Structural formwork block for openings

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: structural formwork block for openings from fine-grained or other material close in properties comprises parallel external face and rear longitudinal walls connected by three partitions. Longitudinal walls and connecting partitions are combined with a common spatial reinforcement frame, at the same time one of extreme partitions is concreted, the middle one is represented in the form of a rectangular wooden spacer shifted to the centre of the block by depth equal to its thickness, and its ends reaching external surfaces of the block are jammed and anchors in longitudinal walls and may serve for fixation of finishing materials.

EFFECT: reduced material and labour inputs for formwork works, increased solidity, earthquake stability, heat and sound insulation properties of walls in buildings and structures, improved quality of works.

2 cl, 3 dwg

 

The level of technology

The invention relates to the field of construction insulated and cold walls of buildings and constructions, frames window openings, built-in reinforced concrete frames, as well as foundations, columns, beams, retaining walls in reinforced concrete design structural formwork blocks, which are part of set of 4 types: 1 - ordinary (patent No. 2392394 from 20.06.2010 g), 2 - proemnyh, 3 - angled, 4 - window-prostenochnyj.

Characterization of analogs and prototypes

Known hollow block precast-monolithic structures SU (II) 1346742 A1 4 E04C 1/08, 1/10, publ. 23.10.87, including longitudinal and the transverse wall bounding an internal cavity and having locking tabs on the outer faces of the transverse walls, it has a bottom. The total area of the holes in the bottom is 30÷80% of the area of the bottom. The transverse wall above have one slot for the passage of the horizontal reinforcement. To skip the vertical rods of the reinforcement at the corners of the bottom is provided with four holes. Cavity blocks filled with concrete or foamed insulating mixture.

The disadvantages of this unit include:

- the complexity of manufacturing units;

- a block of concrete with no reinforcement of output terminals in the cavities;

- the transverse wall and the bottom prevent the installation of units with cobl the vision of terms of the displacement of the top number on half of the block, when they are installed between terminals vertical reinforcing walls, the bottom of which opened in the basement, and the top is designed to be embedded in seismos at the level of overlap of the upstream floor.

- the presence of the bottom while concreting multiple series does not allow to produce high-quality compaction of concrete;

transverse partition block is shared by a concrete wall on many isolated areas, reducing their solidity;

block walls can be used only as a member;

- dimensions of the block are not subject to the size of the brickwork;

the front side of the block has no finish.

Known permanent formwork SU 1559074, 5 E04C 9/10, publ. 23.04.90, where the opposing permanent formwork panels are connected in the grooves on the upper faces of the panels and secured them with removable tabs protruding from the shields to half its height.

The disadvantages of a fixed timbering include:

- installation of the formwork design position is reduced to manual Assembly of boards with rods. This increases overhead costs of installation works;

- material for the manufacture of non-removable casing with the properties of guestimate advantageous to apply only for the manufacture of removable, reusable formwork, because after concrete setting she can't R the work and the project design;

- the front side of the casing is not faktoren;

the sizes of the blocks are not subject to the size of the brickwork.

Known wall formwork element SU 1733593 A1, 5 E04C 1/18, publ. 15.05.92, bull. 18. Shuttering element consists of two parallel walls that are offset along the longitudinal axis and connected by a wall at an angle of 120÷140° to the walls with education-shaped element.

The disadvantages of wall formwork element are:

formwork element of fine-grained concrete with no reinforcement of output terminals in the cavities;

- the location of the partition angle 120÷140°compared to 90°, increases its length, leads to excessive materials;

- the partitions are cut concrete walls in many isolated areas, reducing the integrity of a wall;

the front surface of the shuttering element is not faktoren;

the dimensions of the element are not subject to the size of the brickwork.

Known permanent formwork SU 1629435 A1, 5 E04C 9/10, publ. 23.02.91, intended for the production of forming operations.

The formwork consists of fixed plates, connected by ties of tubes. The plates are made of monolithic reinforced concrete separately. The remote ends of the tubes made in the form of rods and clamped between the conical surface of the mortgage loan details and stop what UNOSOM method of compression force R. The cavity between the plates are filled with insulation.

