Reference sample with monitored distribution of stresses through thickness

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.

EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.

2 cl, 5 dwg

 

The technical field

The invention relates to a metal reference samples with a complex stress state and can be used for testing and debugging of existing methods and equipment for measuring mechanical stresses in the cross-sections of thick-walled metal structures.

The level of technology

There are a number of physical methods (optical, strain, radiographic, magnetic, acoustic) determination of the mechanical stresses. On the basis of the developed device, which with a certain accuracy can give information about the stresses acting in metal structures. For adjustment and testing of these devices require a reference metal samples with specified distributions of the component stresses in the section.

The known reference sample coated with a uniform plastic coating with Annex cyclic strain constant amplitude and a subsequent determination of the amplitude cyclic deformation of the part using a deposited the same coverage as the standard sample for calibration dependences obtained when the loading of the reference sample. As the coating material used solder, which loudat the analyzed surface, the coating material used metal and alloy, the melting point of which is below the tempering temperature of the material of the test items. Reference samples subjected to cyclic loading at a known and constant amplitude strain (stress) and set the number of loading cycles until the coating is controlled changes. From these data using calibration dependence (in the coordinates of the deformation - number of cycles) (RF patent 2197722, IPC G01N 3/32, SS 2/08, publ. 27.01.2003).

However, this reference is not intended for use in inspection and debugging of the equipment to determine the complex stress States in the cross-sections of thick-walled metal structures.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a reference sample consisting of a curved metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate around an elliptical hole in the base, presented in Chinese patent application CN 102410957 (IPC G01N 3/08, publ. 2012-04-11). This sample is additionally loaded in a tensile testing machine, used to control the operational state of pipes.

The disadvantage of this pattern is its uzkospetsializirovanny (only for monitoring the condition of the pipes) and the fact that to obtain the complex stress state around Ellas is pricescope holes (stretching, compression, bending and so on) need additional equipment for applying load to the sample (in particular, it is overall tensile machine). Because of the need for additional and complicated equipment sample can be used only in laboratory conditions, where there is equipment and personnel qualifications.

For reliable testing instruments mechanical stresses, it is preferable to have reference samples a wider range test, appearance of which it is impossible to establish the stress distribution through the thickness.

Disclosure of inventions

The problem to which the invention is directed to devices, improving the reliability of the results of measurements of mechanical stresses in the various sections of thick-walled metal structures experimental methods for determining the stress state due to known, controlled distribution of stresses across the thickness in various versions of the proposed reference model.

The problem is solved in that the claimed device - a reference sample with controlled stress distribution in thickness, consists of a metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate. If this is m at the edges of the base with the same or different parties executed one or more zones of deposits from other metal the coefficient of linear expansion and yield strength which is lower than the corresponding coefficient of linear expansion and the yield strength of the metal base. With this in mind, the Foundation has previously been subjected to high-temperature tempering, and then, on the surface of the Central zone of the base with two sides marked tick marks or grid database of measurements for the two test measurements (for recording measurements in the technical data sheet of this particular reference sample) after high-temperature tempering of the base to perform welding and at the end of the heat treatment of the base with the cladding. Namely, their uniform heating to a temperature at which there is a substantial decrease of the yield strength of the metal surfacing, but no significant reduction of the yield strength of the metal base, and then cooling the sample to the initial thermal state. In addition, the shape of the base and the location of welding, heat treatment were pre-determined by computer simulation by the finite element method taking into account the properties of the base metals and welding and the required reference complex stress state in the Central zone the thickness of the base.

The thickness of the cladding preferably should not exceed half the thickness of the ina Foundation, to provide a sufficient magnitude of stresses from bending emerging moment.

List of figures

For illustration of the inventive device presents schematic drawings of a typical option right octagonal flat sample with two cladding on opposite sides and from different sides of the base (asymmetrically): top view (1), section a-a side (figure 2).

To illustrate an example of the calculation of the stress state of another embodiment of a sample in the form of a square plate with welding in a computer simulation by the finite element method also presents a top view and a side slit regular four-sided flat sample with two facings on opposite faces with one side of the base (symmetrically) figure 3 (top view), figure 4 (section b-B side) and the graph in figure 5.

The implementation of the invention

Figure 1 shows the metal base sample 1, containing the Central zone 2 reference complex stress state and the cladding 3. Figure 2 shows one arrangement of the cladding 3 relative to the base 1 and the Central zone 2. Also the dimensions of b and surfacing 3 relative to the thickness d of the base 1.

The reference sample is a thick-walled base from carbon or low-alloy steel with asymmetrically located is at the forefront of fusing (or soldering) other metal, differing from the Foundation of the coefficient of linear expansion, and a lower yield strength and melting temperature (copper, brass and others). All bimetallic sample is subjected to uniform heating (furnace), resulting in the base and surfacing due to the difference of the linear expansion coefficients arise mechanical stress of the opposite sign. In surfacing these voltage reaches the limit of its fluidity, after which it occur to plastic deformation. The sample was then subjected to cooling, base and surfacing there are residual voltage. Due to the asymmetry of the location of surfacing or cladding at the base of the sample having bending stresses with different values and signs on the opposite surfaces of the sample. Values and levels of stress depends on the size, location and physical properties of the fused material, and can be found from the results of measurement of the front and back surfaces of the Central part of the base before welding and after heat treatment. According to the difference of the obtained measurements calculate the strain and stress at the base of the sample. Since the voltage at the base does not reach the yield strength calculated by the formulas of theory of elasticity. Rated Central area can be used for calibration and validation su is stuudy devices and methods for determining the stress state in the metallic structure.

