Seismic data collection system and method
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used in seismic exploration. The invention discloses a seismic exploration method, as well as an apparatus and a system for carrying out said method. The method includes receiving data on particle movement and rotational speed. Data on particle speed are used to obtain a wave field characteristic and data on rotational speed are intended for displaying a wave field gradient characteristic. The apparatus includes an arrangement of seismic sensor units which are configured to take measurements associated with seismic exploration carried out on a surface. Each seismic sensor unit includes a particle movement sensor and a rotation sensor. An image of the investigated geologic environment is constructed from the found values of the wave field characteristic and wave field gradient.
EFFECT: high accuracy of exploration data.
18 cl, 13 dwg
Background of the invention
The invention generally relates to a system and method for collecting seismic data.
Seismic exploration involves the study of geological formations on the subject of hydrocarbon deposits. Exploration usually involves placing seismic(they are) the source(s) and seismic sensors in predetermined positions. The sources generate seismic waves, which propagate in geological formations, creating in its path changes of pressure and vibration. The change in the elastic properties of the geological formation dissipate seismic waves, changing their direction of propagation, and other properties. Part of the energy emitted by the source reaches the seismic sensors. In accordance with the recorded seismic events, the sensors generate electrical signals for forming the seismic data. The analysis of seismic data allows to detect the presence or absence of probable places of occurrence of hydrocarbons.
According to a variant embodiment of the invention, the device includes an arrangement of seismic touch blocks, which are made with the measurements associated with the seismic survey conducted on the surface. Each seismic sensor unit includes at SEB the sensor particle motion and rotation sensor.
According to another variant embodiment of the invention, the method includes the step of receiving data of particle motion and the speed of rotation of the arrangement of seismic sensors. The method includes the step of processing the data to obtain an image of the geological environment.
Advantages and other features of the invention become apparent from the following drawings, description and claims.
Brief description of drawings
Figure 1 - scheme of vibroseismic measuring system according to a variant embodiment of the invention.
figure 2 - scheme of the seismic sensor unit, which includes a geophone and two rotation sensor according to a variant embodiment of the invention.
3 and 6 - schematic arrangement of seismic sensors according to the prior art.
4, 5, 7, 8 and 9 of the circuit arrangement of seismic sensors according to the options of carrying out the invention.
Figure 10 - diagram of a data processing system according to a variant embodiment of the invention.
11 - results of field tests, which shows the measured and calculated gradients of the vertical velocity, according to a variant embodiment of the invention.
Fig is a logical block diagram of a method of attenuation of surface waves according to a variant embodiment of the invention.
Fig is a perspective view of the seismic sensor unit according to the SNO variant embodiment of the invention.
Seismic survey conducted on the surface (referred to here as the "land seismic exploration"), is usually performed for imaging geological structures in the course of exploration, exploitation and monitoring of hydrocarbon deposits. When carrying out such exploration, active seismic source emits energy that is reflected from the deeper reflecting horizons. Reflected energy is recorded for the formation of the raw seismic data, which is additionally processed for imaging geological structures. Active seismic source may be a pulsed source (such as an explosive charge or vibration source.
As a more concrete example, figure 1 shows vibro-seismic measuring system 8 in accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention. The system can contain one seismic vibrator 10 (according to 1) or multiple seismic vibrators; the balance of land seismic touch blocks D1D2D3and D4; and the 14th of data collection. Putting part of the operations associated with vibro-seismic exploration, a seismic vibrator 10 generates at least one scanning vibratory seismic signal. In particular, figure 1 p the cauldron of the deep scanning signal 15, generated by the vibrator 10 in the course of exploration for supplying scanning vibratory seismic signal in the earth matter. The interface 18 between the deep impedances Im1and Im2reflects the signal 15 at the points of I1, I2, I3and I4with the formation of the reflected signal 19, which is recorded seismic sensor units D1D2D3and D4respectively. 14 data collection collects the raw seismic data seismic sensor units D1D2D3and D4; and the raw seismic data is processed to obtain information about the deeper reflecting horizons and physical properties of the geological layers.
To generate a signal 15, the seismic vibrator 10 may contain an activator (for example, hydraulic or electromagnetic activator), which results in movement of the vibration element 11 in accordance with the scanning of the pilot signal (labeled "DF(t)" in figure 1). In particular, the signal DF(t) may be expressed as a sinusoidal function, the amplitude and frequency of which change during the generation of the scanning signal. Since the vibrating element 11 is connected to the support plate 12, which is in contact with the surface 16, the energy from the element 11 enters into the ground, creating a signal 15. In addition to the other is of Reznikov, seismic vibrator 10 may also include a device 13 of the measurement signal, which includes sensors (e.g. accelerometers) to measure signal 15 (i.e. to measure the output of earthly power of the seismic vibrator 10). According to figure 1, the seismic vibrator 10 may be installed on the truck 17 that provides mobility vibrator.
Note that, in contrast to the seismic vibrator 10, a seismic vibrator may be of an alternate design for placement in the wellbore, in accordance with other variants of embodiment of the invention. In addition, seismic touch blocks, alternatively, can be positioned in the wellbore for production measurements using the energy generated by the downhole vibrators. Though here described specific examples of terrestrial seismic sources and seismic touch blocks, it is clear that seismic touch blocks and/or seismic sources can be placed in the well in accordance with other variants of embodiment of the invention. Also it should be noted that although figure 1 is a seismic vibrator is shown as a seismic source, the seismic source of another type (for example, the pulse source) can be used in accordance with other variants of embodiment of the invention.
