Reference sample with monitored distribution of stresses through thickness
SUBSTANCE: reference sample comprises a metal base with a central zone of reference complex stressed condition through the base thickness. At the edges of the base at one or different sides there is one or several zones of pad welds from another metal, coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of which is lower than the coefficient of linear expansion and yield point of the base metal. The base is first exposed to high-temperature tempering, afterwards control marks or a grid of measurement bases are applied onto surfaces of the central zone of the base at two sides, for two test measurements after high-temperature tempering of the base before applying pad welds and in the end of thermal treatment of the base already with pad welds. The form of the base, locations of pad welds and the mode of thermal treatment are defined in advance as a result of computer simulation modelling by the method of finite elements with account of grades of the base metal and pad welds metals and the required reference complex stressed condition of the central zone of the base through its thickness.
EFFECT: increased validity of results of measurements of mechanical stresses in cross sections of various thick-walled metal structures.
2 cl, 5 dwg
The technical field
The invention relates to a metal reference samples with a complex stress state and can be used for testing and debugging of existing methods and equipment for measuring mechanical stresses in the cross-sections of thick-walled metal structures.
The level of technology
There are a number of physical methods (optical, strain, radiographic, magnetic, acoustic) determination of the mechanical stresses. On the basis of the developed device, which with a certain accuracy can give information about the stresses acting in metal structures. For adjustment and testing of these devices require a reference metal samples with specified distributions of the component stresses in the section.
The known reference sample coated with a uniform plastic coating with Annex cyclic strain constant amplitude and a subsequent determination of the amplitude cyclic deformation of the part using a deposited the same coverage as the standard sample for calibration dependences obtained when the loading of the reference sample. As the coating material used solder, which loudat the analyzed surface, the coating material used metal and alloy, the melting point of which is below the tempering temperature of the material of the test items. Reference samples subjected to cyclic loading at a known and constant amplitude strain (stress) and set the number of loading cycles until the coating is controlled changes. From these data using calibration dependence (in the coordinates of the deformation - number of cycles) (RF patent 2197722, IPC G01N 3/32, SS 2/08, publ. 27.01.2003).
However, this reference is not intended for use in inspection and debugging of the equipment to determine the complex stress States in the cross-sections of thick-walled metal structures.
The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a reference sample consisting of a curved metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate around an elliptical hole in the base, presented in Chinese patent application CN 102410957 (IPC G01N 3/08, publ. 2012-04-11). This sample is additionally loaded in a tensile testing machine, used to control the operational state of pipes.
The disadvantage of this pattern is its uzkospetsializirovanny (only for monitoring the condition of the pipes) and the fact that to obtain the complex stress state around Ellas is pricescope holes (stretching, compression, bending and so on) need additional equipment for applying load to the sample (in particular, it is overall tensile machine). Because of the need for additional and complicated equipment sample can be used only in laboratory conditions, where there is equipment and personnel qualifications.
For reliable testing instruments mechanical stresses, it is preferable to have reference samples a wider range test, appearance of which it is impossible to establish the stress distribution through the thickness.
Disclosure of inventions
The problem to which the invention is directed to devices, improving the reliability of the results of measurements of mechanical stresses in the various sections of thick-walled metal structures experimental methods for determining the stress state due to known, controlled distribution of stresses across the thickness in various versions of the proposed reference model.
The problem is solved in that the claimed device - a reference sample with controlled stress distribution in thickness, consists of a metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate. If this is m at the edges of the base with the same or different parties executed one or more zones of deposits from other metal the coefficient of linear expansion and yield strength which is lower than the corresponding coefficient of linear expansion and the yield strength of the metal base. With this in mind, the Foundation has previously been subjected to high-temperature tempering, and then, on the surface of the Central zone of the base with two sides marked tick marks or grid database of measurements for the two test measurements (for recording measurements in the technical data sheet of this particular reference sample) after high-temperature tempering of the base to perform welding and at the end of the heat treatment of the base with the cladding. Namely, their uniform heating to a temperature at which there is a substantial decrease of the yield strength of the metal surfacing, but no significant reduction of the yield strength of the metal base, and then cooling the sample to the initial thermal state. In addition, the shape of the base and the location of welding, heat treatment were pre-determined by computer simulation by the finite element method taking into account the properties of the base metals and welding and the required reference complex stress state in the Central zone the thickness of the base.
