Method of producing solid fuel and solid fuel obtained using said method

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a method of producing improved solid fuel. Described is solid fuel which is obtained by briquetting crushed low-grade coal, where the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of pores of the low-grade coal is coated with a nonvolatile component contained in the low-grade coal, and content of heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt % with respect to the solid fuel.

EFFECT: low production costs and environmental load, as well as improved solid fuel.

2 cl, 3 ex, 5 dwg

 

The technical field

The present invention relates to a method for producing an improved solid fuel, in which the raw material coal is used, in particular low-grade coal, and improved solid fuel and is produced by this method.

Background of invention

Solid fuel appropriately used as fuel, for example, thermal generators and the like.

Currently bituminous coal is used as fuel for production of heat energy. However, the production of bituminous coal increases from year to year, and has the problem of depletion of reserves of bituminous coal. Accordingly, the relevant issue is the effective use of low-grade coal as an alternative to bituminous coal.

Low-grade coal has a low calorific value and a property of spontaneous combustion and, as a consequence, the use of low-grade coal limited. As a means of effective utilization of low-grade coal was used a way to improve the grade of brown coal (UBC). To date, there are several ways to improve low-grade coal. However, it is difficult practical use of most of them because of the processing conditions, the site is involving high temperature or high pressure, which leads to the high cost of the equipment, or due to the fact that low-grade coal is chemically modified with obtaining wastewater containing large amounts of pyrolytic substances, which leads to high cost of wastewater treatment.

The authors of the present invention described such UBS way in which the raw material used low-grade coal, and oil mixture, consisting of heavy oil and mortar oils from the pores of low-grade coal, so as to provide a solid fuel, in which the content of heavy oil in percent by weight relative to the dehydrated coal ranged from 0.5% to 30% (Patent literature 1). In solid fuel patent document 1 water in the pores of low-grade coal to be removed and provide adhesion of heavy oil to the inner surfaces of the pores of the coated active centers. Thus, inhibited the spontaneous combustion of low-grade coal, and heavy oil contained in the low-grade coal, provides a high calorific value. Dissolving of heavy oil into the mortar oil with high viscosity, provide sufficient impregnation of the pores of heavy oil and, as a result, the coverage of active sites in the pores and high calorific value.

Powdered improved coal is used as fuel almost without processing the TCI. In General, powdered improved coal pressed into briquettes and briquettes are transported to the place of combustion (for example, thermal power plant or the like). When such pellets have low durability, they are scattered or form dust during transportation or during the operations of loading/unloading. Thus, in addition to the loss of part of the product is added to the problem of increasing the likelihood of spontaneous combustion. Thus, the briquettes should have high strength.

In addition, to reduce production costs and to reduce the load on the environment, the share of externally added components preferably should be as low as possible or be reduced to zero.

Patent literature 1: Japan Patent No. 2776278

The invention has

Problems solved by the present invention

The present invention is made in light of the fact that discussed above. The present invention is the provision of a method of manufacturing an improved solid fuel, which reduced production costs, reduced load on the environment, achieved high strength for transportation and the like, and prevented spontaneous combustion; and improved solid fuel.

Resolving problems

The authors of the present invention have studied in detail the problem in SV is the solution to the above task. As a result, the authors found that immersion of low-grade coal in oil with high temperature from low-grade coal not only can evaporate the water, but also is extracted by a high-temperature non-volatile oil component originally contained in low-grade coal, and the component can act as an alternative to the heavy oil. As the heavy oil component has the function of covering the active centers in low-grade coal with suppression of spontaneous combustion. Thus, the share of externally added heavy oil may be reduced.

Further studies led to the discovery that when the heavy oil does not stick to surfaces of a powdered low-grade coal, the adhesion between fine particles of coal to briquetting increases, and the strength of briquettes solids may be increased.

The present invention was carried out on the basis of these facts. In one aspect the present invention relates to a method for producing a solid fuel, the method includes a step of grinding low-grade coal; the stage of preparation of a suspension by mixing shredded low-grade coal oil solvent; the stage of evaporation of water from the slurry by heating the slurry to the boiling point of water or more; a step for fine coal PU is eating oil separation of the solvent from the suspension; and the stage briquetting of fine coal, which by heating the suspension to the boiling point of water or higher, a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal, oil extracted by solvent and extracted a non-volatile component covers the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of the pores of low-grade coal, and

the content of externally added heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% relative to the dried solid fuel.

The present invention also relates to a solid fuel obtained by briquetting powdered low-grade coal, in which the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of the pores of low-grade coal is covered with a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal and the heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% relatively solid fuel.

The beneficial effects of the present invention

According to the present invention, a non-volatile component originally contained in low-grade coal is dissolved in a high-temperature oil, and this component can act as an alternative to the heavy oil. Thus, it can be reduced the share of externally added heavy oil; can be lowered production is atrata; can be reduced negative impact on the environment. In addition, according to the present invention, as described above, the share of added heavy oil can be reduced, as heavy oil reduces the adhesion between fine particles of coal. As a result, the strength of briquetted solid fuel may be increased.

Accordingly, the present invention can provide a method of obtaining improved solid fuel, which reduced production costs, reduced load on the environment, and the strength of solid fuels increased for transportation or the like; and improved solid fuel obtained according to the method.

Brief description of drawings

[Figure 1]. 1 shows a diagram of a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention.