The disadvantages of a fixed timbering include:

the nodes connecting plates too bulky;

- double sided collet for cutting the ends to reduce the cross-sectional area of the connecting tubes is approximately two times;

- hollow metal tubing and fasteners are agents of the cold, which significantly reduce thermal properties of the walls, interfering with the installation of reinforcing steel products;

- profitable collet connection replace welded;

is this a permanent formwork at the location of the walls plays a role only ordinary block;

the formwork is not subject to the size of the brickwork;

- front surface is not faktoren.

Known prototype - wall shuttering block, SU 1625967 A1, 5 E04B 2/18, publ. 07.02.91,, Boul. Shuttering block consists of three longitudinal walls: outer, inner, rear, connected by five transverse concrete walls which have protrusions 15÷20 mm Between the walls formed sections for filling insulating material and a section for pouring concrete.

The disadvantages of formwork block is:

- a block of fine-grained concrete is a complex fabrication;

- a block of fine-grained concrete with no reinforcement. Integrity BL is look at the manufacturing stage of storage, transportation and voids in concrete is achieved through the strength of concrete in tension, and this is not enough;

- partitions prevent the installation of the block (offset upper row by half a block) in the presence of vertical rods of the reinforcement walls, the lower ends of which are wound in a solid Foundation, and the top is designed to be embedded in seismos above floor;

transverse partitions block cut concrete walls in many isolated areas, reducing their solidity;

- not resolved the issue of wall insulation in the area of monolithic reinforced concrete pillars;

device internal longitudinal wall can be avoided if first run of the concrete part of the wall, using the inventory form, the remaining space to fill with loose insulating material;

- dimensions of the block are not subject to the size of the brickwork;

the front surface of the shuttering element is not faktoren.

Known invention No. 2392394 "Constructive shuttering block member" of fine-grained concrete, registered in the State register of the Russian Federation from 20.06.2010, Structural formwork block member includes parallel outer front and rear longitudinal walls connected by three transverse partitions, which are connected by the General spatial fittings is the first frame with outside walls concrete and the average is opening.

The disadvantages of structural formwork unit member applies:

- does not meet the requirements of the project in the areas of device openings in the walls.

The objectives to be achieved by the invention

Reduction in construction costs, reducing material and labor costs of shuttering work, simplify the construction, increase the solidity, the seismic teplozvukoizolirujushchej properties of the walls of buildings, the improvement of the quality of the work.

Disclosure of inventions

The essence of the invention include the following.

1. The longitudinal walls and the connecting walls to reinforce the General spatial reinforcing cage. At the partition unit may be in hard or neobetonirovannymi condition. In the longitudinal walls can be nematodirinae areas, through hole, the block can be shortened by half. End fittings blocks crosses the void in the walls. After reinforcement of walls, laying concrete, its setting, the unit loses the role of formwork and acquires the function of a bearing element, the working valve which is included in the calculation of reinforcement project construction, in which the block belongs. Also take into account the resistance of the concrete block to the forces of compression and shear. As material and labor costs associated with device structures, con is motrunich project this method of shuttering work is costless.

The unreinforced formwork element (prototype) strength at the stage of manufacture, transportation, storage, installation is ensured only by the resistance of concrete to shear, tension, compression, which is insufficient. Shuttering element (prototype) can only be used as formwork without finding functions of a bearing element.

2. To improve the earthquake resistance of buildings and structures, the design of the unit can fit between the previously installed vertical rods of the reinforcement walls, the lower ends of which are embedded in the base, the top is designed to be embedded in seismos overlap of the upstream floor with respect to the displacement of the top number on half of the block, without the introduction of new typeblock. Using formwork element (prototype) with five transverse bulkheads such a task is not feasible.

3. The purpose of thermal insulation to the inner side of the outer longitudinal wall of the block attached foam plate thickness for heat engineering calculation. The rest of the volume of voids after the poured concrete reinforcement. This solution eliminated the need for the middle longitudinal wall provided by the prototype.

4. Horizontally and vertically spaced cavities received the e in the masonry walls, can be used for location calculation monolithic reinforced concrete earthquake resistant frame. The rest of the voids is filled with heat and sound insulating material. In the application of formwork element (prototype) this task is not feasible.

5. With the aim of implementation in the construction of complex constructions and extensions of the architecture, the block size is subject to the size of the brickwork. Shuttering element (prototype) cannot be used in conjunction with brick, because its size is not provided.