Traditionally, seismic the sky touch the blocks may contain motion sensors particles, for example, geophones, registering longitudinal component of the elastic wave field. This wave field is dominated by slowly propagating surface wave, which masks the weaker nearly vertically propagating reflections from hydrocarbon reservoirs. To mitigate the recorded surface waves, the data collected by the sensors of the motion of particles, can be subjected to filtering by the angles and speed. In order to avoid spatial distortion, in this method, traditionally used at least two geophones at the slowest wavelength in the direction from source to receiver. Additional geophones in the transverse direction is also traditionally used to attenuate scattered seismic energy. For weakly distorted data, the geophones may be spaced approximately 1.5 sensor on the wavelength.
Alternatively, traditional seismic touch units can record the particle motion along three orthogonal axes, which allows to use a polarizing filter (instead of filtering by angles or speed). Polarization filtering is usually based on defenestrating phase shift between the horizontal and vertical components of the Rayleigh part of the surface waves. The advantage of the polarization filter of the situation of the t is that station motion sensors particles can be separated by a greater distance, as in this case, the minimum required spatial quantization depends on faster seismic reflections, due to decreasing more slowly propagating surface waves. However, polarization filtering usually gives worse results than the method using filtering speed with more tightly spaced sensors motion of particles.
According to figure 2, as described here variants of the invention, the filtration speed or angles of inclination can be applied to data collected by the arrangement of seismic touch blocks 200 (figure 2 shows one seismic sensor unit 200) to attenuate noise associated with the surface wave. However, seismic touch blocks 200 can be spread over a greater distance than traditional seismic touch the blocks, however, preventing spatial distortion. In accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention, each seismic sensor unit 200 includes a motion sensor particles, such as geophone 202, which is used to measure the motion of particles along the vertical axis (z) (see axis 208); and at least one sensor for measuring the speed of rotation relative to the horizontal is Stalnoy axis. With regard to the specific example shown in figure 2, the seismic sensor unit 200 includes a geophone 202, is designed to detect or measure the velocity of particles along the vertical z-axis; the rotation sensor 204 that is designed to measure the transverse velocity of rotation about the longitudinal axis x; and a rotation sensor 206, designed to measure the longitudinal speed relative to the transverse axis y. In accordance with some variations of the invention, the sensors 202, 204 and 206 may be located in the same housing 201.
Note that figure 2 shows only one of many possible embodiments of the seismic sensor unit in accordance with the invention. For example, in other embodiments of the invention, for a two-dimensional (2-D) spatial arrangement, the seismic sensor unit may include a motion sensor particles and a single rotation sensor. In another variation, the sensors of the seismic sensor unit can be, in General, combined, but be in different buildings. For example, in accordance with some variations of the invention, the sensor 202 of the motion of particles can be physically separated from the rotation sensors 204 and 206 and is connected to the sensors via a wired or wireless connection. Thus, it is possible to provide megachi the certain variations within the scope of the claims.
In order lax examples for terrestrial applications and applications shallow, the rotation sensor 204, 206 may be a three-axis rotation sensor Eentec R-1 production Eentec, St. Louis, Missouri. In another example, the rotation sensor 204, 206 can be formed by the interferometer and the Sagnac gyroscope. Other variations are provided in other embodiments of the invention.
Note that in figure 2 as part of the seismic sensor unit 200 shown only the sensors 202, 204 and 206 in a simplified form to illustrate the types of sensors present in the block 200. However, the seismic sensor unit 200 may include other components, such as amplifiers and other electronic devices for collecting seismic data. For example, a seismic sensor unit 200 may include a circuit for scaling the data collected by the sensors 202, 204 and 206, to compensate for the characteristics of individual sensors. This scaling may be frequency dependent to compensate for differences in sensitivity to amplitude and phase. Note that scaling can, alternatively, be made on the record block or may be performed later during data processing.
By including at least one rotation sensor, seismic sensor unit 200, seismic touch the blocks can be separated by the great distance, compared with the spacing used for traditional seismic touch blocks. In particular, the rotation sensors 204 and 206 generate signals indicating the velocity of the horizontal rotation about their respective axes. This measured horizontal speed of rotation, when measured at the surface is proportional to the speed of tilt. Tilt speed, for small values proportional to the spatial derivative of the vertical velocity of the surface. Therefore, the measurement of the horizontal speed of rotation on the surface is proportional to the spatial derivative of the vertical velocity, which allows to apply theorem multi-channel quantization for spatial interpolation of measured seismic wave field at points other than the seismic provisions of the touch blocks.
In the General case, according to theorem multichannel quantization function and its derivative can be accurately interpolated when the function and its derivative is quantized with the division on at least one wavelength. Recorded speed V(t) and its spatial derivativeevenly quanthouse at t=2kπ/Ω and can be restored as described below
According to figure 3, one-dimensional (1-D) spatial arrangement 220 Trad is operating seismic sensors has geophones 224, spaced according to the spacing (designated explode distance "d1" on figure 3) the two geophones 224 on the most significant slow the wavelength of the surface waves. Also according to figure 4, in accordance with some variations of the invention, the 1-D spatial seismic arrangement 240 may be formed of seismic sensor units 244, each of which contains a motion sensor particles and at least one rotation sensor. Comparing figure 3 and 4, in accordance with some variations of the invention, it is possible to see that seismic touch blocks 244 can have diversity (designated explode distance "d2" on figure 4), approximately the same as the spacing arrangement 220. However, in view of theorem multichannel quantization arrangement 240 collects data of much higher quality, due to the speed of rotation. To achieve the same quality of data as the arrangement 200, 1-D spatial arrangement 260, shown in figure 5, can alternatively be used in accordance with other variants of embodiment of the invention. Comparing figure 3, 4 and 5, it can be seen that seismic touch blocks 244 arrangement 260 spaced at a greater distance explode (marked "d3" on figure 5), which significantly exceeds the be the of explode d 1or d2. In particular, in accordance with a variant embodiment of the invention, the distance of separation d3may be equal to one wavelength with the least significant register speed.