[Figure 2]. Figure 2 presents a diagram illustrating an example of the device for improved solid fuel, which uses a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention.

[Figure 3]. Figure 3 given a graph of changes in the content of the nonvolatile component of coal, dissolved in kerosene.

[Figure 4]. Figure 4 shows the diagram of a method in steady state.

[Figure 5]. Figure 5 presents a graph showing the relationship between the mass fraction (in PR is cents relatively dehydrated coal) (wt.%) heavy oils (in particular, asphalt) and the strength of the briquettes (kg weight).

The list of references

1. The mixing tank

2. Pump

3. Heater

4. Heater

5. Gas-liquid separator

6. Pump

7. Vaporizer

8. Compressor

9. Separator oil - water

10. Centrifugal separator

11. Screw press

12. Drying

13. Capacitor

14. Pump

15. Cooler

16. Heater

The best way of implementing the present invention

Hereinafter will be considered in detail a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention and improved solid fuel obtained by this method, with reference to the drawings. However, embodiments of the invention, described below, are examples of the present invention and may not be considered as limiting the present invention. It should be noted that the common parts or components in the drawings are marked according to the list of references and further descriptions are omitted.

(The first variant implementation of the present invention)

A method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention includes grinding of low-grade coal; receipt of a suspension by mixing the pulverized low-grade coal oil solvent; evaporating water from the slurry by heating the slurry to the point of boil the water or above; production of fine coal by separating the oil solvent from the suspension and briquetting of fine coal, where the heating of the suspension to the boiling point of water or above a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal is extracted an oil solvent, and extracted a non-volatile component covers the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of the pores of low-grade coal, and the content of externally added heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% relative to the dried solid fuel (i.e. relative to the dehydrated coal).

In a method of producing a solid fuel according to the present invention, the oil mixed with crushed low-grade coal, which acts as an oil solvent; a non-volatile component originally contained in low-grade coal, extracted oil at a high temperature; and a non-volatile component acts as an alternative to heavy oil. Accordingly, the share of externally added heavy oil can be reduced. In addition, although the number of added heavy oil is reduced, a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal, is used as an alternative, and non-volatile component covers the active sites in the pores nismart is on coal. Thus, it can be prevented spontaneous combustion, as in cases, when added to heavy oil. In addition, the method for producing a solid fuel according to the present invention, the proportion of such added heavy oil can be reduced, since the heavy oil reduces the adhesion between fine particles of coal. Thus, it can be increased the strength of the briquettes solid.

Figure 1 presents the diagram of a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention. A method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention will be discussed with reference to figure 1. Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating an example of the device for improved solid fuel, which is a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention. A method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention includes a step of grinding low-grade coal and slurry preparation; stage dehydration; phase separation solid - liquid stage and briquetting. In addition, this method may further include stage cooling for cooling the dried solid content between phase separation solid - liquid and stage preforming.

Stage floor is placed a suspension of pulverized low-grade coal corresponds to the mixing section in the diagram, shown in figure 1, and is carried out in a mixing tank 1 in the apparatus for producing an improved solid fuel figure 2. Stage of dehydration, and corresponds to the section of dehydration in the diagram shown in figure 1, and is held in the evaporator 7 and the gas-liquid separator 5 is in production the device in figure 2. Phase separation solid - liquid corresponds to the sections of the separation of solid - liquid (mechanical separation and thermal separation) in the diagram shown in figure 1, and is held in a mechanical separator, the solid - liquid (centrifugal separator) 10, a screw press 11 and drying 12 in the manufacturing device of figure 2. Stage briquetting corresponds to the section in the framework of this scheme, shown in figure 1, and is held in device for briquetting (not shown) in a production device. Apparatus for producing an improved solid fuel, which is a method of obtaining improved solid fuel according to the present invention includes a mixing tank 1, in which the oil mixture containing oil solvent, is mixed with low-grade coal with obtaining suspensions of raw materials; the evaporator 7 and the gas-liquid separator 5 in which the slurry of the raw material is processed to the evaporation of water; mechanical separator of solid washes the in - liquid (centrifugal separator) 10, a screw press 11 and drying 12, in which the suspension is subjected to processing for evaporation of water, is subjected to separation of solid - liquid; and a device for briquetting (not shown), in which the dry solid fuel in powder form priceterms obtaining briquettes solid fuel.

Hereinafter, the stage will be discussed in detail.

1. Stage grinding of low-grade coal and receive suspensions

As shown in figures 1 and 2, low-grade coal used as raw material is crushed and then transported to the mix section, i.e. in the mixing tank 1. Shredded low-grade coal is mixed with oil containing an oil solvent in a mixing tank 1 with obtaining suspensions of raw materials. Can use different oils as the oil solvent, mixed with low-grade coal, if from low-grade coal these oils can be extracted non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal. Oil solvent, preferably, is boiling the oil in mind compatibility with non-volatile component and heavy oil, ease of handling suspension, ease of penetration into the pores, and the like. In view of the stability of the temperature of evaporation of water from the oil solvent in a suitable manner is the miner is inoe oil, having a boiling point of 100°C. or higher, and more preferably 400°C. or less. Examples of this mineral oils include kerosene, light oil and heavy oil. As an alternative, can be used coal liquid. Preferably, can be used kerosene.