6. The longitudinal reinforcement of the walls and the connecting walls can reduce their thickness, to reduce the consumption of concrete, reduce the weight of the walls, to improve their seismic resistance. The strength of non-reinforced formwork element is provided by increasing its mass. Paragraphs 2 to 6 determine whether the claimed solution to the criterion "novelty"items 1 - "significant differences".

The implementation of the invention

Structural formwork unit is characterized in that it includes parallel outer (front) and rear longitudinal walls connected by partitions. Wall partitions reinforced a common spatial frame. One of the far wall is a hard condition, the average replaced wooden crosspiece of rectangular cross section. In the middle the first partition has an aperture, the width and the height of the blocks are equal, and the length - 2 heights.

Figure 1 shows the design of formwork block proemnyh. It contains parallel outer (front) 1 and the back 2 of the longitudinal walls connected by partitions 3. Walls and partitions reinforced a common spatial frame 4, one of the end walls are not concrete, the average has an aperture 7. To the inside of the front and end surfaces secures the heater 19.

The construction of earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete walls is made according to figure 2. The wall is divided into phases. After you install the blocks on one of the sections in horizontal channels formed in the masonry blocks, wound rods 14 for walls, flat items 15 to seysmopoyasa 13, which pos.16, knitting wire are combined into a single armature design.

The mounting blocks as follows: on each bottom row, end-to-end, dry, offset by half a unit or fit without the top row. The units are installed so that the previously sealed in the Foundation 13 10, 11 located on the longitudinal axis of the carrier layer 0.25 l from the ends or joints (no offset).

At the intersection of seysmopoyasa 13 with beams 17 under the floor (the floor) 18, the ends of the reinforcing products appear in the opening 6 to a depth equal to the thickness of the base layer of the walls.

The device carrying koesten is carried out by pouring the concrete mixture 20 in the free space between the heater 19 and the inner surface of the back wall 2, figure 1.

Specific example

Figure 1 shows the design of formwork block proemnyh, axonometric view. The block includes parallel outer (front) item 1 and the back 2 of the longitudinal walls connected by partitions 3. Walls and partitions reinforced a common spatial framework 4. One of the end walls is in hard condition. The front surface of the outer longitudinal wall is provided trim 5. For the passage and fixing of reinforcement monolithic reinforced concrete beamsdirections in the back wall of the holes 6. The average partition wall 3 is replaced wooden crosspiece of rectangular cross section. In the middle of the partition has an aperture, the width and height are equal, and the length - 2 heights.

For horizontal longitudinal movement of reinforcing products provided the opening 7. For lifting and horizontal movement of the block are reliable, affordable parts. For this purpose soft synthetic slings.

The device of earthquake-resistant reinforced concrete warm walls using blocks with finishing, insulation and load-bearing layers is as follows. On each bottom row, end-to-end dry, offset by half a unit or fit without the top row. The installation is carried out so that the previously embedded in monolithic Zhelezobeton the th Foundation 13 rods 10 vertical reinforcing walls located on the longitudinal axis of the carrier layer at a distance of 0.25 l block on its right or left edge or in their joints during the installation without ligation. Mounting blocks begin, for example, from left to right. The left end of the block slides on the rod 10 or the rack 11. Valves 4 perekusyvaete points 9 with respect to the rigidity of the block. The ends thibaudia so that it became possible to install the unit in the design position.

After mounting the unit the same number of through holes 7 are skipped rods horizontal reinforcing walls 14. In places of contact with the vertical rods 10 mount intersections using tie-wire.

An insulation layer is made of plate material, which is installed in the production unit from the inner surface of the front longitudinal wall according to figure 2.

By analogy is a device seysmopoyasa 13, figure 2. Flat wire products 15 are skipped in the openings 7. Using pos.16 and knitting wire are combined into a single spatial structure.

After installation of reinforcing products in the design position bent the ends of the armature 4 is returned to the points 9 Elektroprivreda for reinforcing articles 10, 11, 15. Both sets of reinforcing articles 15, 16 beams 17 under a floor 18, the ends 15 are openings 6.

Next is the device base layer by a method of pouring concrete 20 free space between the heater 19 and the inner surface of the back wall 2 of figure 1, according to figure 2.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 - Structural formwork block proemnyh.