The thickness of the cladding preferably should not exceed half the thickness of the ina Foundation, to provide a sufficient magnitude of stresses from bending emerging moment.
List of figures
For illustration of the inventive device presents schematic drawings of a typical option right octagonal flat sample with two cladding on opposite sides and from different sides of the base (asymmetrically): top view (1), section a-a side (figure 2).
To illustrate an example of the calculation of the stress state of another embodiment of a sample in the form of a square plate with welding in a computer simulation by the finite element method also presents a top view and a side slit regular four-sided flat sample with two facings on opposite faces with one side of the base (symmetrically) figure 3 (top view), figure 4 (section b-B side) and the graph in figure 5.
The implementation of the invention
Figure 1 shows the metal base sample 1, containing the Central zone 2 reference complex stress state and the cladding 3. Figure 2 shows one arrangement of the cladding 3 relative to the base 1 and the Central zone 2. Also the dimensions of b and surfacing 3 relative to the thickness d of the base 1.
The reference sample is a thick-walled base from carbon or low-alloy steel with asymmetrically located is at the forefront of fusing (or soldering) other metal, differing from the Foundation of the coefficient of linear expansion, and a lower yield strength and melting temperature (copper, brass and others). All bimetallic sample is subjected to uniform heating (furnace), resulting in the base and surfacing due to the difference of the linear expansion coefficients arise mechanical stress of the opposite sign. In surfacing these voltage reaches the limit of its fluidity, after which it occur to plastic deformation. The sample was then subjected to cooling, base and surfacing there are residual voltage. Due to the asymmetry of the location of surfacing or cladding at the base of the sample having bending stresses with different values and signs on the opposite surfaces of the sample. Values and levels of stress depends on the size, location and physical properties of the fused material, and can be found from the results of measurement of the front and back surfaces of the Central part of the base before welding and after heat treatment. According to the difference of the obtained measurements calculate the strain and stress at the base of the sample. Since the voltage at the base does not reach the yield strength calculated by the formulas of theory of elasticity. Rated Central area can be used for calibration and validation su is stuudy devices and methods for determining the stress state in the metallic structure.
The proposed device operates as follows. Depending on what is required by the level of stress in the cross section of the substrate 1 in thickness in the Central zone 2, select the dimensions b and C under the cladding 3 and the number of surfacings 3 along the edges of the substrate 1 on one side and another side. Then produce a high-temperature tempering harvested the base 1 with the goal of complete elimination of internal stresses in it, caused by the technology of its production. This is imperative, as it is unclear how they will interact with the mechanical stresses that may remain from the original machining of the base 1 with the stresses that arise from the cladding 3. Next comes the application and measurement bases of measurement zones I and II (tick marks or grid) of the Central zone 2 on both sides of the base, as it gives an opportunity to calculate stresses from bending, which arise due to the fact that welding is not done in the entire thickness of the substrate 1. Measurement bases make measurements twice: after you leave the base (when there is only a base with almost zero stress and no cladding) and at the very end, when the produced heat treatment of the finished sample by depositing and all finally cooled down. After application and the first measurement bases of the measurements produce the cladding 3 of another metal with excellent on the grounds coefficient of linear expansion and a lower yield strength and melting temperature (copper, brass and others). The welding (or brazing) must be done in such a way as to provide maximum heat from the Central zone of the base 1 and not cause there to plastic deformation. After deposition, the sample is subjected to heating (furnace), resulting in the deposited layer 3 and the base 1 due to the difference of coefficients of linear expansion stresses. Since the yield strength of the cladding is lower voltage it reaches a yield point (at the base of the reach). Upon further heating in welding 3 plastic deformation occurs. Then the device (sample) is subjected to slow cooling. After cooling the sample arise from residual stress, the cause of education which is a plastic deformation of the cladding 3 when heated. Since the deposited layers 3 are arranged asymmetrically, residual stresses are in the nature of biaxial bending, with different values and signs of the component on the opposite surfaces of the base 1 and uneven distribution of thickness.