Despite the fact that oil solvent may contain heavy oil, it is important that the amount of heavy oil, added by loading oil in the mixing tank 1, was adjusted so that the adhesive quantity of heavy oil solid fuel (i.e. evaporative treatment residue generated during the separation of solid - liquid, drying) is less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% regarding dried low-grade coal (enhanced coal), solid fuel, i.e. the percentage relative to the dehydrated coal.

As shown in figure 1, oil and the like, extracted in section dewatering section separation solid - liquid (mechanical separation) and section separation solid - liquid (thermal separation) can be recycled in the form of circulating oil in the mix section. Oil solvent and heavy oil can be added to the circulating oil. In this case, as in the above case is, it is also important that the number of added heavy oil was adjusted so that the adhesion amount of heavy oil in solid fuel (i.e. obtained by evaporating the treatment residue generated during the separation of solid - liquid, drying) is less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% regarding dried low-grade coal (enhanced coal), solid fuel, i.e. the percentage relative to the dehydrated coal.

In the present invention the term "low-grade coal refers to coal that contains a large amount of water and preferably dried, for example, coal, which contains at least 20 wt.% water relative to the dried coal. Naturally, this low-grade coal can contain high-grade coal and the like. Examples of this low-grade coal includes lignite, lignite and sub-bituminous coal. Examples of brown coal includes coal Victoria, North Dakota coal and coal Beluga. Examples of sub-bituminous coal includes coal West Banko, Binungan coal and coal Samarangau. Low-grade coal is not limited to the above examples, and low-grade coal according to the present invention covers any coal with a high content of water and preferably dehydrated.

In the present invention the term "non-volatile component which denotes a non-volatile oil, which originally contained in low-grade coal, and after extraction covers the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of the pores of low-grade coal. Thus, a non-volatile component covers the active sites in the pores of low-grade coal and, therefore, suppresses the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion. An example of such a non-volatile component is an aromatic organic polymeric compound.

In the present invention, the term "heavy oil" means heavy fraction, which is essentially no vapor pressure at, for example, 400°C., such as residual oil vacuum distillation or oil containing such a heavy fraction. As a non-volatile component, heavy oil has the function of covering the active sites in the pores of low-grade coal and, therefore, prevent spontaneous combustion. Examples of such heavy oils include petroleum bitumen, natural asphalt, aliphatic organic polymer compound, and an aromatic organic polymer compound.

In the present invention, the term "oil-solvent" refers to oil that can dissolve heavy oil with a viscosity reduction of heavy oil, thus facilitating the introduction of heavy oil in the pores of low-grade coal, and which can be extracted non-volatile component from low-grade coal is. This oil solvent can dissolve non-volatile component with a decrease in the viscosity of the non-volatile component, to thereby facilitate the introduction of non-volatile component in the pores of low-grade coal.

However, when the solid fuel in powder form pictires, this heavy oil reduces the mechanical strength of the briquettes solid fuel. Accordingly, the amount of heavy oil preferably should be small as possible. As described above, the number of added heavy oil is preferably regulated so that the adhesion amount of heavy oil in solid fuel (i.e. evaporative processing residue obtained by separation of solid - liquid, drying) was less than 0.5 wt.%, preferably essentially 0 wt.% regarding dried low-grade coal (enhanced coal), solid fuel (relative to the dehydrated coal). Figure 5 shows the relationship between mass fraction (percentage relative to the dehydrated coal) (wt.%) heavy oils (in particular, bitumen) and the strength of the briquettes (kg-mass). The x-axis shows the mass fraction (percentage relative to the dehydrated coal) (wt.%) heavy oils (in particular, bitumen). The y-axis represents the strength of the briquettes (kg-m is SS). As shown in figure 5, when the adhesion amount of heavy oil in the solid fuel from 0 to 0.5 wt.% strength briquetted solid fuel may range from approximately 68 kg mass to approximately 87 kg-mass. In particular, when the adhesion amount is 0 wt.%, strength briquetted solid fuel is the highest and is approximately 87 kg mass that is preferred. When bitterbynde solid fuel forms a powder, the probability of contact between the active centers of solid fuel and air is increased, and there arises a problem of increase in the risk of spontaneous combustion. However, as described above, when the strength of a briquetted solid fuel increases with increase of the adhesion amount of heavy oil from 0 to 0.5 wt.%, spontaneous combustion can be suppressed.

Type mixing tank according to the present invention does not specifically limited, and may apply different mixing tank. However, in General, it is preferable to use an axial mixer or the like.

At the stage of grinding low-grade coal and the manufacture of suspension the suspension of the raw material can be obtained by mixing shredded low-grade coal with oil containing an oil solvent.

2. Stage of dehydration

Thus prepared suspe the Zia raw material is supplied to the heaters 3 and 4 of the pump 2 and is pre-heated by the heaters 3 and 4. Thereafter, the slurry raw material is heated in the evaporator 7. In the evaporator 7 flows dehydration oil under pressure from 1 to 40 atmospheres (preferably, from 2 to 5 atmospheres) and when heated to a temperature of from 100°C. to 250°C. (preferably, from 120°C to 160°C). In the evaporator 7, the slurry raw material is heated to the boiling point of water or higher, as described above, and, as a result, the moisture is removed, and a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal, oil is extracted by solvent contained in the slurry of raw materials. Thus, a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal is extracted, and a non-volatile component works as an alternative to the heavy oil. Accordingly, as described above, the number of added heavy oil may be reduced.