Thus, using theorem multichannel quantization of the recorded wave field vertical velocities can be interpolated at any point between the two seismic sensor units within the most significant slow-wavelength surface waves. For 2-D arrangement can achieve a similar reduction in the transverse direction, although often the transverse quantization is already more scattered than the longitudinal quantization. As a result, 2-D arrangement used in 3-D seismic with respect to time (where time is the third dimension), can use up to four times less seismic sensory block than the traditional arrangement, providing the same quality of data. This gives you the opportunity to significantly reduce installation work in the field. In this case, the number of channels does not change proportionally, and it is possible to reduce the number of channels in relation to 4/3.
For weakly distorted data, seismic touch blocks (each of which includes at least one sensor the movement of particles and at least one tatchikuruzu) can be spaced approximately 0.75 from the slowest wavelength, in comparison with spanning a 1.5 wavelength in conventional schemes, which are weakly distorted data.
Theorem multichannel interpolation expressed by EQ. 1, is applied to an infinite number of equally spaced seismic touch blocks. Without significant loss of accuracy, the number of sensory units, it is possible to restrict a fairly small number (64 in order lax example). For interpolation fewer seismic touch blocks and/or unevenly spaced seismic touch blocks, it is possible to apply the method, for example, described in the article Ozbek, A., Ozdemir, A.K. and M Vassallo,Interpolation of Irregularly Sampled Data by Matching Pursuit, European Association of Geoscientists &Engineers, Expanded Abstracts (2008). For interpolation in two spatial dimensions, the data can first be interpolated in the same direction using a one-dimensional algorithm, and then interpolate in the other direction using the same one-dimensional algorithm.
Figure 6 shows the traditional 2-D spatial arrangement of seismic block 310, each of which includes only the geophones. In General, the arrangement 300 may have a length in the longitudinal explode (marked "d1" figure 6) and the transverse distance explode (marked "d2" figure 6), resulting in the geophones are rasmusen the mi half wavelength. Arrangement 300 differs from alternative arrangement 320 (see Fig.7), which may be constructed in accordance with the described herein variant embodiment of the invention. Arrangement 320 includes seismic touch blocks 324, each of which includes a motion sensor particles and two rotation sensor. Arrangement 320 is the longitudinal distance explode (marked "d3" 7) and the transverse distance explode (marked "d4" 7), which exceed the distance of separation d1and d2used in the arrangement 300 shown in Fig.6. In particular, the distance of separation d3and d4can be approximately one wavelength of the slowest registered significant waves. Thus, the separation of sensors arrangement 320 is doubled in both horizontal directions, compared with the traditional arrangement 300. Therefore, the arrangement 320 is four times less seismic sensory block than the traditional arrangement 300, which can significantly reduce the number of cables and the amount of installation work in the field.
Note that, in accordance with other variants of the invention, seismic touch the blocks arrangement may not be evenly spaced in a rectangular grid. Nab is emer, on Fig shows the arrangement 350 seismic sensory block 324 in accordance with other variants of embodiment of the invention. It is shown that the arrangement 350 includes a longitudinal path 330 and the transverse path 328, each of which has a stepped or hexagonal configuration.
Thanks described here increased spacing between the seismic sensor units, seismic touch the blocks can be particularly advantageous for reconnaissance conducted in areas with obstacles. For traditional lineups, these obstacles may not be able to pass two of sensory block at the wavelength for continuous interpolation. However, due to the greater diversity admitted described herein seismic sensor units, a relatively large obstacles may be present, without compromising the image obtained as a result of exploration.
In particular, according to Fig.9, in accordance with some variations of the invention, the arrangement 400 may include seismic touch blocks 402, containing only the geophones (i.e. blocks that do not have rotation sensors), and seismic touch blocks 404, each of which includes a geophone and at least one rotation sensor. According to Fig.9, seismic touch blocks 404, which includes the sensors, the rotation is Oia, located near obstacles 420. By increasing the allowable explode seismic sensory block 404, the obstacle 420 does not violate the geometry of intelligence, and thus, you can still provide continuous interpolation. According to Fig.9, seismic touch blocks 402, without rotation sensors, in General, are located in areas remote from obstacles 420. Other variations are envisaged within the scope of the claims.
According to figure 10, in accordance with some variations of the invention, the seismic data collected described herein seismic sensor units can be processed using the processing system 500. The processing system 500 may wholly or partly be placed on the alignment or out of the arrangement, depending on the particular variant embodiment of the invention. In General, the processing system 500 may include at least one processor 504, such as a microcontroller and/or microprocessor. In General, the processor 504 may be connected to one or more tires 508 to the memory 510, which stores various programs 512 and data 514. Program 512, when executed by a processor 504, can instruct the processor 504 to receive the data collected by the rotation sensors and particle motion seismic touch units; the use of the best multi-channel quantization for the interpolation of the measurements of the motion of particles between the provisions of the touch blocks based on the received data; to filter by speed or angles; handle interpolated/actual measurements of particle motion and rotation speed to obtain an image of the geological environment; etc. Initial, intermediate or final results of the processing can be stored as arrays of data 514 in memory 510.
