Iron-based composite brake shoe for railway car

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: proposed brake shoe comprises steel carcass and arc-like body consisting of separate friction elements secured to steel carcass. Said elements are made of friction material. Guides and steel carcass have pressure plates to retain friction elements at steel carcass. Shoe friction element is shaped to prismatoid with trapezium-shaped bases. Said bases have recesses to accommodate steel carcass pressure plates. Ledge is made at one of lateral surfaces of friction element while recess is made at opposite side surface. Friction elements fitted in steel carcass are secured by squeezing of the carcass lateral pressure plates. Two extreme elements are additionally pressed by pressure plates of carcass guides. Friction elements are made of iron-base metal.

EFFECT: higher safety and wear resistance, better manufacturability.

6 cl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to railway transport, in particular to the brake equipment of the rolling stock, and can also be used in brake systems on other modes of transport.

Known brake pad on Author. St. 1572889, VN 1/00, publ. 23.06.90 containing steel frame, cast-iron arched body, consisting of a main and profile plots made it a stream and is provided with inserts laid in rows in the body of the pad by the working friction surfaces, and ridge insertion profile area is made in the form of a cylindrical element with a longitudinal cut and installed in the Creek pads with the possibility of setting and interaction with the crest of the wheel tread.

However, in the known technical solution inserts made of special cast iron with high hardness, and hence cause heavy wear surfaces of the wheels. In addition, the execution of inserts of the main site prismatic, with a continuous friction surface, affects the heat sink and contribute to the greater wear of friction pairs and reduce the braking force due to the reduction of the coefficient of friction.

Known brake pad containing a steel frame, curved body, consisting of a main body part pads and core body pads made it rucl the m In the body of the pad by the working friction surfaces on the core plot laid one row Diablo inserts, made in the form of a cylindrical element with a longitudinal cut, covering the crest of the wheel tread. On the main plot laid in rows, at least two groups of cylindrical inserts. In each group the centers of the three nearest inserts equidistant from each other, and the ranks of these inserts deployed relative to the longitudinal axis of the pad. The insert is made of ductile metal, for example steel. Patent RU No. 2153994.

A disadvantage of the known brake pads is the reduction of the braking effect when heated pads, due to overheating of the inserts is reduced coefficient of friction. Block creates noise during operation.

Known brake wagon composite strip containing a steel frame, curved body, consisting of a main body part pads and lateral part of the body pads are in contact with the ridge of the wheel surface that interacts with the side surfaces of the rail, while the arcuate body of the pad is composed of individual elements, mounted on a steel frame, and the elements that make up the main body of the pad is made of friction material, and the elements forming the lateral part of the body pads are made of anti-friction material is in the form of profiled elements, in contact with the ridge of the wheel surface that interacts with the side surfaces of the rail, the friction material is 1.5-10 times the coefficient of friction and 1.5 to 3.5 greater abrasion resistance than that of anti-friction material, the friction elements forming the main body part pads have different height, the friction elements with greater height are located at the edges of the steel frame. In addition, the friction elements forming the main and lateral parts of the body pads are fixed by welding on a metal frame and between a metallurgical method, the friction elements of the main body part pads made of composite friction material, operating at temperatures up to 850C, the friction elements of the main plot pads, at least two (EN 125950).

This solution is taken as a prototype.

A disadvantage of the known brake pads is no cleansing effect brake pads in the process of wheel contact with the pad, not defined geometrical and mechanical parameters of the elements with the maximum wear of the brake pads.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the safety of railway wagons.

In the process of solving the task is achieved technically the result, consisting in the elimination of defective layer formed on the surface of the wagon wheels, the improvement of heat removal from the zone of contact pads and wheels, increasing wear of the brake pads, improve the manufacturability of the pad, reducing run-in period in the "wheel - brake pad".

The technical result is achieved by block wagon brake composite iron-based, containing a steel frame with the bracket and guides welded to the outer surface of the arcuate body, consisting of separate friction elements mounted on a steel frame, the elements are made of friction material, powder metallurgy, operating at a temperature of not higher than 850C. while the guides and steel frame are pressure plates that hold the friction elements on a steel frame, a friction element pads made in the form of prismatoid, the Foundation of which have the shape of a trapezoid, the bases are hollow with a clamp comprising clamping plate steel frame, one of the side surfaces of the friction element is perpendicular to the bases and is pinned to a steel frame that is opposite the surface in contact with the rolling surface of the wheel, has a slope of 1:20 and mates with one of the grounds is about the radius of no more than 20 mm, two other side surfaces are at an angle of 2-7 to each other, one of them has a ledge on the other depression when the Assembly of the pad, the protrusion enters into the cavity, mechanically locking the adjacent friction elements together, forming an arched body pads that are inserted into the steel frame of the friction element, is fixed by crimping the side pressure plates steel frame, two extreme additionally pressed clamping plates guide the steel frame, a friction element pads made of a material based on iron containing, by mass %; copper - 9-16, carbon - 0,5-3,0, aluminum oxide - 2-4, chrome - 0.5 to 1.5, molybdenum - 0,1-0,2, phosphorus of 0.01-3.0, has a hardness of at Brunel initiated the construction (80-120)HB5/125/10the microhardness of the base (230-250)HV50consisting of lamellar pearlite with copper layers at the grain boundaries and micro-inclusions (700-900)HV50consisting of carbide compounds of molybdenum and chromium and abrasion resistance, exceeding the abrasion resistance of the wheel. In addition, the friction elements fixed between a metallurgical method, the pressure plates are S-shaped, the base of prismatoid parallel to the plane of rotation of the wheel, the pressure plates of the steel frame are angled to the back of the frame 45-60 and form in the cross section of the groove trap is eudaley form, on the lateral surfaces arranged at an angle of 2-7 to each other, the protrusions and depressions have a rectangular or trapezoidal shape.

