφΔφ,(31)

where:

Kφ=cos(εT )cos(ΘT)cos2(εT)cos2(φT)+cos2(ΘT)sin2(φT).(32)

When implementing a synthetic antenna aperture value φ be a direct and very accurate estimate (to the nearest tenth of a degree and above).

When forming the control signals (ΔB, ΔN,) stabilized in roll LA in lateral and normal planes of the management should be taken into account that the angle ε of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane is changed, as in the management of LA at the rate and pitch. Deviation (Δε) of this angle from the desired value due to the action of control signals generated in the plane of lateral control, as the deviation (ΔΘ) from the desired value of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA must be offset by the corresponding control signal in the plane normal control.

In choosing the basis set out the proposed method of targeting aircraft on ground objects involves the formation of control signals (Δ B, ΔN,) LA with the following functional relationships:

ΔB=fB(ΔφB),ΔN=fN(Δε,ΔΘ).(33)

In the framework of the proposed method of targeting aircraft on ground objects using the generation of control signals (ΔB, ΔN,) LA on a proportionate pointing offset [7, p.59] the signal side management LA

ΔB=N0(-D)(ωB+ωBC)-jB,(34)

where: ωB- the angular velocity of the line of sight n the earthly object in the plane of the lateral control;

ωBS- the desired offset of the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane of the lateral control;

jB- acceleration of the movement of LA in the plane of the lateral control. When the desired offset ωBSthe angular velocity of the line of sight is determined by the period of the synthetic antenna aperture as follows:

ωBC=ΔφBkBTC,(35)

where: kB- coefficient taking into account the method of formation evaluation & Phi;Band including, the time delay of its formation during the implementation of the CAP in the process guidance LA on land, as well as the dynamics of changes of values of the angle φ when exposed to signals lateral control of the aircraft.

From (34) and (35) shows that when approaching the ground object and the desire φBTto zero by a proportional guidance LA directly from the data on the angular velocity of the line of sight of the object plane side control.

When forming method of proportional guidance with offset control signal LA (ΔNin a plane normal management

ΔN=N0(-D)(ωN-ωNWith a)-jN,(36)

where: ωN- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane normal control;

ωNA- the desired offset of the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane normal control;

jN- acceleration of the movement of LA in a plane normal control. When the desired offset ωNAthe angular velocity is determined by the period of the synthetic antenna aperture as follows:

ωNWith a=ΔΘkθTC+ΔεkεTC,(37)

where: kε, kθ,. - weighting factors that take into account the method of forming estimates of the angles of inclination of the line of sight of the nazem is on the object (ε) and the velocity vector LA (Θ), including a time delay their formation during the implementation of the CAP in the process guidance LA on land, as well as the dynamics of change in values of the angles (ε, Θ,) when exposed to signals of a normal aircraft control.

Considering the above, the achievement of the technical result of the proposed method guidance of the aircraft on-ground object using radar with CAP, provided by the fact that at a given constant value of the slope of the line of sight of the ground object, in the process of LA guidance on this object with the use of onboard navigation systems LA carry out the measurement of the current speed of the aircraft flight, the current angle of the velocity vector of an aircraft using radar with CAP carry out the measurement of the current distance to the ground object, the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector LA, the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane, using the obtained results manage aircraft flight in planes aircraft control so as to ensure stabilization of linear azimuthal resolution of the radar image of the ground object generated by the radar is provided with a CAP, stabilizing the permissions of the specified radar image along the horizontal range, and such is the relation of the velocity vector LA in a vertical plane at each point in time coincides with the direction of the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the projection line of sight of the ground object on the horizontal plane (of the earth surface)passing through a terrestrial object and belonging to a horizontal plane, vertical plane, which belongs to the velocity vector of the aircraft, which are calculated according to the relations (24), (25) the desired value of the angle between the direction of the line of sight of the object and the direction of the velocity vector LA in an inclined plane formed by the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight targets, the desired value of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar, form the assessment of the values of the deviations of the current values of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA, the angle of the line of sight of the ground object, the angle between the direction of the velocity vector LA and the line of sight of the ground object, the angle between the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight of the ground object in the plane of the side of the aircraft control from their desired values, using these estimates of variance, taking into account the duration of the synthetic antenna aperture radar calculate the required size of the required offsets the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the planes of the lateral and normal aircraft control and shape the signal trajectory of the aircraft control in the planes of the lateral and normal control by the method of proportional guidance with offset, especiauy elimination of deviations of the current values of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA, the angle of the line of sight of the ground object, the angle between the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight of the ground object from their desired values.