Note that figure 10 shows only one example of many possible architectures for the processing system 500. Thus, it is possible to provide numerous variations within the scope of the claims. For example, according to other variants of the invention, the processing system 500 may be a distributed processing system, and, thus, may include a handling system that are connected to each other and can be in different places.
For the processing system 500, shown in figure 10, the processing system 500 may include a driver 516 display that controls the display 520 for displaying the processing results produced by the processor 504. For example, the display 520 may display the time and/or frequency spectra of the received seismic measurements, as well as the time and/or frequency spectra measurements after the implementation of multi-channel quantization, filtering angles, filter, speed, etc. Additionally, according to figure 10, the ICI is EMA processing 500 can include interfaces to communicate with other computers and/or processing systems, for example, the network adapter card (NIC) 524, which is connected to the network 526.
Field testing of a relatively small scale produced using a rotation sensor Eentec R1 with extended band 50 Hertz (Hz). The rotation sensor and two surrounding the vertical component geophones were installed on the surface. Explosive line of the wave field was obtained by passing between sources 2 meters (m). For this test used the source in the form of a vertical hammer, which strikes a metal plate lying on the ground. Data speed, which is proportional to the spatial gradient of the wave field, compared with the longitudinal gradient of the vertical component of wave velocity field obtained by dierentiating the pair of vertical component geophones. Data geophones and rotation corrected for their respective characteristics.
The results are shown in figure 11 graph 450. According to 11, the comparison of measured (using a rotation sensor) spatial gradient 458 and the calculated longitudinal gradient 454 demonstrates good agreement between the two datasets, for example, a good agreement between the times of arrival and wave forms.
Other embodiments of provided within the scope of the claims. For example, in the accordance with other variants of the invention, particle motion and data rotation can be processed to obtain information about the wave field in addition to the interpolated values for the wave field in the locations of the touch blocks. For example, in accordance with some variations of the invention, the data of the rotation sensors can be used for attenuation of surface waves. The rotation sensor may be less sensitive to the amplitude and/or frequency, or may have, in General, a higher noise level than the rotation sensor used in the application of interpolation. For this application, the rotation sensor registers mainly notable events, and surface wave dominates over the data. The data speed can be combined with the data of the particle motion for the attenuation of surface waves, as described below.
In accordance with some variations of the invention, the data speed is first combined with data from particle motion for the interpolation data of the motion of particles in positions where the touch blocks are missing, for example in the middle of each set of sensory units. Traditionally, these particle motion is recorded with an interval of spatial quantization twice the spatial wave number Nyquist, compared with this application, in which the interpolated mA the SIV data quantized with a single spatial wave number Nyquist. The interpolated data array contains the measured data of the motion of particles with weaker reflections and interpolated data of the motion of particles without weak reflections. You can then apply the method of attenuation of surface waves, such as the filtering method according to the frequency/wave number (in the order of non-restrictive example described in the article Oz Yilmaz,Seismic Data Analysis: Processing, Inversion and Interpretation of Seismic Data,Society of Exploration Geophysicists (2001).
In order of another non-restrictive example, you can use the method of attenuation of surface waves is described in the article, Anderson, B., P., Van Baaren, M. Daly, W. Grace, J. Quigley and D. Sweeney,thePoint-Receiver Seismic Data Offers New Approach to Managing OnshoreE&P Development Cycle, First Break, 24, no.2, 63-70 (2006). After filtering, only a subset of the filtered measured trajectories of the particles, since the filtered interpolated trajectories contain weaker reflections and, thus, discarded. Because this app is designed to remove noise, surface waves and other noise fashion only with wave numbers between single and double spatial wave number Nyquist, you can use the rotation sensor having a limited sensitivity and bandwidth.
In accordance with other variants of the invention, the surface wave can be attenuated without original is Noah interpolation. One problem associated with surface wave is that its low speed requires, in General, dense sensor location, the motion of particles in the longitudinal direction, and, often, in the transverse direction. In the absence of spatial quantization of the wave field, distortion can create obstacles for many data processing algorithms. In General, distortions occur when made less than two measurements slowest wavelength of interest. Described below protivovrashchatelnyj filter, which removes the distorted part of the wave field, which, in many cases, is relatively slow surface wave. Through the use of protivovrashchatelnogo filter, you can increase the diversity of the touch blocks, resulting in a surface wave is intentionally distorted, and the reflected signal no.
The data of the vertical component of particle motion (denoted here V(x,y,t)") is measured at position (x,y) and time t. One or more rotation sensors on each seismic sensor unit provides a longitudinal gradient (here marked "Gx(x,y,t)") and/or transverse gradient (denoted here "Gy(x,y,t)") vertical wave field. Wave field measured at the surface, can pisatelei follows:
In diversity frequency/wavenumber, distorted energy, wave number which exceeds the spatial wave numberknsurrounds and is projected onto the undistorted frequency/wave number. The amplitude in the calculated spectrum of the frequency/wave number (f-k) can be described as follows:
where "Aua" denotes the amplitude of the undistorted wave field; "Aalx" denotes the amplitude of the longitudinal distorted wave fields; and "Aaly" denotes the amplitude of the transverse distorted wave field.