Impact pads affects not only the destruction of the contact surfaces in the system "brake pad wheel, but the system in the "wheel-rail". The wheel is subject to wear from the brake pads, and the side rail. The authors proposed technical solution studies were performed on the running surface of the rail wheels of the car in contact with the brake pads, made of cast iron. We studied the mechanism of formation of microcracks in different parts of the contact surface of the wheel. Defects in the form of cracks and visibly, with a maximum penetration depth of up to 1.5 mm accelerate not only the wear of wheels and rails. The appearance of such defects due to high contact pressure. With the further development of cracks is peeling (separation) of sections of the wheel surface in the form of a separate solid particles. They continue to work as abrasive particles, leading to intense wear, as the surface of the wheel and the running surface of the rail. Education abrasive particles occurs in several stages. This microcrack nucleation, which occurs gradually as a result of fatigue phenomena. Cracks start is to develop long before how will education abrasive particles, and their separation from the surface. The duration of the process of accumulation of material defects wheels, occupies a significant portion, reaching up to 90% of the time of the destruction process. Not to bring up the appearance on the contact surface (rolling surface) of the wheel of abrasive particles, the surface should always be cleaned from contamination and the removal of the surface defect layer. Such removal occurs during braking of the inventive brake Shoe having a higher abrasion resistance than the material of the rim wheel of the car. In addition, brake pad must possess a number of physical properties that can complete the task for cleaning the surface of the wagon wheel. These properties primarily include the hardness of the material of the pad and the microhardness of the individual components of the material. The pad is made on the basis of iron with the addition of carbidopa elements, such as chromium, molybdenum and free graphite, phosphor, the sintering process to form a material with the same correlation properties of the hardness and microhardness figure 3. The formation of the copper layers 3 significantly improves thermal conductivity of the pad, which reduces the temperature in the contact zone, thus block more effectively slows down when the more high speeds, composition, while maintaining a high coefficient of friction, i.e. increases its durability. Manufacture of friction elements of the pad on the iron-base powder metallurgy consisting of individual elements, allows to achieve the specified properties, their material based on iron containing, by mass %: copper - 9-16, carbon - 0,5-3,0, alumina - 2-4, chrome - 0.5 to 1.5, molybdenum - 0,1-0,2, phosphorus of 0.01-3.0, has a hardness of at Brunel initiated the construction (80-120)HB5/125/10the microhardness of the base (230-250)HV50consisting of lamellar pearlite with copper layers at the grain boundaries and micro-inclusions (700-900)HV50consisting of carbide compounds of molybdenum and chromium and abrasion resistance, exceeding the abrasion resistance of the wheels of the car.

In addition, the authors proposed technical solutions proposed implementation of the friction elements of the brake pads in the form of prismatoid. Prismatoid, m is a Polyhedron whose two faces (bases) lie in parallel planes, and the remaining (side) are trapezoids or triangles with bases a common side or the top (see A. M. Mikeshin, V.B. have been eagles. Explanatory dictionary of mathematics. Key terms: 2500 terms. - M.: Russian., 1989. - 244 C., 186 ill. - S, RIS). Prismatoid with bases in the form of a trapezoid, parallel to the plane of rotation of the wheel, the bottom of the side faces is perpendicular to the bases and pressed to the steel frame, the opposite side face is in contact with the rolling surface of the wheel, has a slope of 1:20, the fillet of the flange of the wheel mates with one of the grounds on a radius of not more than 20 mm, the remaining two side faces are at an angle of 2-7 to each other, one of them has a ledge rectangular shape, and a second hollow rectangular shape, and the protrusion enters into the hollow, which allows to fix the adjacent friction elements together mechanically to form an arcuate body pads. In addition, the friction elements may be fixed between a metallurgical method, for example by sintering. Elastic clamps S-shaped steel frame are angled to the back of the frame 45-60 to form the cross section of the groove of trapezoidal form, entering the trench with a collar located at the base of the friction elements forming the connection type to "dovetail" and the elastic fixing clamps S-shaped guides, properly secured to the arcuate body pads of the individual friction elements on a steel frame. In the brake pads on a steel frame welded fixed guides and bracket for fixing, allowing you to capture pads V-W / cotter pin or other means in accordance with the standards of any country in the world. When installing pads and closed the relocation of its cotter ends cheques are placed inside the Shoe, what prevents rotation of the pad about its longitudinal axis. Furthermore, the very structural integrity of the pad due to a mechanically stable connection of the steel frame with arched body pads of the individual friction elements and mechanical and metallurgical fixation elements with each other it provides high reliability and without damage on all modes of inhibition of rolling stock.