The proposed method for the guidance of aircraft on-ground object using radar with CAP is implemented as follows.

1. At the conclusion of LA in the set point start working radar with CAP and detection radar ground object on which should be carried out over LA, is set to the desired angle (εT) the slope of the line of sight of this object in the vertical plane.

2. In the process of pointing the aircraft on-ground object using a radar with a CAP according to the measurement results evaluation form:

D is the current distance from LA to ground object;

V is the current speed of the aircraft flight;

ε is the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object (for example, the results of measurements using monopulse direction finding, implemented the radar is provided with a CAP, or the results of the assessments of the current slant range to ground object and the current altitude of the aircraft using on-Board navigation system);

Θ is the current angle of the velocity vector LA (using on-Board navigation system);

φ - current deflection angle of the line of sight of the observed object on the direction of the velocity vector LA (p the results of measurements using Doppler filtering, implemented radar with CAP);

3. In the process of pointing the aircraft on-ground object using a radar with a CAP based on:

the desired value (ΔlTlinear azimuthal resolution of the radar data that are subject to the formation of the radar is provided with a CAP;

the wavelength (λ) of the probing radar signals;

time (TWith) synthesizing antenna aperture;

the current distance (D) to ground object;

current speed (V) aircraft flight

in accordance with (24) is determined by the desired lateral deviation (φT) the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

4. Using the known values (ΦT, εT) the ratio of (25) is determined by the value of the desired angle (ΘT) of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar.

5. The relations (26)-(31) determine the amount of current deviations (residuals) (ΔφB, Δε, ΔΘ) of the angle between the line of sight of the observed object and the direction of the velocity vector LA in the plane of the lateral control AIRCRAFT, the angle of the line of sight of the ground object, the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA from their desired values and taking into account relations (33)-(37) form the control signals LA.

Figure 3 presents a simplified block diagram of a possible variant of the system that implements the proposed CSP is about pointing the aircraft on-ground object using radar with CAP, where:

1 - antenna radar system;

2 receiver-transmitter radar;

3 - meter range and speed of convergence;

4 - goniometer inclined channel;

5 - device storing a value of the desired angle of the line of sight;

6 - measuring the angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector LA;

7 - the transmitter of the desired angle offset side channel;

8 - the transmitter of the desired offset angle normal channel;

9 - the transmitter control signals;

10 - system management;

11 is a block accelerometers;

12 - a flying machine.

Presented in figure 3 option monopulse radar with a CAP that implements the proposed method for the guidance of aircraft on-ground object, operates as follows.

Monopulse antenna system 1 radar performs the spatial selection of the radar signal reflected from the surface of the object. Output antenna system, the signal is fed to the input of the radar receiver 2, in which due to the narrowband Doppler filtering, carried out with the implementation of the CAP, there is a selection of the signal reflected from the surface of the object on the background noise and interfering reflections from the earth's surface. From the output of the receiver 2, the signal at the input 3 meter slant range from LA to nasenkorrektur and speed of convergence LA with this object at the entrance of the goniometer 4 inclined monopulse channel radar, and also to the input of the meter 6 angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