The amplitude of the undistorted spectrum f-k can be described as follows:
Similarly, the amplitude of the distorted spectrum f-k can be described as follows:
Thus, according pig, in accordance with the embodiment of the invention, method 600 can be applied to obtain an undistorted wave field vertical motion of the particles. According to the method 600, the data corresponding dancingartichoke particle motion data and longitudinal and/or transverse rotation, accepted at step 604. This data is then converted, at step 608, the frequency diversity/kx. Then protivovrashchatelnyj the filter is applied in the x direction (step 612) and in the y direction (step 620). After filtering steps 612 and 620, the filtered data is converted, on the steps 616 and 624 back in spatial and temporal diversity.
In accordance with other variants of the invention, the data speed can also be used for the separation of the wave field. In particular, the data speed can be used to separate wave modes of compression (P) and shear (S) on the free surface, as described in article Robertsson, J.O.A., and A. Curtis,Wavefield Separation Using Densely Deployed Three-Component Single-Sensor Groups in Land Surface-Seismic Recordings, 1624-1633, Geophysics, Vol. 67 (2002). Wave field compression P at the free surface is given by the divergence of the wave field in the form
where "λ" and "μ" - parameters Lama. This value can be measured using the pressure sensor described in the patent application in the UK No. 0800376.6, entitled "ACOUSTIC LAND SEISMIC SENSOR" (the number in the register of patent attorney 57.0708), filed January 10, 2008 and, therefore, included here by reference in full. Alternatively, the value can be measured by spatial differentiation of the measurements of the motion of particles that description is but the article Robertsson, J.O.A., and E. Muyzert,Wavefield Separation Using A Volume Distribution of Three Component Recordings, Geoph. Res. Lett, 26, 2821-2824 (1999). The shear part of the S waves received by the wave field separation, includes three components describing the rotor wave field in the form
and Ur. 14
. Ur. 15
Values in Ar-15 can directly measure a three-part speed sensor located on the free surface. Alternatively, the method can be used for vertical separation of the wave field using the measured rotation speed and three-speed that described in Geophysics 67 on 1624-1633 (in particular, Ur-36).
In other embodiments of the invention, the described methods and systems can be applied to a weakening of the atmospheric waves. In General, atmospheric wave is an acoustic noise generated by the seismic source, propagating with a speed of about 330 m/s and having a frequency above 100 Hz. In particular, atmospheric wave can be suppressed by using a method such as the above-described method, the attenuation of surface waves using protivovrashchatelnogo filter. An important difference between the weakening of the atmospheric waves and attenuation of surface waves is that naturally the wave has a shorter wavelength and therefore is often distorted in the traditional exploration. Thus, in seismic operations using units where the joint sensors of particle motion and speed, you may need to explode the blocks, similar to traditional exploration work, not more rare diversity, which otherwise can be used for attenuation of surface waves. However, you can still only use one sensor unit on the slowest wavelength instead of two, but most slow wave length now is the atmospheric wave of higher frequency surface wave of lower frequency.
In accordance with some variations of the invention, it is possible to use seismic sensor unit 700 shown in Fig. Seismic sensor unit 700 includes a geophone and at least one rotation sensor. Seismic sensor unit 700 has a housing that includes a base plate 704, a slightly curved for stabilization unit 700 and, in General, increase of seismic connection of the sensor unit with the measured wave field and surface wave. On Fig also shows the cable connectors 712 and 716. A single pin can pass or not to pass through the support plate 704 in the earth's surface, depending on the particular variant embodiment of the invention.
In another variation, the three pin can is prohodit of the seismic sensor unit into the ground to stabilize the unit and, in General, increasing seismic connection of the sensor unit with the measured wave field and surface wave. Other configurations are envisaged within the scope of the claims.
Note that the processing system 400 can be used for processing the data collected particle motion and rotation speed for the above-described attenuation of surface wave attenuation atmospheric waves, separation of P and S waves, the wave field separation on the upside and downside, etc. Thus, processing 400 can store the appropriate data and software instructions to implement at least in part, one or more of these methods to obtain an image of the geological environment.
Although the present invention is described in relation to a limited number of embodiments, specialists in the art based on this disclosure, can offer numerous modifications and variations. The following claims is intended to cover all such modifications and variations which do not go beyond the nature and scope of the present invention.
1. The way a seismic survey, comprising stages, which are:
accept the motion of particles, obtained during the measurement sensors of the motion of particles arrangement of sensors, the movement is of the particles and the speed of rotation, received during the sensor measurement speed setting speed sensors, and
receive characteristics of the wave field based, at least in part data of particle motion;
receive characteristics of the gradient of the wave field based, at least partially, speed data, and
using based on processor machine process data of particle motion and the speed of rotation based at least partially on the characteristics of the wave field and the characteristics of the gradient of the wave field to build the image of the geological environment.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the processing includes weakening at least one of the surface waves and atmospheric waves.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the processing includes interpolation of the wave field at locations other than the locations where data were obtained particle motion and data speed.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the processing includes applying a smoothing filter distortion.
5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the processing includes the separation of wave fields compression and shear.
6. System for seismic surveys, containing
an interface for receiving data of the motion of particles, obtained during the measurement, motion sensors particle placement of motion sensors particles, and given the speed, received during the sensor measurement speed setting speed sensors, and
characterize the wave field based, at least in part data of particle motion;
to characterize the gradient of the wave field based, at least partially, speed data, and
data processing the particle motion data and the speed of rotation based at least partially on the characteristics of the wave field and the characteristics of the gradient of the wave field to build the image of the geological environment.