Figure 2 - Scheme of the installation constructive shuttering blocks.

Figure 3 - Section B-B figure 2.

Notes on the elements:

1 - the Outer face of the longitudinal wall

2 is a Rear longitudinal wall

3 - Transversal partition

4 - Dimensional reinforcement cage

5 - Finish plate material with the outer sides

6 - Openings in the longitudinal walls

7 - Opening

8 - Box, only for the corner block

9 - Point cutting reinforcement

10 is a Vertical element of the reinforcement walls clamped in position 12

11 - rack Reinforcement concrete frame, clamped in position 12

12 - Foundation

13 - Seismos

14 is a Horizontal element of the reinforcement walls

15 - Flat reinforcing the product

16 - connecting rod

17 - situ reinforced concrete beamlocation

18 - Overlap

19 - Foam CT=0,05, strata. 15 cm

20 - situ concrete base layer walls

1. Structural formwork block proemnyh of fine concrete or other material of similar properties, containing parallel outer front and rear longitudinal walls connected by three partition walls, characterized in that the longitudinal walls and the connective is ergorace common spatial reinforcing cage, one of the end walls concrete average presented in the form of a rectangular wooden spacers shifted to the center of the block to a depth equal to its thickness, and its ends facing the outer surface of the block, clamped and anchored in the longitudinal walls and can serve as a fastening materials.

2. The unit according to claim 1, characterized in that it is designed with the purpose of education within the walls of the horizontal and vertical hollow channels for placement of reinforcing products, insulation and fill with concrete, with reinforcement of the spatial framework of the unit goes into its cavity, and the walls have holes on the outside closed cladding layers, thickness, and height of it are equal, and the length is equal to 2 heights.



 

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16 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect structures resistant to earthquake attacks consists in installation of a reinforced concrete frame and walls, besides, after installation of reinforced pillar frames in the structure foundation, development of reinforced pillar frames pre-stressing, assembling sections around them from the first rows of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars from formwork tiles with a dovetail-type fixture and reinforcement frames of curb sections of pillars, sealing of the first rows of the first floor pillar curbs from inside by filling slots between curb tiles with a sealing mixture, in order to prepare curbs for filling with a cement-based concrete, filling the first rows of pillar curbs with a concrete mix; prior to hardening of the concrete filler of the remaining curbs of the first rows of the first floor pillars, their surface is levelled aflush with edges of the curb tiles. After hardening of the concrete filler of the first rows of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars, layers of substances are applied on their surfaces, having strength below the concrete filler strength. After assembly above the first row of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars in sections of the second rows of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars, jointing slots of dovetail-type fixture in sections of remaining curbs of pillars of the second and first rows of the first floor, sealing the second rows of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars from inside, filling of the second rows of remaining curbs of the first floor pillars with a concrete mix; prior to hardening of the concrete filler of remaining curbs of the second rows of the first floor pillars their surfaces are levelled aflush with edges of curb tiles. Other rows of the first floor pillars are arranged in a similar manner.

EFFECT: higher resistance to earthquakes.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to erect a monolithic construction structure of a building or a facility, where on a specially prepared foundation, at the first stage of erection, the metal frame is assembled from light steel galvanised thin-walled elements of channel-like shape in cross section. Then outer and inner shields of a stay-in-place form, afterwards the inner space between shields of the stay-in-place form is filled with a gypsum foam concrete filler, which form with the latter after gaining strength a monolithic wall panel, besides, channel-like elements arranged transversely relative to the wall panel are made with perforation punches along the whole length to eliminate a cold bridge in the panel. At the same time the building ceiling is also erected on the basis of some elements of the wall panel, besides, at first a metal frame is assembled and installed, also made of light steel galvanised elements that are thin-walled in cross section, then a wood-cement board is fixed at the bottom to the frame, and the frame is filled with a gypsum foam concrete filler, and after gaining strength, on top at first wooden flooring is installed, and then a protective coating of a glass-magnesite sheet is laid on it.

EFFECT: reduced time of construction, extended operation time, reduced cost of construction, minimised costs for construction materials and higher efficiency of operation.