Thus, the suspension of the raw material enters the gas-liquid separator 5, and the water in the slurry raw material is removed in the form of moisture in a gas-liquid separator 5. After separation of the moisture from the slurry withdrawn from the bottom and is fed into the centrifugal separator 10 by the pump 6. Part branches off in an intermediate position of the transport line, is heated while passing through the evaporator 7, and then flows back into the gas-liquid separator 5. The pressure of the vapor phase fraction obtained in the separation of moisture formed in the evaporator 7, a gas-liquid separator, increases the I when passing through the compressor 8, a generated thermal energy is used for heating the slurry in the evaporator 7, so as to dehydrate the slurry in oil. Vapor phase fraction is then supplied to the heater 3, used as a source of pre-heating the slurry raw material, and then subjected to separation of oil-water separator 9 oil - water. The obtained water is drained. The oil collected in the separation of oil - water, is returned to the mixing tank 1 and re-used.

At the stage of dehydration, because spend processing dewatering, slurry raw material is to be heated to the boiling point of water or higher. In addition, as should be extracted and the extraction of non-volatile component with an oil solvent contained in the slurry raw slurry raw material is preferably heated to 100°C. or higher. For the evaporation of water at normal pressure it requires heating to at least 100°C. However, to reduce the size of the device operation can be carried out at a pressure higher than normal. As a result, decreases the volume of the vapor phase. To make the size of the compressor reasonable method may be carried out at a pressure higher than normal. When the pressure increases as increases and the boiling point of water, the heating temperature should be 100°C or higher. For example, when the operation wire is camping at a pressure of 0.4 MPa, it requires heating to 145°C. or higher to evaporate water. However, when the temperature is increased to optional high magnitude, evaporates not only water but also oil the solvent. In the way you want to reduce oil evaporation of the solvent as possible. Accordingly, it is reasonable to perform the operation at a temperature a few degrees Celsius above the boiling point of water at operating pressure. It should be noted that due to the extraction of non-volatile component of coal preferred higher temperatures.

The type of evaporator 7 according to the present invention does not specifically limited, and can be used in various evaporators: for example, heating the evaporator, decompression evaporator, heating decompression evaporator and the like. For example, can be used evaporator flash evaporation, screw evaporator, vertical tube evaporator with forced circulation or the like. In General, for example, it is preferable to use the evaporator with forced circulation, equipped with a heat exchanger.

As described above, at the stage of dehydration water contained in the low-grade coal is evaporated to remove the moisture, and a non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal, oil is extracted by solvent, terashima suspension of raw materials.

3. Phase separation solid - liquid

As described above, after treatment with the evaporation of water, the suspension is treated with the evaporation of water entering the section of the separation of solid - liquid (mechanical separation) and undergoes separation into solid and liquid by a mechanical separator, the solid - liquid. The type of the mechanical separator, the solid - liquid does not specifically limited, and may use different separators: for example, a centrifugal separator, compressor, tank, filter and the like. In the present embodiment of the invention will first be concentrating on the first centrifugal separator 10, and then is compressed by a screw press 11. However, it can only be used centrifugal separator or a screw press. Instead of the centrifugal separator can be applied sedimentation. Instead of compression can be used for vacuum filtration. The oil obtained by separating the solid - liquid can be returned as a circulating oil in the mixing tank 1.

Separated thus solid (residue) enters the section separation solid - liquid (thermal separation) and heated in a drying 12 in a stream of carrier gas, so in order to soar oil. The result is a solid fuel.

At the stage of thermal separation of the surface of the coal, and pores of the coal covered by the non-volatile component. In particular, when the oil evaporates the solvent, non-volatile component (heavy oil)contained in coal, does not evaporate and therefore remains on the surface of the coal and in the pores of the coal.

The drying is preferably carried out by a process in the fluidized bed or a process using a drum dryer. The oil that came and was separated by a carrier gas, can be loaded into the condenser 13, is collected as an oil, and then returned as a lubricating oil in the mixing tank 1.

As described above, at the stage of separation of solid - liquid suspension is separated into solid and liquid in a mechanical separator, the solid - liquid and oil contained in the solid substance to be evaporated in the dryer. As a result, can be derived solid fuel in powder form.

4. Stage briquetting

The thus obtained solid fuel in the form of powder comes out of the dryer section briquetting and priceterms using a briquetting device (not shown) in the solid fuel briquettes. Examples of these devices include briquetting device for tabletting (tableting) and double-roll device is on for briquetting (roller press). In General, it is preferable to use the two-shaft device for briquetting. At the stage of briquetting may receive briquetted solid fuel.

According to the above method, although the number of added heavy oil is reduced, spontaneous combustion can be suppressed, as in cases, when added to heavy oil, and can be increased strength briquettes solid.

Examples

Example 1: consider the properties of the non-volatile component contained in the low-grade coal

It was reported that when the coal dehydrate the oil by introducing a non-volatile heavy oils such as bitumen, coal, bitumen effectively sticks to the pores of the coal, and suppressed spontaneous combustion (Japan patent No. 2776278).

The authors of the present invention believe that as a non-volatile component, which is part of the coal is dissolved in a high-temperature oil and is extracted, dissolved non-volatile component acts as an alternative to bitumen.