7. The system according to claim 6, in which the processor provides attenuation of at least one of the surface waves and atmospheric waves.
8. The system according to claim 7, in which the processor provides interpolation of the wave field at locations other than the locations where data were obtained particle motion and speed.
9. The system according to claim 7, in which the processor provides the application of the smoothing filter distortion.
10. The system according to claim 6, in which the processor uses the data of the motion of particles and the data speed for the separation of wave fields compression and shear.
11. The way a seismic survey, comprising stages are:
use the alignment containing blocks of sensors for obtaining data of the motion of particles and given the speed, moreover, each of the sets of sensors includes a sensor particle motion and the rotation sensor and at least part of the arrangement is the grid spacing for blocks of sensors greater than the minimum required separation between grid motion sensors particles for continuous interpolation of the wave field; and
data processing the particle motion data and the rotational speed through the machine to perform continuous interpolation of the wave field.
12. The method according to claim 11, in which at the stage of use use the alignment near obstacles, and the method further comprises:
the use of blocks of sensors for obtaining data of particle motion and speed data near the obstacles and the use of additional units of the sensor arrangement containing motion sensors particles and not containing the rotation sensors for additional data particle motion.
13. The method according to item 12, further including using the explode mesh for additional blocks of sensors is greater than the spacing of the grid blocks for sensors containing sensors particle motion and speed sensors.
14. The method according to claim 11, in which the spacing of the grid is a uniform and non-uniform spacing.
15. The method according to claim 11, in which a continuous interpolation of the wave field contains interpolate the motion of particles.
16. Device for a seismic survey, comprising:
the arrangement of sensors containing the first set of blocks of the sensors with the first grid spacing, and the second set of blocks of the sensors with the second grid spacing greater than the first spacing of the grid; and
blocks of sensors of the first set of blocks of sensors comprise sensors for particle motion and speed sensors;
at least one of the speed sensors made with the possibility of direct measurement of the rotational speed of the speed sensor, and
blocks of sensors of the second set of blocks of sensors include motion sensors particles and does not contain the speed sensors.
17. The device according to clause 16, in which the arrangement of the sensors are made with the possibility of coverage of the study area containing the obstacle, and the placement of the sensors is configured to use the second explode grid to compensate for the influence of obstacles and placement of sensors configured to receive seismic data from which the wave field can be spatially interpolated over the area, which includes the second set of blocks of the sensors.
18. The device according to clause 16, in which the spacing of the grid is a uniform and non-uniform spacing.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to marine seismic researches and, in particular, to a connection system intended for connection of equipment to a marine seismometer cable assembly and disconnection of it from the latter. The proposed group of inventions comprises a connection system to attach an external device to the section of an underwater cable, a bush for rotary joint of the external device to a seismic cable, a method to connect the external device, installed on the underwater cable and fixed to a pair of cups, to a pair of bushes each of which is fitted by a belt element and a raised projection, as well as a method to disconnect the external device, installed on the underwater cable and fixed to a pair of cups each of which is made with a gap, from a pair of bushes each of which is fitted by a raised projection. The connection system comprises the first bush fixed around the underwater cable in a certain location point and fitted by a belt element and a raised projection on its outer surface, the second bush fixed around the underwater cable at a distance from the first bush and fitted by a belt element and a raised projection on its outer surface, the first C-shape cup attached to the first bush so that to be able of turning to the first bush and fitted by the inner surface intended for sliding along the belt element of the first bush, and a gap formed in the said cup by the longitudinal opening between the ends of the C-shape profile while the width of the opening between the said ends is more than the maximal circular size of the projection provided on the first bush or is equal to it, the second C-shape cup attached to the second bush so that to be able of turning to the second bush and fitted by the inner surface intended for sliding along the belt element of the second bush, and a gap formed in the said cup by the longitudinal opening between the ends of the C-shape profile while the width of the opening between the said ends is more than the maximal circular size of the projection provided on the second bush or is equal to it. The proposed bush is fitted by a belt element passing in circular direction around the bush periphery, a raised collar set on the rear end of the belt element and a raised collar set on the opposite front end of the belt element and passing along the part of the bush periphery. The proposed connection method of the external device involves connection of the pair of cups provided with gaps to the external device, turning of bushes in respect to each other to match the projections made on both bushes, pulling of the cups onto the cable in radial direction through the said gap, moving of the cups in the longitudinal direction along the cable so that the matched projections pass through the gaps to the specified position around the inner bush and turning of bushes in respect to each other to shift the projections in respect to each other. The proposed disconnection method of the external device involves turning of bushes in respect to each other to match the projections made on both bushes, moving of the cups in the longitudinal direction along the bushes so that the matched projections are in the gaps until they pass the bush and demounting of the cup fixed to the external device from the cable in radial direction.
EFFECT: at following sea, the said external devices are provided with reliable fixation and such pushing forward of the external device is prevented when the cups are disengaged from the belt elements, the above is ensured due to the fact that the projection prevents the cup from leaving the belt element when the gap is shifted circumferentially in relation to the projection.