Then make repeated measurement bases of dimension 2 with both sides of the base 1 and the formulas of theory of elasticity calculate the stresses acting on the surface of the Central zone 2 of the base 1, and construct a plot of the stress distribution in the cross section of the base 1 in the Central zone 2. The plot and the meaning of the Oia stresses depend on the volume, location and physical properties of the metal cladding and recorded for each reference sample in its registration certificate.
Adding asymmetric (different sides of the base) of the cladding, as shown in figures 1 and 2, gives the change (appearance) stresses in 2-axes (X and Y) and it is necessary to consider the nature of the interaction of these stresses between them.
The symmetrical arrangement of cladding from one side of the base, which is shown in figure 3 and 4, gives the possibility of obtaining stress along the Y-axis on both surfaces and the thickness of the base (Figure 5) and had virtually no effect on the stress distribution along the x axis. figure 5 shows a graph of the dependence of the stresses along the Y-axis thickness (cross-section) of the metal base 1 at the transition from zone I to zone II in Central area 2 of the substrate 1. This distribution is calculated by the finite element method, based on the geometry of the base and cladding; properties of the substrate and the cladding, the location and the number of deposits.
Consider a reference sample of a particular size, consisting of a regular four-sided plate (square 300 x 300 mm, Central area - 80 square 80 mm, thickness 18 mm) metal base 1 (carbon steel with yield stress σt=360 MPa) and cladding (thickness 9 mm, width 50 mm) 3 copper (yield strength σt=80 MPa) what about the edges of the substrate 1 on one side (symmetrical).
Was computer simulated uniform heating of the sample to a temperature of 700°C. In the deposited layer when this voltage reaches the yield stress in compression (due to the fact that during heating the deposited layer tends to extend along the Y-axis, and the metal base prevents this expansion, after which the boundaries of the metal substrate and the deposited layer occur by plastic deformation. The sample was then subjected to uniform cooling to 20°C, while the substrate and the deposited layer there are residual from heat stress and strain.
Moving along the Y-axis points at the edge of the area I will be 9 to 10 μm from the center of the sample in the initial state and in the entire zone I along the Y-axis will be tensile stress level 38...43 MPa, while in zone II there compressive stresses at the level of (26...30) MPa and move the point on the edge of zone II will be about 7...7.5 μm toward the center of the sample.
The change in voltage along the Y-axis on the thickness of the sample at the transition from zone I to zone 2 is linear and is represented in figure 5.
Options for distribution of the parameters and values of mechanical stress through the thickness in the Central zone 2 of the base 1 can vary considerably depending on volume, location, physical properties of the weld metal and the base.
The accuracy of the match is ascetic parameter values of stresses along the thickness of the sample and the actual values of these parameters is of the order of 8 to 12%.
A reference sample with a controlled (and therefore known) distribution of stresses along its thickness in the Central zone may be used for testing and debugging of existing experimental methods and instruments for the registration of mechanical stresses and improve the reliability of their measurements.
1. The reference sample with controlled stress distribution on its thickness, consisting of a metal base with a Central area of the reference complex stress state through the thickness of the substrate, characterized in that the edges of the base with the same or different parties executed one or more zones of the deposits of the other metal, the coefficient of linear expansion and yield strength which is lower than the corresponding coefficient of linear expansion and the yield strength of the metal base, the base was previously subjected to high-temperature tempering, and then, on the surface of the Central zone of the base with two sides marked tick marks or grid database of measurements for the two test measurements after high-temperature leave the base to the installation of the cladding and at the end of the heat treatment of the base with the deposits, namely their uniform heating to a temperature at which there is a substantial decrease of the yield strength IU the Alla surfacing, but there is no substantial decrease in the yield strength of the metal base, and then cooling the sample to the initial temperature condition; in addition, the shape of the base and the location of welding, heat treatment pre-determined by computer simulation by the finite element method taking into account grades of base metals and welding and the required reference complex stress state in the Central zone of the base on its thickness.
2. A sample according to claim 1, characterized in that the thickness of the cladding is not more than half the thickness of the Foundation.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of a housing, the electric motor with a shaft, and the storage cylinder-borer. At that the electric motor with the shaft is mounted inside and along the vertical axis of the housing, made in the form of a triangular truss consisting of the upper and lower belts which are interconnected by racks having vertical grooves for guides mounted inside the truss perpendicular to the racks with the ability of vertical movement along them and connected to the housing of the electric motor, equipped with handles extending outside the housing. At that, the electric motor shaft is provided with a magnetostrictive oscillator and has at the end a telescopic rod for removable storage cylinder-borers selected depending on the type of soil.