Then measured the solubility of coal (Indonesian brown coal) in the high-temperature oil solvent (kerosene). Were carried out the following steps.

1) Powdered coal (the number of particles having a diameter of 1 mm or more was 10 wt.% or less) was mixed with kerosene in the bottom is Albe at room temperature.

2) a round Bottom flask was placed in a heater, and the sample was gradually heated to 140°C for 2 hours. At the same time that the atmosphere in a round bottom flask was inert, filed gaseous nitrogen at 200 cm3/min. in Addition, at the same time the water evaporated from the coal, was given in the form of moisture from the upper part of the round-bottom flask, are condensed in the tube refrigerator and taken out in the form of liquid (water) from the system. Sample round-bottom flask was kept at a temperature of 140°C for one hour.

3) Then a sample of the round-bottom flask was filtered under pressure (under the pressure of the gaseous nitrogen 0.1 MPa) at a high temperature to separate the sample on a solid phase and a liquid phase.

4) the Separated liquid phase was gradually cooled, placed in the flask distillation equipment was subjected to distillation under reduced pressure under the conditions described below, evaporation and output of kerosene of the system. Collected residue after evaporation, that is, a non-volatile component of coal, dissolved in kerosene.

Pressure: 10 mmHg

Heating rate: 2°C/min

Final temperature: 159°C (after reaching the final temperature, the temperature is maintained until the termination of dampness: 60 minutes)

Figure 3 shows the results of measurements: s/c shows the ratio of the mass bathed in kerosene to the mass of coal (wyso the Enen); and the percentage reduction in the mass of coal shows a mass proportion of the component dissolved in kerosene, relative to the dry weight of the loaded coal. As shown in figure 3, it was found that at least 1% of the coal feedstock is dissolved in kerosene at 140°C.

For another coal was also found that at least 1% of the coal feedstock is dissolved in kerosene at 140°C.

The coal component dissolved in kerosene, was non-volatile heavy oil and had properties very similar to the properties of such heavy oils as bitumen, which is added from the outside in existing technologies. Accordingly, it was found that the way to improve low-grade coal can be carried out without the addition of heavy oil from the outside.

Example 2: on the technological scheme

Next, figure 4 shows an example of the technological scheme in a stationary mode together with the material balance. Numerical values in figure 4 indicate the mass flow rate. DC denotes the dehydrated coal; SC is a non-volatile component contained in the coal; W denotes water and refers to kerosene. In kerosene can be dissolved in approximately 1% of the coal feedstock, and the concentration increases in circulating kerosene. In the section of dehydration in high-temperature kerosene dissolves 1% coal. In section separation solid - liquid (m is a mechanical separation) part kerosene remains on the surface and in the pores of the coal. Kerosene contains approximately 3% of the coal component, which can be dissolved in kerosene, then there is a non-volatile component contained in the coal. Thus, in the next section, the separation of solid - liquid (thermal separation) until the kerosene evaporates and is separated, non-volatile component of coal, which can be dissolved in kerosene, remains on the surface and in the pores of the coal.

According to existing technology heavy component (bitumen) is added to prevent spontaneous combustion of the coal product. Accordingly, for example, the mass fraction remaining in the product component is less than 1 wt.%. Then, to provide another product with the same quality product leave about 1 wt.% coal non-volatile component, which can be dissolved in kerosene.

To achieve this, stage mechanical separation of solid - liquid (centrifugal separation) figure 4 carried out so that in the solid phase mass ratio of dehydrated coal (DC) to the non-volatile component (SC), which can be dissolved in kerosene, was 99:1. At the same time, the mass ratio of the non-volatile component to kerosene in suspension, filed on stage mechanical separation of solid - liquid (centrifugal separation) was 4.5:157, that is, about 3:100. Accordingly the state, when the ratio of the dehydrated coal to kerosene in the solid phase is about 99:33 (99:34,5 figure 4), the mass ratio of the dehydrated coal, kerosene and coal non-volatile component is 99:33:1. For the solid phase contained in kerosene, when almost all of the kerosene evaporates and is separated at the next stage heating (stage drying), a non-volatile component, which can be dissolved in kerosene, is heavy and, therefore, is not separated and remains on the surface of the coal. In a centrifugal separator continuous parameters, which mainly determine the ability to separation of the solid phase and the liquid phase from each other, are speed and average duration of stay. The greater the number of turns and the longer average duration of stay, the smaller amount of liquid phase remains in the solid phase. Centrifugal separators continuous action can be of various sizes and types, and the number of revolutions and the average time to achieve the desired degree of separation of solid - liquid change and cannot be defined in a General manner. However, in the present invention when carrying out the separation of solid - liquid, as described above, approximately 1 wt.% non-volatile component may remain in the dehydrated coal, and adding heavy oil can before occhialino to exclude.

Example 3: the strength of a briquetted solid fuel

On existing technology (Japan patent No. 2776278) add at least 0.5 wt.% heavy oil in percent by weight relative to the dehydrated coal.

As the heavy oil was selected bitumen, and improved low-grade coal (Indonesian brown coal), by changing the mass fraction of bitumen (relative to the dehydrated coal). After that we got a solid fuel in the form of pellets using a twin roll briquetting device (205, produced by Furukawa Otsuka Co., Ltd.). Speed twin roll briquetting device was set at 8 rpm Strength was measured by measuring the crushing strength (XA-500, produced by Otsuka Co., Ltd.).