26 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: there is generated seismic disturbance and it is directed to ground surface; to detect response to disturbance there is used interferometre; the said response in form of transferred particles on ground surface is traced and recorded at stage of detecting; transfer of particles on ground surface is analysed during response period at analysing stage. On the interferometre an array of detectors is arranged into a line running in the same direction as a cross component Vt of rate of relative motion of ground surface particles. Also the detectors are arranged to detect light rays with different angular direction. A formed reference beam of coherent light is united with an object beam reflected from surface to obtain mutual interference in form of a speckle structure representing information on relative motion of surface and the interferometre. There is determined a detector in the array with zero or minimal response to total rate Vtot of motion, thus identifying the detector with response direction line which is arranged normally to Vtot. In this way there is established change of direction of Vtot with course of time related to change with cross component V1.
EFFECT: simplification of seismic prospecting procedure with detection of P and S- waves.
51 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: physics; geophysics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to geophysics and can be used in seismic exploration. The seismic sensor module includes sensing elements arranged in a plurality of axes to detect seismic signals in a plurality of respective directions, and a processor to receive data from the sensing elements and to determine inclinations of the axes relative to a particular orientation. The determined inclinations are used to determine noise that has leaked into a seismic signal along the particular orientation due to seismic signals propagating in other orientations. The collected seismic data, taking into account the determined inclination, are rotated to transmit the signal along the target orientation without transmitting any other seismic signal in another orientation.
EFFECT: high accuracy of seismic data.
19 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a combined hydroacoustic receiver, having a housing, a sound pressure sensor and oscillatory acceleration sensors. The housing of the receiver is in form of a circular cross-section dumbbell which can be removable. In the end faces of the larger diameter there are channels for accommodating oscillatory acceleration sensors and a cylindrical sound pressure sensor is placed outside around the housing, between the end faces. The channels lie parallel to each other and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the housing or perpendicular to each other, and the oscillatory acceleration sensors are arranged such that their centres of mass lie on the longitudinal axis of symmetry of the housing.
EFFECT: high noise immunity of the receiver.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a device in form of a cylindrical container with sockets in which seismic sensors are rigidly mounted. One of the sensors is vertical and its axis of maximum sensitivity is directed on the axis of the device. The other sensor is horizontal and its axis of maximum sensitivity lies in the clamping plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the device. Two other horizontal sensors are also rigidly mounted in the container in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the device at an angle of 45 degrees to the vertical clamping plane on both sides thereof.
EFFECT: high quality of detecting seismic vibrations in cased and uncased wells.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a data collection unit (9) with a main power supply (10), an electronics unit (5) consisting of an analogue-to-digital converter (6), connected to a microprocessor (7), and a three-component accelerometer sensor (2) connected to the analogue-to-digital converter (6). The device is provided with a tiltmeter (3), a three-axis magnetometer (4) and a secondary power supply (8) installed in the electronics unit (5). The tiltmeter (3) and the three-axis magnetometer (4) are connected to the microprocessor (7). The three-component accelerometer sensor (2), the tiltmeter (3), the three-axis magnetometer (4) and the electronics unit (5) are connected to the secondary power supply (8) and are mounted in a waterproof casing (1) made from stainless steel.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring seismic vibrations.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: ground-based system for collecting seismic data has: a housing having a cover and a container, wherein each of said cover and container has a cylindrical wall with an outer surface and an inner surface and a closed end, each of said walls forms an open cylindrical end and is characterised by a periphery, wherein one of said ends lies such that it is fitted into the other end, wherein each of said ends is provided with multiple teeth on the periphery, wherein said teeth of said cover and said container are engaged with each other when one of said ends is fitted into the other; and a geophone lying in said housing.
EFFECT: high reliability of data and improved function of synchronising seismic sensors in the unit.
25 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for determining direction to a signal source includes the first band-rejection filter and low-pass filter, the second band-rejection filter and low-pass filter, the third band-rejection filter and low-pass filter, the first, the second and the third amplifiers, the first, the second and the third analogue-to-digital converters (ADC), the first, the second and the third signal receivers, a personal electronic calculating machine (PECM or a microprocessor), the first and the second calibrators; it also includes a clock generator, a delay line, an adder, a frequency synthesiser, the first AND circuit, the first register, the second AND circuit, the second register, the first mixer, the first narrow-band filter, the second mixer, the second narrow-band filter, the third mixer, the third narrow-band filter, an antenna unit of the common timing system, a synchroniser, a unit for communication to subscribers, the third calibrator, the third AND circuit, the first synchronous detector, the second synchronous detector, a limiter, a phase shifter, a detector, the first controlled filter, the second controlled filter, the fourth amplifier, the fourth ADC, the third controlled filter, the fourth controlled filter, the fifth amplifier, the fifth ADC, the fifth controlled filter, the sixth controlled filter, the sixth amplifier, the sixth ADC, the first, the second, the third, the fourth, the fifth and the sixth switches, as well as a counter, which are connected to each other in a certain way.
EFFECT: reduction of interference at recording of useful short-time signals by means of preliminary search and rejection of frequencies of interference sources.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: seismometer is proposed, which includes a base, two elastic elements, a bracket, two magnetic systems, a multisection coil, a harmonic oscillator, an amplifier, a cylindrical housing, a capacitance-type probe with excitation electrodes, two magnetically soft bars fixed in the cylindrical housing coaxially to longitudinal axis of magnetic systems and placed with their conical ends in holes on end parts of magnetic systems. Seismometer also includes a transformer and two dielectric gaskets.