The measuring device 6 generates and outputs to the transmitter 9 current estimates of the angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft. These estimates are generated by equation (9) according to the Doppler frequency signals reflected from the surface of the object, and data about the velocity of aircraft flight, arriving in the 6 meter from the transmitter control signals 9. The goniometer 4 using data supplied by an inclined channel monopulse radar, generates a score for the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object. This estimate is obtained in the initial moment of time the implementation of the LA guidance on terrestrial object, enters the device 5, which is stored as the value of the desired angle of the line of sight of the ground object. The specified value of the desired angle of the line of sight of the ground object from the output device 5 enters the transmitter 7 of the current desired angle to the line of sight of the ground object from the direction of the velocity LA, the transmitter 8 to the desired angle trajectory of LA, as well as in the transmitter 9 of the control signals LA. In the computer 7. those whom the current assessment of the required deflection angle of the line of sight of the ground object from the velocity direction LA is formed by the ratio of (24) and are issued in the transmitter 8 of the required current angle flight path LA, as well as in the transmitter 9 of the control signals LA. From transmitter 8 evaluation of the required current angle flight path LA, generated by equation (25), also issued in the transmitter 9 of the control signals LA. Calculator 9 control signals LA on the ratios of (26)-(31) using the results of the evaluation of the deviations of the current values of the angles φB, ε, Θ from their desired values, and the measured block accelerometers 11 values of normal and lateral (transverse) acceleration LA 12 generates control signals aircraft within the plane coming into the control system 10, which converts the generated control signals to the appropriate control actions that come on the controls directly to the aircraft 12.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method guidance of the aircraft on the ground was carried out modelling. The purpose of the simulation was to study the possibilities of the proposed method of targeting aircraft on ground object in the portion simultaneously provide the desired linear resolution radar data generated by the radar is provided with a CAP, in range and azimuth in the horizontal plane and the required accuracy of guidance of the aircraft.

In the modeling process to determine the quality of the procedure of the LA guidance on terrestrial object was assessed by the following indicators.

The deviation Δφ actual value of the angle φ* between the direction of the line of sight of the ground object and the velocity vector LA from its required value

Δφ=φT-φ*,(38)

The magnitude of the deviation of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane from the desired

Δε=εT-ε*,(39)

where: ε* is the actual value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane.

The magnitude of the deviation of the angle of inclination of the flight path from LA required

ΔΘ=ΘT-Θ*,(40)

where: Θ* is the actual value of the angle of inclination of the flight path of the aircraft. In the modeling process as indicators of the effectiveness of the proposed method was considered assessment of the current is a linear lateral and normal faults (h BhN). These oversights were determined, respectively, by the relations

hB=D2ωB(-D);hN=D2ωN(-D);(41)

where:D/mi> - the speed of convergence of an aircraft with a ground object

The research was conducted by means of simulation time in the process of changing the spatial position of LA in a stationary normal earth coordinate system, whose origin is combined with the ground object, as shown in figure 4.

Including simulated: V - speed flight LA; D is the slant range to ground object; φ* is the actual value of the angle of deviation of the direction of the line of sight of the ground object from the velocity vector LA;φB*- the actual value of the angle of deviation of the direction of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector in the plane of the lateral control LA; & Phi;T- the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the ground object from the velocity vector LA; ε* is the actual value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane; εT- the desired value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane; Θ* the actual value of the angle of trajectory LA; ΘT- the desired value of the angle of trajectory LA;D- speed is got closer an aircraft with a ground object; ωN- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane normal aircraft control; ωB- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane of the lateral control LA; ΔB, ΔNsignals lateral and normal control LA; jBI , jN- lateral, and normal acceleration LA; hBhNcurrent line misses in the lateral and normal planes aircraft control.

When the desired value φTangle to the line of sight of the ground object from the velocity vector LA were calculated by equation (24), the desired value of ΘTthe angle of the trajectory of the aircraft from the relation (25), the offset of the angular velocity ωBSline-of-sight terrestrial object in the plane of the side control (35), the offset of the angular velocity ωNAline-of-sight terrestrial object in the plane normal control (37), the signals of lateral and normal control (ΔB, ΔN,), respectively (34) and (36), quality of functioning (Δφ, Δε, ΔΘ, hBhN,) the proposed method for(38), (39), (40), (41). Current location LA was determined by the number of coordinates.

The simulation results shown in figures 5 to 10, obtained under the assumption that the initial value of the slant range from LA to ground object D=1000 m, the initial speed LA V=300 m/s, acceleration, braking LA is 3 m/s2and is constant throughout the trajectory of LA before the end of the process aiming LA on-ground object, the completion of the LA guidance on terrestrial object is carried out by reduction of the distance to a ground object to 150 m, the initial slope of the line of sight of the ground object ε=-35°, the required permission form RI horizontal distance ∆ DT=10 m, the required linear resolution of the generated RI azimuth ΔlT=10 m, the wavelength of the radar LA λ=4.0 cm, the time of synthesizing the antenna aperture TWith=128 MS.

Figure 5 shows the projection obtained from the results of modeling the trajectory of LA on the horizontal plane normal to the earth's coordinate system corresponding to figure 4.