5 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: non-detachable building formwork comprises a soft shell, with guides arranged inside it, and filled with a hardening solution, besides, the soft shell is arranged in the form of textile sleeves, at the same time neighbouring sleeves are stitched to each other to form a cell for tight arrangement of a guide in it arranged in the form of a stiffening rib. Also a version of non-detachable formwork is described.

EFFECT: cost reduction and acceleration of building erection process.

7 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: standard structural curb block made of fine-grained concrete comprises parallel external face and back longitudinal walls joined by three partitions. Longitudinal walls and connecting partitions are reinforced with common spatial reinforced frame, at the same time extreme end partitions are not concreted, and there is an opening provided in the middle one.

EFFECT: reduction of material and labour expenses for curb works, increased solidity, earthquake resistance, heat and sound insulating properties of building and structure walls, improved quality of works.

8 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: retained folding formwork for construction of cast-in-situ walls includes parallel panels and hinged ties, vertical posts with panel and tie attachment devices located on external side of vertical post throughout their height. Panels of formwork are meshed, hinged ties are attached to vertical posts so that they can be turned in attachment devices, each one is made in the form of a zigzag so that sections inclined in plan view to surfaces of panels and sections in bend area, which are parallel to flat external wall of vertical post and contact it, are formed; at that, two hinged ties adjacent as to height are located in opposite phase relative to each other and fixed on posts in a staggered order. Hinged ties are fixed at one and the same height of opposite posts and located in one and the same plane.

EFFECT: improving stiffening characteristics of formwork system at the concreting stage and increasing the strength of sections of the built construction.

1 dwg

Wall // 2385998

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: wall comprises concrete pillars that consist of permanent forms made of cellular blocks that create wells for pouring of heavy concrete with previously arranged vertical reinforcements, insulating plates, wall forms of blocks for instance. Foiled insulation is installed in wells of concrete pillars on inner side of erected wall, inside wells there are through horizontal holes previously arranged along wall, where longitudinal anchors are installed, at the same time wooden carcass-frame arranged between concrete pillars is fixed to longitudinal anchors, and ledger strips are fixed to vertical stands of wooden carcass-frame along wall at one or two sides, besides vertical stands of wooden carcass-frame and ledger strips are installed perpendicularly versus each other. Between ledger strips there are insulating plates arranged or mineral insulator having same thickness with ledger strips, and between vertical stands of wooden carcass-frame there is a second row of insulating plates or mineral insulator having same thickness with vertical stands. Foiled insulation is installed to the latter, being fixed with the help of ledger strips, or on completion of inner and outer rows of wall curbs and insulating plates installation between ledger strips, insulator fill may be filled between vertical stands of wooden carcass-frame, or cellular concrete in liquid form may be filled. For pouring of cellular concrete there are holes arranged along vertical stands, where pins are installed. Also in insulating plates or mineral insulator arranged between ledger strips and vertical stands, in foiled insulation installed between them, in certain areas there are through holes provided, where transverse anchors are installed with the possibility of fixation and attachment of inner and outer rows of wall forms made of blocks, for instance to wooden carcass-frame.

EFFECT: higher number of storeys constructed, simplified technology of wall erection and lower cost of wall construction.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly forms.

SUBSTANCE: isolation building form structure includes form sized to erect one concrete wall section. Form comprises the first elongated side panel of foamed polystyrene and the second elongated side panel of foamed polystyrene. Each panel has top and bottom, wherein panel bottom serves as building wall bottom and panel top is building wall top. Form comprises elongated horizontally spaced vertical dividers of foamed polystyrene having at least four sides and arranged between panels. Dividers serve as spacing bars and define spaced channels for concrete pouring between dividers. Dividers have upper and lower ends. Upper divider ends are spaced downwardly from upper ends of panels, lower ends thereof are spaced upwardly lower ends of panels to form upper and lower areas for concrete pouring. Upper and lower areas communicate with channels between dividers. Dividers have uniform cross-sections along the full length thereof so that concrete to be poured in channels form concrete columns having constant dimension in vertical direction. Each column has four vertical sides arranged at an angle one to another so that medium parts of concrete posts are wider than side parts thereof, which results in decreased width of divider centers for decreasing dividers compression between panels under the action of compression force applied thereto.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs, improved manufacturability.

12 cl, 20 dwg

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