The proposed device operates as follows. Depending on what is required by the level of stress in the cross section of the substrate 1 in thickness in the Central zone 2, select the dimensions b and C under the cladding 3 and the number of surfacings 3 along the edges of the substrate 1 on one side and another side. Then produce a high-temperature tempering harvested the base 1 with the goal of complete elimination of internal stresses in it, caused by the technology of its production. This is imperative, as it is unclear how they will interact with the mechanical stresses that may remain from the original machining of the base 1 with the stresses that arise from the cladding 3. Next comes the application and measurement bases of measurement zones I and II (tick marks or grid) of the Central zone 2 on both sides of the base, as it gives an opportunity to calculate stresses from bending, which arise due to the fact that welding is not done in the entire thickness of the substrate 1. Measurement bases make measurements twice: after you leave the base (when there is only a base with almost zero stress and no cladding) and at the very end, when the produced heat treatment of the finished sample by depositing and all finally cooled down. After application and the first measurement bases of the measurements produce the cladding 3 of another metal with excellent on the grounds coefficient of linear expansion and a lower yield strength and melting temperature (copper, brass and others). The welding (or brazing) must be done in such a way as to provide maximum heat from the Central zone of the base 1 and not cause there to plastic deformation. After deposition, the sample is subjected to heating (furnace), resulting in the deposited layer 3 and the base 1 due to the difference of coefficients of linear expansion stresses. Since the yield strength of the cladding is lower voltage it reaches a yield point (at the base of the reach). Upon further heating in welding 3 plastic deformation occurs. Then the device (sample) is subjected to slow cooling. After cooling the sample arise from residual stress, the cause of education which is a plastic deformation of the cladding 3 when heated. Since the deposited layers 3 are arranged asymmetrically, residual stresses are in the nature of biaxial bending, with different values and signs of the component on the opposite surfaces of the base 1 and uneven distribution of thickness.

Then make repeated measurement bases of dimension 2 with both sides of the base 1 and the formulas of theory of elasticity calculate the stresses acting on the surface of the Central zone 2 of the base 1, and construct a plot of the stress distribution in the cross section of the base 1 in the Central zone 2. The plot and the meaning of the Oia stresses depend on the volume, location and physical properties of the metal cladding and recorded for each reference sample in its registration certificate.

Adding asymmetric (different sides of the base) of the cladding, as shown in figures 1 and 2, gives the change (appearance) stresses in 2-axes (X and Y) and it is necessary to consider the nature of the interaction of these stresses between them.

The symmetrical arrangement of cladding from one side of the base, which is shown in figure 3 and 4, gives the possibility of obtaining stress along the Y-axis on both surfaces and the thickness of the base (Figure 5) and had virtually no effect on the stress distribution along the x axis. figure 5 shows a graph of the dependence of the stresses along the Y-axis thickness (cross-section) of the metal base 1 at the transition from zone I to zone II in Central area 2 of the substrate 1. This distribution is calculated by the finite element method, based on the geometry of the base and cladding; properties of the substrate and the cladding, the location and the number of deposits.

Consider a reference sample of a particular size, consisting of a regular four-sided plate (square 300 x 300 mm, Central area - 80 square 80 mm, thickness 18 mm) metal base 1 (carbon steel with yield stress σt=360 MPa) and cladding (thickness 9 mm, width 50 mm) 3 copper (yield strength σt=80 MPa) what about the edges of the substrate 1 on one side (symmetrical).

Was computer simulated uniform heating of the sample to a temperature of 700°C. In the deposited layer when this voltage reaches the yield stress in compression (due to the fact that during heating the deposited layer tends to extend along the Y-axis, and the metal base prevents this expansion, after which the boundaries of the metal substrate and the deposited layer occur by plastic deformation. The sample was then subjected to uniform cooling to 20°C, while the substrate and the deposited layer there are residual from heat stress and strain.

Moving along the Y-axis points at the edge of the area I will be 9 to 10 μm from the center of the sample in the initial state and in the entire zone I along the Y-axis will be tensile stress level 38...43 MPa, while in zone II there compressive stresses at the level of (26...30) MPa and move the point on the edge of zone II will be about 7...7.5 μm toward the center of the sample.

The change in voltage along the Y-axis on the thickness of the sample at the transition from zone I to zone 2 is linear and is represented in figure 5.

Options for distribution of the parameters and values of mechanical stress through the thickness in the Central zone 2 of the base 1 can vary considerably depending on volume, location, physical properties of the weld metal and the base.

The accuracy of the match is ascetic parameter values of stresses along the thickness of the sample and the actual values of these parameters is of the order of 8 to 12%.

A reference sample with a controlled (and therefore known) distribution of stresses along its thickness in the Central zone may be used for testing and debugging of existing experimental methods and instruments for the registration of mechanical stresses and improve the reliability of their measurements.

1. The reference sample with controlled stress distribution on its thickness, consisting of a metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate, characterized in that the edges of the base with the same or different parties executed one or more zones of the deposits of the other metal, the coefficient of linear expansion and yield strength which is lower than the corresponding coefficient of linear expansion and the yield strength of the metal base, the base was previously subjected to high-temperature tempering, and then, on the surface of the Central zone of the base with two sides marked tick marks or grid database of measurements for the two test measurements after high-temperature leave the base to the installation of the cladding and at the end of the heat treatment of the base with the deposits, namely their uniform heating to a temperature at which there is a substantial decrease of the yield strength IU the Alla surfacing, but there is no substantial decrease in the yield strength of the metal base, and then cooling the sample to the initial temperature condition; in addition, the shape of the base and the location of welding, heat treatment pre-determined by computer simulation by the finite element method taking into account grades of base metals and welding and the required reference complex stress state in the Central zone of the base on its thickness.

2. A sample according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the cladding is not more than half the thickness of the Foundation.



 

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