Figure 6 shows the resulting simulation graphs of values of the angles ε*, Θ* (the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane and the angle of the velocity vector LA in the process of pointing to the ground object).

The abscissa of the graph represents a change of coordinates of LA on the X-axis normal to the earth's coordinate system corresponding to figure 4.

Figure 7 shows the resulting graph modeling, characterizing in according to the according to (38) in the plane of the side of the aircraft control value Δφ deviation of the magnitude of the angle between the line of sight of the ground object and the velocity vector of LA from the required value.

Figure Fig shows the resulting graph modeling, characterizing, in accordance with (39) the value of Δε of the deviation of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane from the desired process guidance LA on-ground object.

Figure Fig.9 induced the resulting graph modeling, characterizing, in accordance with (40) the magnitude of the deviation ΔΘ of the angle of inclination of the flight path from LA required.

Figure figure 10 shows the resulting simulation graphs of values of lateral and normal faults (hBhN,in the process guidance LA on-ground object.

Final values misses the results of the modeling process guidance aircraft on ground facility amounted to:, hB=- 1.5 m, hN,=-0,01 m

The study results confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method of targeting aircraft on ground object using radar with CAP.

The proposed method of targeting aircraft on ground allows an object to provide:

- high precision guidance of aircraft on the ground;

- stabilization of linear resolution generated by the radar is provided with a CAP radar images of terrestrial objects, as in azimuth and horizontal distance;

- minimum the distortion RI terrestrial object, generated radar with CAP during the LA guidance on this object.

Using the proposed method does not impose any significant additional restrictions on the components and possible under the existing characteristics of the evaluators radar with a CAP on their performance and memory.

Sources of information

1. M.V. Maximov, Gerganov GI Electronic guidance system. - M.: Radio and communication. 1982. - 304 S.

2. Patent for invention No. 2164654.

3. Patent for invention No. 2148235 prototype.

4. Kondratenko G.S., Frolov, A. Theoretical basis for the development of radar systems for remote sensing. M.: Izd. Vvia. Professor N.E. Zhukovsky, 2009, p.143 - 152.

5. Korn G., Korn T. Handbook of mathematics. For scientists and engineers. - M., Nauka, 1974, p 146.

6. The reference radar. Ed. by M. of SKOLNIK. TRANS. from English. (in four volumes) Volume 1. - M., Soviet radio, 1976, s, 281.

7. Merkulov, V.I., Dragalin CENTURIES, Konashenkov A.I., etc. Aircraft systems control. Vol.2. Electronic guidance system / Ed. by A.I. Konashenkov and I. Merkulova. M: radio engineering, 2003. - 390 S.

Method guidance of aircraft on ground objects, which consists in the fact that the measured value of the speed of convergence induced aircraft (LA) with the ground object and form of the signal is s control the aircraft in the horizontal plane by the method of proportional guidance offset angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object, and the desired yaw rate offset is calculated from the conditions of the stabilisation desired azimuthal linear resolution radar images of the ground object generated by the radar is provided with a CAP during the LA guidance on this object, characterized in that the control over aircraft on the ground is carried out simultaneously in an inclined plane, the position of which is determined by the direction of the airspeed LA, and in the vertical plane based on the conditions of maintenance and stabilization of the desired resolution radar images of ground objects generated by the radar is provided with a CAP in the process guidance AIRCRAFT in azimuth and horizontal distance, using the method of proportional guidance offset angular velocity line-of-sight terrestrial object in both planes of aircraft control, the values of these offsets are formed so that the direction of the velocity vector LA in a vertical plane at each point in time coincides with the direction of the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the projection line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane coincident with the earth's surface, passing through a terrestrial object and belonging to this horizontal plane, vertical plane, which belongs to the velocity vector of maternova apparatus, what set the desired value for the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the pointing process LA, additionally measured values of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane, the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector LA, values and angle of the velocity vector LA, calculate the desired value of the angle between the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight of the ground object, calculate the desired value of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA, form the assessment of the values of the deviations of the current values of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA, the angle of the line of sight of the ground object, the angle between the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight ground object, the angle between the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and the projection of the line of sight of the ground object on an inclined plane motion LA from their desired values and using these estimates of variance calculate the required offset angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the plane of the aircraft.



 

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