The results are shown in figure 5. Figure 5 presents a graph showing the relationship between mass fraction (percentage relative to the dehydrated coal) (wt.%) heavy oils (in particular, bitumen) and the strength of the briquettes (kg-mass). The x-axis shows the mass fraction (relative to the dehydrated coal) (wt.%) heavy oils (in particular, bitumen). The ordinate axis shows the strength of the briquettes (kg-mass). As shown in figure 5, when determining the adhesion quantity of the heavy oil in solid fuel level from 0 to 0.5 wt.% strength briquetted solid fuel may leave from approximately 68 kg mass to approximately 87 kg-mass. In particular, when the adhesion amount is 0 wt.%, strength briquetted solid fuel is approximately 87 kg-mass. When bitterbynde solid fuel forms a powder, the probability of contact between the active centers of solid fuel and air is increased, and there arises a problem of increase in the risk of spontaneous combustion. However, as described above, when the strength of a briquetted solid fuel is increased by setting the number of heavy oil from 0 to 0.5 wt.%, spontaneous combustion can be suppressed. In figure 5 it is established that the smaller mass fraction of bitumen, the higher the strength of the briquettes; and, in particular, the maximum strength is achieved at 0 wt.%, when the bitumen is added. To increase the strength of the briquettes, the adhesion between fine particles of coal, subject to briquetting, should preferably be high. However, bitumen adheres to the surface of coal, and, as a result, adhesion, likely reduced. Although the detailed mechanism is not clear, it can be assumed that the bitumen is petroleum-based (aliphatic class) and, therefore, has a low compatibility (adhesion) with coal (aromatic class.

1. Solid fuel obtained by briquetting powdered low-grade coal,
where the outer surface of the low-grade coal and the inner surface of the pores of discolor the aqueous coal covered with a non-volatile component, contained in low-grade coal and the heavy oil is less than 0.5 wt.% relatively solid fuel.

2. Solid fuel according to claim 1, where the solid fuel is essentially not contain heavy oil.



 

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1 cl, 1 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of making fuel briquettes, which involves mixing carbon filler with ground coal, adding a binding substance and briquetting the mixture under pressure. The carbon filler, which is in form of aluminium wastes, anode paste and electrodes in amount of 25.1-85.00 wt %, is dry-mixed with ground brown coal until a 100% dry mass is obtained, followed by addition of the binding substance to the dry mass. The binding substance used is bitumen or polyvinyl alcohol in amount of 2-10 wt %, in excess of 100% of the dry mass. If polyvinyl alcohol is used as the binder, hydrophobic additives are added to the obtained mixture in amount of 1-5 wt %, in excess of 100% of the obtained mixture.

EFFECT: improved properties.

3 cl, 3 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fuel additive based on aliphatic alcohols, carbamide (urea) and water, characterised by that it further contains boric acid, with the following ratio of components, wt %: C2-C4 aliphatic alcohols 10-97.99; carbamide (urea) 1-30; boric acid 0.01-3; water 1-85. The invention also relates to a fuel composition based on liquid or solid fuel with addition of said additive in amount of 0.0001-0.1 wt %.

EFFECT: additive improves the fuel combustion process, has high solubility in any type of fuel and high catalytic capabilities; due to its high efficiency, the additive can be added to fuel in a concentration which is several times lower than that of similar additives.

4 cl, 4 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining improved solid fuel by crushing low-grade coal, mixing the crushed low-grade coal with oily solvent so that s suspension is obtained, heating the suspension at least to the water boiling point for water evaporation with evaporation of moisture contained in the suspension, separating the oily solvent from the suspension so that pulverised coal is obtained; at that, the oil obtained by solid substance-fluid separation can be returned as a circulating oil, briquetting fine coal and heating the suspension at least to the water boiling point, non-volatile components contained in low-grade coal are extracted with an oily solvent, and outside surface of low-grade coal and inside surfaces of pores of low-grade coal are covered with extracted non-volatile components, and content of added heavy oil will be less than 0.5 wt % and preferably 0% relative to the solid fuel weight after the drying process is completed.

EFFECT: reduction of manufacturing costs and load on the environment; high strength for transportation and improved solid fuel.

1 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method to produce briquette fuel includes stages for preparation of initial components, mixing, pressing and drying. Components used are a carbon-containing material, such brown coal medium-temperature coke of the initial grain-size composition, a mineral binder, such as subcoal aleurolite, a strengthening modifier, such a 3% aqueous solution of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or an aqueous solution of 10% flour paste, a hydrophobe modifier, such as fuel oil of M100 grade and water, at the following ratio of components, wt %: mineral binder - 1-10; strengthening modifier - 1-30; hydrophobe modifier - 1-10; water - 1-30; carbon-containing material - balance. After mixing of components the briquette mass is pressed into briquettes under pressure of 20-200 MPa, and then briquettes are dried at the temperature 100-250°C.

EFFECT: method improvement.

4 cl, 15 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method for production of coal briquettes from coal slurry and coal fines with a binder - an aqueous solution of polyelectrolyte - a flocculant on the basis of a polyacrylamide (PAA). As an intensifying additive to increase adhesion as a charge is compressed in process of pressing, the initial solution of PAA is complemented with water-soluble surfactants from the class of polyethers based on propylene glycol. Coal briquettes are used for communal-domestic and technological purposes.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of application.