EFFECT: increased productivity of soil sampling and enhanced functional capabilities.
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.
EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.
SUBSTANCE: first, selected are directions for elastic wave propagation directions uniformly distributed over the entire volume of specimen to measure propagation speed and to define the length of every direction. Ultrasound pulses excited in specimen are radiated therein at the start of every direction. Elastic wave travel time is defined for every direction to define the means propagation speed in every direction using obtained elastic wave length and travel time. Then, said specimen is deformed to preset magnitude in stepwise manner, via preset time intervals. At every deformation step, said mean propagation speeds are defined for every directed as described above to define mean propagation speeds for separated part of specimen volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with averaging radius of at least 5 mm. Calculations at every deformation step are displayed as the projection of the specimen vertical section with at least 5 mm deep layer with dyeing of projection sections by different colours proportional with calculated speed difference for said sections between current and previous deformation steps to make conclusion of specimen density variation.
EFFECT: higher-quality and more detailed picture of compaction and destruction zones.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wings of ilium are punctured in an anterior and posterior one-third of the wings with two trocars being inserted into each wing. The bone marrow (BM) is collected by simple aspiration, aspiration irrigation or a combination thereof at an underpressure of 0.6 Atm with using a device. The bone marrow preparation device comprises a disposable multi-channel closed system, an aspiration collection unit and a perfusion unit. The group of inventions also refers to a method for assessing the prepared bone marrow. The effect is ensured by automatic control of myeloaspiration by preparing a biological material with using a special designed device for the bone marrow collection.
EFFECT: using the given method for preparing the bone marrow provides preparing the sterile bone marrow rich in viable multipotent mesenchymal stromal and hemopoietic progenitor cells.
7 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.
EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.
1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cartridge for a bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge contains at least one chamber for a sample, which has a wall, through which the said sample can be processed or analysed by the bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge also contains a case and a platform, and the platform contains the said at least one chamber for the sample and is connected with a possibility of travel with the case in such a way that the platform is able to move between the removed position, in which the wall is protected by the case, and the protruded position, in which the wall is outside the case, by putting operating means in action. The bioanalytical reaction device has a slot for reception of the cartridge, and contains an operating device for moving out and removal of the platform.
EFFECT: technical result which is achieved lies in provision of protection of the sample from contamination and damage without excessive complication of the cartridge construction.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises at least two samplers installed in the holes of a bearing element set on a vessel casing. Every sampler is fitted by a tubular lead-in part on the inner installation side of the bearing element and a discharge part on the upper side of the bearing element having sections for hydraulic or pneumatic valves to be connected. Lead-in parts are of different length. The bearing element is made as a removable flange with the holes in it being connecting ports. Each tubular lead-in and discharge parts are made as separate elements. The discharge part is coupled with the connecting port permanently and the tubular lead-in part is coupled with the said port by a detachable joint. Tubular lead-in part of each sampler is made as tubes of lower, middle and upper levels installed in the flange hole on the flange installation side by means of a detachable joint.
EFFECT: universality of a unit due to the possibility of its usage in vessels for fluid products of different types.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to supervision of vehicle operating conditions and estimation of harmful emissions. Sampling device comprises sampler connected with exhaust pipe via inlet pipe, sampling resilient chamber arranged in portable appliance and checkout hardware. Said sampling resilient detachable chamber is equipped with remote control shutoff element. Detachable appliance is equipped with the branch pipe with outlet located in one plane with sampler end. Inlet pipe has rotary mechanism for connection with the next sampling resilient chamber and valve to shut off the ICE off-gas ingress into inlet valve. Note here that every sampling resilient chamber has a contact mechanism of sampling outage at filling the entire volume of said chamber. Besides, portable appliance has inner cooling shell and cooled duct for off-gas passage from vehicle exhaust pipe. Said checkout hardware is composed of processor connected with rotary mechanism. The latter connected the next sampling chamber with the device inlet pipe and valve that shuts off ICE off-gas flow into inlet pipe.