The proposed solution is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows a General view of the pads, car brake composite iron-based, 2 friction element pads, Fig.3 microstructure of the material of the friction element pads.

Brake wagon composite block contains a steel frame 1, with the elastic clamps S-shaped 1.1, guides with elastic clamps S-shaped 1.2, the bracket 1.3, bracket guides 1.3 and 1.2 fixed by welding on a steel frame 1, the arcuate body 2 consisting of a separate friction elements 3, which are fixed on a steel frame 1 by means of clamps S-shaped 1.1 and 1.2. The friction elements 3 pads made in the form of prismatoid with bases in the form of a trapezoid 3.1, parallel to the plane of rotation of the wheel, while at the bases 3.1 friction elements have a trapezoidal basin with collar 3.1.1, where the go elastic clamps S-shaped 1.1 steel frame 1, one of the side faces 3.2 friction element is perpendicular to the bases 3.1 and pressed to the steel frame 1 opposite to the side 3.3 in contact with the rolling surface of the wheel, has a slope of 1:20, the fillet of the flange of the wheel and mates with one of the grounds on a radius of not more than 20 mm, the remaining two side faces of 3.4 and 3.5 are located at an angle of 2-7 to each other, one of them has a ledge rectangular 3.4.1, and the second hollow rectangular 3.5.1, and the protrusion enters into the cavity, mechanically locking the adjacent friction elements together forming arcuate body pads 2, fixed elastic clamps S-shaped rails 1.2, steel frame 1. The friction elements 3 made of a material based on iron having a hardness Brunel initiated the construction (80-120)HB5/125/10the microhardness of the base (230-250)HV50consisting of lamellar pearlite 4.1 with copper layers 4.2 at the grain boundaries and micro-inclusions (700-900)HV50consisting of carbide compounds 4.3 molybdenum and chromium. Pets presence in the material of free carbon 4.4.

The operation of the brake pads is as follows. When pressing the working surface of the pad to the working surface of a wheel of a railroad car is braking and purification of the running surface of the wheels of the wagon.

Production pads offer implies a higher rate of automation of production, therefore, lower cost and improve manufacturability pads. And these features sintered pads as low wear and possibility of application at speeds over 140 km/h and minimum wear of the wheel mating with such nuts, will help to justify the high cost of metal-ceramic pads reduce costs not only for her replacement, but also on the turning wheel, interacting with it. In General, the proposed technical solution device and manufacture of the pad allows you to get better quality and long service life car pad, and improve the safety of railway traffic.

1. Block wagon brake composite iron-based, containing a steel frame with the bracket and guides welded to the outer surface of the arcuate body, consisting of separate friction elements mounted on a steel frame, the elements are made of friction material, powder metallurgy, operating at a temperature of not higher than 850C. characterized in that the guides and steel frame are pressure plates that hold the friction elements on a steel frame, each friction elementology made in the form of prismatoid, bases which have the shape of a trapezoid, the bases are hollow with a clamp, comprising pressure plates steel frame, one of the side surfaces of the friction element is perpendicular to the bases and is pinned to a steel frame that is opposite the surface in contact with the rolling surface of the wheel, has a slope of 1:20 and mates with one of the grounds on a radius of not more than 20 mm, the other two side surfaces arranged at an angle of 2-7 to each other, one of them has a ledge on the other depression when the Assembly of the pad, the protrusion enters into the hollow, mechanical fixing adjacent friction elements together, forming an arched body pads that are inserted into the steel frame of the friction elements is fixed by crimping the side pressure plates steel frame, two extreme additionally pressed clamping plates guide the steel frame, the friction elements are pads made of a material based on iron containing, by mass %; copper - 9-16, carbon - 0,5-3,0, alumina - 2-4, chrome - 0.5 to 1.5, molybdenum - 0,1-0,2, phosphorus of 0.01-3.0, having a Brinell hardness (80-120) HB5/125/10the microhardness of the base (230-250)HV50consisting of lamellar pearlite with copper layers at the grain boundaries and micro-inclusions (700-900)HV50consisting of carbide compounds mol is bden and chrome and abrasion resistance, exceeding the abrasion resistance of the wheel.

2. Block wagon according to claim 1, characterized in that the friction elements fixed between a metallurgical method.

3. Block wagon according to claim 1, characterized in that the pressure plates are S-shaped.

4. Block wagon according to claim 1, characterized in that the base of prismatoid parallel to the plane of rotation of the wheel.

5. Block wagon according to claim 1, characterized in that the pressure plates of the steel frame are angled to the back of the frame 45-60 and form in the cross section of the groove of trapezoidal shape.

6. Block wagon according to claim 1, characterized in that the side surfaces arranged at an angle of 2-7 to each other, the protrusions and depressions have a rectangular or trapezoidal shape.



 

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