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to fuel briquette that contains coke and anthracite fines, molasses as binding agent and additional binding agent - industrial vegetable oil. At that, briquettes have cylindrical shape with the following dimensions: diameter x height - 100x100 or 110x110 or 120x120 mm. The invention also refers to the method for obtaining fuel briquettes, which involves dosing, mixing of coke and anthracite fines and binding agent - molasses, briquetting of mixture under pressure of 35-50 MPa and drying of briquettes, and which differs by the fact that industrial vegetable oil is added to molasses prior to dosing at the following ratio of molasses : oil, wt %: 9-12 : 0.5-2; briquettes are arranged on trolleys and drying is performed at continuous discrete trolley movement (every 10 minutes) through the distance equal to the length of one trolley; at that, temperature vs. time drying mode is characterised with three stages: first stage - 100-300°C during 40 minutes, the second stage - 380-200°C during 100 minutes, the third stage - 200-100°C; besides, drying of briquettes at the first stage is performed with opposite flow in relation to trolley movement, and with cocurrent flow of drying agent at the second and the third stages.

EFFECT: improvement of the method.

5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: flaky fuel briquette comprises the main part, including coal and a binder, and an ignition part, and has longitudinal holes in the entire volume of the briquette. The ignition part is located on the end surface of the briquette coaxially with holes in such a manner that the larger part of the all holes cross section is on the ignition part. The area of the ignition part cross section is less than the area of the briquette cross section and is made as increasing from the end surface of the briquette to its centre. At the same time the ignition part may be made in the form of a truncated cone, in the form of coaxial cylinders contacting with each other, besides, the smaller cylinder is arranged one above the other or in the form of a voluminous multiple-beam star.

EFFECT: reliable ignition and burning of the ignition and main parts, higher reliability of adhesion between the main and the ignition parts, the fuel briquette differs with high completeness of fuel mass burning and low hazardous emissions to the atmosphere.

4 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: procedure for fabrication of briquettes consists in preparation of raw materials, in loading into briquetting device, in briquetting and in briquettes drying. As carbon containing materials there is used peat and/or plant residues and/or wood wastes. Raw material is prepared in a disk extruder at temperature 70-100°C and humidity 45-60 %.

EFFECT: production of briquetted fuel from various kinds of carbon containing materials possessing high qualitative indices; reduced expenditures for production.

2 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: briquette consists of a pressed lignocellulose body, containing: (a) 60-90 wt % cuttings of grass stalks and (b) 10-40 wt % scutched lignocellulose binder with degree of scutching of 38-75°RS (Shopper-Rigler degrees), preferably 45 70°RS, (said percentages being expressed in dry weight relative the dry weight of the sum of (a) and (b)) and from fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having a flash point of 30-150°C, which saturates the pressed lignocellulose body, wherein said briquette has a substantially cylindrical shape and has a central smoke conduit with a star-shaped cross-section. The method of making the briquettes comprises the following steps: (1) mixing an aqueous suspension of lignocellulose binder (b) with cuttings of grass stalks (a) in such proportions that the ratio (per dry weight) of the lignocellulose binder (b) to the cuttings of the grass stalks (a) ranges from 10/90 to 40/60; (2) moulding the mixture obtained in a suitable unit of the mould (encircling part)-anti-mould (encircled part) type at temperature of 40-120°C at pressure of 3-12 bar, applied for 5-120 s; (3) removing the obtained pressed body from the press mould; and (4) saturating the pressed body removed from the press mould with fuel which is liquid at room temperature, having flash point of 30-150°C.

EFFECT: obtaining a solid fuel briquette with low weight and a shape which provides multiple points of ignition, concealed inside the central smoke conduit.

15 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of BREC produced by stiff vacuum extrusion.Said process comprises coke fines, mineral binder and, if required, brown-coal char to be used as reducer in metallurgical furnace. Mineral binder in production of BREC is normally a cement and, if required, bentonite. Particle size of materials of the mix for BREC production does not exceed 5 mm, BREC weight not exceeding 0.3 kg.

EFFECT: optimum size, higher cold and hot strength.

3 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to production of fuel pellets including mixing of filler that contains wood processing waste, combustible component in the form of oil waste and binding agent where fat and oil waste from food industry are also used as combustible component and such combustible component serves simultaneously as binding agent; powdered thickener from combustible material is added to the mixture, at that at first mixing of thickener and binding agent is made in ratio of 0.2-1.0:1 during 1.5-2 minutes in order to thicken the latter, thereafter filler is introduced step-by-step into the thickened mixture and filler takes ratio of 0.5-1.0:1 to the binding agent, then mixture is stirred during 35-40 minutes till pellets of stable shape appear; then thickener is added again in quality of 10-20% of its initial weight in order to prevent sticking of pellets and the mixture is stirred for another 2-4 minutes till finished product of round pellets is received. Received fuel pellets are used for household and municipal boilers for firing up purpose.

EFFECT: claimed method is simpler, more cost effective and ecologically safe.