EFFECT: off-gas sampling under whatever operating conditions, ruled out occurrence of secondary chemical reactions.
SUBSTANCE: device for preparation, storage and transportation of dry objects of liquids comprises a dry container with an adsorption element whereon a liquid aliquot containing analysed components can be applied and dried. An adsorption element is made of a moisture absorbing porous material having the adsorption capacity not less than 40 mg per cm2 and an ability for reversible desorption of dry components in an immersible sample solution of at least a working area of the adsorption element with the dry sample in the sample solution with an effectiveness of 30% at the end of no more than 300 sec after the contact of the dry sample with the sample solution.
EFFECT: invention enables obtaining the reproducible results of the analysis of biological liquids, facilitates the structure of the sorbent element.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of technology of cyclic taking of plant samples from clamps, pits, trenches, haystacks, mows and other repositories in agriculture in determining quality indicators of feed and can also be used when taking samples of other non-free-flowing materials, such as peat, soil and snow. The method of taking plant samples is that during rotation of the device of taking the plant samples the auger retraction of the cutting crown into the feed monolith and the auger feeding of the cut-out feed in the storage unit are provided. At that the recording by the fluid content gage of the volume of the taken plant sample is provided, as well as its removal from the moving storage unit. The device of taking the plant samples comprises a shaft with a cylindrical part of the auger and a lower conical auger tip. In the area of the base of the tip the cutting crown is installed and secured with at least one pin, with mortices-hooks at the upper part, by which it docks with projections of the storage unit when turning its projections in the mortices-hooks of the crown in the opposite direction with respect to rotation in cutting the monolith of the feed. The storage unit has free rotation and movement along the shaft with the cylindrical part of the auger for releasing the crown from the hook and extracting the sample taken. In addition, the storage unit is equipped with a mechanical fluid content gage of the volume of the sample taken in the form of a plate resting on the cylindrical part of the auger, connected to the recording tube, sliding along the smooth part of the shaft with the cylindrical part of the auger.
EFFECT: monitoring the filling of the storage unit, which enables to provide the accuracy of determining the volume of the sample taken at a given depth.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of determining tangential stress in steel pipelines involves making a sample in form of a hollow cylinder from the same material as the structure; step by step loading of the sample; measuring coercitive force indicators at each loading step, with a defined orientation of magnetic flux generated in the coersimeter relative the sample; obtaining a relationship between the coercitive force indicators and values of stress in the sample; measuring the coercitive force indicators of the metal of the structure; determining stress values using the obtained relationship; tangential stress in the sample is generated by applying torque to the sample; the coercitive force is measured along the axis of the sample or the pipeline twice, while directing magnetic flux in opposite directions. The coercitive force indicator used when determining tangential stress is the magnitude of the difference between measured values of the coercitive force.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining tangential stress in surface steel pipelines.
1 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining residual hardening stresses involves hardening of samples and determination of residual hardening stresses; at that, a pack is formed of plates of similar size, which are numbered and marked in advance; then, the above pack is subject to hardening; after that, plate bending deformations are measured in two planes, as per which residual hardening stresses are calculated.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of residual hardening stresses.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determination of the stress-strain state of metal structures of high-risk facilities in the oil, gas and chemical industry, transportation systems and oil and gas processing using brittle strain-sensitive coatings, which enables to obtain a clear picture of the highest stress concentration and obtain data for evaluating strength of potentially hazardous structures. The brittle coating for deformation and stress analysis is made from a mixture containing water and sugar, with the following ratio of components, wt %: water 65-75, sugar 25-35.
EFFECT: reduced harmful effect on the environment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building. Load limiter comprises force transducer and electronic device to generate warning signal of interlocking the load lifting mechanism actuator in machine reloading. Force transducer converts the force acting threat into pressure and, further, into electric signal and comprises base and loose piston separated by layer of elastomer. Transducer is composed of, particularly, false cradle of automatic hydro lifter or is adapted for fitting under traveler winch drum support body and may be shaped to a ring or parallelepiped with holes for attached at the machine. Said transducer can incorporate several pressure transducers to define mean load and load application point with generation of data or control signals. Clearance between sidewall of loose piston and base inner sidewall is selected to prevent extrusion of elastomer while its length is selected to protect against lateral loads. Electronic device is built around microcontroller and incorporates output device and wire or wireless interface.
EFFECT: impact and vibration resistance, expanded applications, higher safety.
8 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a sensor base, the maximum thickness of which is much less than two other measurements, a sensing element of elongated shape, which encloses the base with spiral coils so that a short section of each of spiral coils passes throughout the thickness of the base. Short sections of spiral coils are intended for orientation in the plane almost perpendicular to direction of interference effect, and long sections of spiral coils are intended for orientation in the plane almost perpendicular to direction of measured effect.
EFFECT: improving interference resistance of the sensor at performance of measurements.
18 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: according to one method, measurement of stretching forces acting at a rail may be realised as follows. The rail is fixed in two or more points, on the rail between fixation points a weight of large mass is suspended, and a signal depending on the stretching force is frequency of internal oscillations of the produced system, formed by the specified rail and the suspended weight. According to the second method, the amplitude-frequency characteristic is measured in the similar system of a rail and a suspended weight. The device comprises a massive frame, including two and more grips of rails, a device of excitation of weight oscillations, in one or more weights installed on the rail, comprising vibration sensors. The device may be installed on an electric locomotive, a diesel locomotive, a gasoline locomotive, a track repair machine or a laboratory car.
EFFECT: possibility to measure stretching forces acting at a rail, without installation of sensors on a rail.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device consists of strain gauges and an independent decoding device of signals from strain gauges. Strain gauges are fixed on a removable process component with cross sectional area providing maximum full use of functional capabilities of strain gauges. The removable component is fixed on a pull-rod at two points equally spaced throughout its length with quick-detachable clips providing compression force preventing sliding of pressed ends of the removable component relative to the pull-rod in the specified measurement range of tension forces.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: multicomponent displacement sensor includes a housing and a sensitive element with piezoelectric detectors. Force-receiving element is made of two longitudinally connected elastic bars, the end faces of which are connected by means of a ball hinge, on which a force transfer element is arranged, which is made in the form of a ball bearing installed with its inner race on force-receiving element in maximum deflection zone; sensitive element is made in the form of a deformed outer race of the above bearing, which is located concentrically to inner race. On internal surface of deformed race there are openings for arrangement of piezoelectric elements, and bearing cage is fixed against annular displacement relative to support ring so that each ball of the bearing contacts the working surface of piezoelectric element so that centres of balls coincide with direction of radial movements of sensitive element of the sensor.
EFFECT: enlarging functional capabilities of the device.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: force-measuring sensor includes a force-measuring washer with one flat surface and another spherical concave surface and a face-mounted washer with one mating spherical convex surface and another flat surface. Winding of a measuring resistance strain gauge is rigidly fixed on external cylindrical surface of force-measuring washer by means of an adhesive joint. Force-measuring sensor is located on the attached part on the threaded bar and pressed to the attached part by means of a nut.
EFFECT: increasing the operating time of the device; improving measurement accuracy of threaded joint force; simplifying the design.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device consists of portable housing in which there is a force-measuring sensor, a digital display and an electric measuring circuit, which is equipped with a peak detector, and a berry gripping device which is mechanically connected to the force-measuring sensor through a rod-shaped force distributor, and a device for controlling the gripping device. The gripping device is in form of pivotally connected fixed and spring-loaded movable cup-shaped gripping jaws which grip the berry from the side opposite the side where it is attached to the fruitstalk. The end of the fixed jaw is attached to the rod-shaped force distributor, and the end of the movable jaw, in order to facilitate opening and closing of jaws, is kinematically connected to the device for controlling the gripping device.
EFFECT: high efficiency of control operations.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; crane-manipulator plants.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to load-lifting machines with boom equipment and it can be used for evaluation of strength of structural members of grab-type mounted devices used with cranes and selection of material, geometric, mass-inertia and power parameters of said devices. According to proposed method, analytic dependences are used relaying geometric, mass-inertia and kinematic parameters of structural members of crane-manipulator plant and load with value of determined forces and moments.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of determination of dynamic loads acting onto structural members of crane-manipulator plant handling long-cut loads.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 5 dwg