15 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of making fuel briquettes involves grinding combustible solid components, mixing with binder, pressing and drying the briquettes. The method is characterised by that the combustible solid components used are recycled ballistit-type gun powder or non-recoverable wastes from powder production, ground on a modernised disk mill to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and activated charcoal screenings, ground on a double-roll crusher to particle size of less than 4.0 mm, and mixed in 8.0-10.0% aqueous solution of polyacrylamide binder or a sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose in a continuous or periodic action mixing device with horizontal mixers, followed by pressing into fuel briquettes on a shaft pelleting press; the formed briquettes are dried with air on a three-section belt drier at temperature 100…105°C for 3 hours, cooled and then dry-cured for three days.

EFFECT: wider raw material base for making fuel briquettes, environmentally safe recycling of discarded gun powder, ballistit wastes and activated charcoal screenings not suitable for use as an adsorbent, high energy output and calorific capacity of the fuel briquettes.

1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to briquetted solid fuel, which contains activated charcoal screenings and ballistit powder wastes which do not contain heavy metal salts and other environmentally hazardous components, ground to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and polyacrylamide as binder, with the following ratio of components, wt %: activated charcoal screenings - 75…86, ballistit powder wastes - 10…20, polyacrylamide - 4…5. The invention enables to comprehensively solve the problem of the environment, saving energy resources and recycling potentially hazardous high-energy substances.

EFFECT: solid fuel has higher flammability, low ash content and high calorific capacity.

1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: briquetted solid fuel contains activated charcoal screenings and expired ballistit powder, ground to particle size of 0.5-1.0 mm, and polyacrylamide as binder, with the following ratio of components, wt %: activated charcoal screenings - 75…86, expired ballistit powder - 10…20, polyacrylamide - 4…5.

EFFECT: fuel has high calorific capacity, high flammability coupled with low ash content and satisfactory mechanical properties of the briquetted solid fuel during use.

1 tbl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to usage of an extrusion-type briquette (BREX) produced by the method of stiff vacuum extrusion, including coal dressing wastes and, if required, coal siftings, a mineral binder and a concrete stone, as fuel for industrial furnaces and domestic ovens. BREX briquettes are characterised by the fact that size of materials included into a mixture for production of briquettes does not exceed 5 mm.

EFFECT: application of stiff vacuum extrusion makes it possible to produce BREX briquettes with sufficient strength and optimal dimensions for solid fuel, with minimum consumption of a binder.

3 cl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pulverised coal fuel for blast-furnace smelting from carbon-containing finely ground starting material which is a product with output of volatile substances of up to 25% in amount of (3-100) wt %, obtained via slow semicoking of black oil; the fuel contains a desulphurising agent, wherein the carbon-containing finely ground starting material and desulphurising agent are in the following ratio: carbon-containing finely ground material - (90-99) wt %; desulphurising agent - (10-1) wt %.

EFFECT: using pulverised fuel in the energy field and ferrous metallurgy, specifically in the process of blast-furnace production of cast iron, increases efficiency of the blast-furnace process and improves environmental friendliness of the blast-furnace process, widens the raw material base used the pulverised fuel associated with the blast-furnace process.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex, 3 tbl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to production of solid fuel, in which there described is solid-fuel granulated composition based on carbon-containing component, where as carbon-containing component, there added is disperse activated product of low-temperature pyrolysis of wastes of technical rubber products and polymer wastes (pyrocarbon with specific surface S=5000-8000 cm2/g), and wood dust is added as plant waste. At that, as the component that initiates combustion, there added are nitrogen-containing components, and binding agent is added in the form of water solution of polymer plasticising additive with total initial humidity Winitial =10÷35 wt %. Peculiar feature of granulated solid-fuel composition and method for its obtainment is increase in thermal power due to considerable acceleration of fuel combustion at reduced quantity of hazardous gaseous emission to atmosphere. Proposed ratios of components and added quantity of NH4NO3 as an oxidiser instead of hydrogen at combustion provides formation of NO3, N2 and H2O. Excess oxygen is supplied to oxidation of fuel components.

EFFECT: obtaining fuel briquettes with high reactivity ability, increased thermal power and high strength of briquettes.

2 cl, 4 cl

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a method for obtaining improved solid fuel by crushing low-grade coal, mixing the crushed low-grade coal with oily solvent so that s suspension is obtained, heating the suspension at least to the water boiling point for water evaporation with evaporation of moisture contained in the suspension, separating the oily solvent from the suspension so that pulverised coal is obtained; at that, the oil obtained by solid substance-fluid separation can be returned as a circulating oil, briquetting fine coal and heating the suspension at least to the water boiling point, non-volatile components contained in low-grade coal are extracted with an oily solvent, and outside surface of low-grade coal and inside surfaces of pores of low-grade coal are covered with extracted non-volatile components, and content of added heavy oil will be less than 0.5 wt % and preferably 0% relative to the solid fuel weight after the drying process is completed.

EFFECT: reduction of manufacturing costs and load on the environment; high strength for transportation and improved solid fuel.

1 cl, 2 ex, 5 dwg

FIELD: alternate fuels.

SUBSTANCE: metallothermal fuel used to produce heat in household ovens, heat-and-power plant furnaces, in marine furnaces, and the like contains 40-45% ferric oxide, 20-22% aluminum powder, 30-35% alumina, and the rest: hydrolyzed ethyl silicate.

EFFECT: when fabricated in the form of 50-70 g briquettes, metallothermal fuel requires 9-11 times less expenses per equivalent heat production as compared to common physical fuel.

2 tbl

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