EFFECT: increasing the signal-noise ratio at the seismometer outlet and therefore improving measurement accuracy of seismic loads.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of identifying a seismic event, which involves combining in one seismic detector two or three pairs of spaced apart seismic sensors which are directed at an angle to each other, and subsequent processing of the obtained seismic data in order to determine the direction of the source of seismic disturbance. In order to realise this method, a seismic detector is provided, which comprises seismic sensors, an analogue-to-digital converter, a unit for identifying a seismic event, a unit for calculating the direction to the source of the seismic event, band-pass and integrating filters and a cross-correlation computer.
EFFECT: high probability of correct identification of a seismic event and accuracy of determining the direction of the source.
9 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is seismometer, having a base, two elastic members, a support arm, two magnetic systems, a multi-section coil lying between magnetic conductors and pole terminals of the magnetic systems, a sinusoidal generator and an amplifier. The seismometer also has a capacitive sensor with exciting electrodes, a first output electrode and a second output electrode, two magnetically soft rods and two dielectric spacers. The design of the disclosed device is supplemented by a transformer.
EFFECT: high signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the seismometer and, consequently, high accuracy of measuring seismic forces.
SUBSTANCE: device has a seismic transducer, an analogue-to-digital converter, a data transmission channel, an astronomical time signal generator, a clock generator and a master controller. The device further includes a synchronisation unit. The program in the master controller facilitates simultaneous reception of data from the analogue-to-digital converter and the astronomical time signal generator and transmission of data over the data transmission channel to the output of the device.
EFFECT: high accuracy of synchronisation of seismic data with astronomical time.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to solid-state wave gyroscopes (SWG) that are used to determine angular movements and included in units of navigational devices of ground and aviation and space equipment. SWG resonator can be considered as a thin elastic cylinder having the possibility of performing bending oscillations in its plane. Behaviour of a cylindrical shell in a peripheral area is compensated by using an annular cylindrical element in the resonator.
EFFECT: use of an annular cylindrical element in the cylindrical resonator design contributes to increase of stability of a wave pattern depending on the chosen version of its location.
44 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to generate vibrations in a SSWG sensor consists in the fact that electromagnets (electromagnetic transducers) are used for initial generation and/or adjustment of vibrations in the operating and/or close to operating frequency of the sensor, and electrodes of capacitors (electrostatic transducers) are used to maintain and/or adjust the vibrations at the operating frequency.
EFFECT: higher measurement accuracy for rotation angle and angular velocity of objects.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a vibratory vacuum microgyroscope a magnet system comprises a nonmagnetic centring ring installed on a magnet, an upper magnetic conductor is set as per the fit onto the nonmagnetic centring ring, a support of a silicone resonator is installed on a nonmagnetic base as per the fit with the lower magnetic conductor, surfaces of the magnet, the centring ring, upper and lower magnetic conductors, nonmagnetic base, silicone resonator and the resonator support are assembled with no inner cavities formed.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve manufacturability of gyroscope production.
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to sensors of physical and chemical or biochemical actions, in particular to area of infra-red equipment, namely to converters of thermal radiation in an electric signal. In the adaptive sensor on the basis of the sensitive field device, containing a structure "metal-dielectric-semiconductor" with a semi-conductor substrate and a mobile conducting electrode on the console, which includes layers with various factors of thermal expansion, a gate and a p-n transition for input of an electric signal. It allows to change a charge in the "metal-dielectric-semiconductor" structure and by that to operate a mobile electrode, holding it in optimum, for operation of the sensor, position.
EFFECT: realisation of an adaptive sensor on the basis of a thermosensitive field device and increase of its sensitivity, accuracy of measurement and speed.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: in a gyroscopic system comprising at least four vibration gyroscopes, the first measurement is provided by a vibration gyroscope subject to calibration, and the second measurement is provided by a combination of measurements from other vibration gyroscopes of the system. At the level of the vibration gyroscope to be calibrated they apply the initial command for the direction to change the position from the first vibration position into the second vibration position. The calibrated value of the scale coefficient of the vibration gyroscope subject to calibration is determined on the basis of the calculated value in respect to variation of the position, on the basis of the period of time, within which the initial command is applied, the initial command, the angle difference between the first and second vibration positions, measured in accordance with the first measurement, and angle difference measured according to the second measurement.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of calibration in respect to a scale coefficient value.
11 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: gyroscopic system comprises at least four vibration gyroscopes made as capable of changing the vibration position. The first measurement is provided by a calibrated gyroscope, and the second measurement is provided by a combination of appropriate measurements from other gyroscopes of the system, at the same time these first and second measurements are made along one and the same axis of measurement. After determination of the measurement departure value between the first measurement and the second measurement, there is a command to change the position of vibration of the calibrated gyroscope into the other vibration position, and the departure value is determined once again. The command to change the vibration position and determination of the departure value is repeated K times, where K is a positive integer number. Then on the basis of produced departure values a departure model is generated depending on the position of vibration of the calibrated gyroscope.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase accuracy of calibration.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining heading is realised using an inertial device (1) comprising at least one vibratory angle sensor (3) having a resonator associated with a detector and device for setting the resonator into vibration, connected to a control device to provide a first mode of operation in which the vibration can freely vary in an angular frame of reference of the resonator, and a second mode of operation in which the vibration is maintained at a certain angle in the frame of reference of the resonator. The method involves controlling said sensor in the second mode of operation to maintain the electric turning angle corresponding to a least error value of the sensor, and controlling said sensor in the first mode of operation to take a heading measurement, and controlling said sensor in the second mode of operation once the heading measurement has been taken and until the next measurement in order to maintain the electric turning angle.
EFFECT: invention enables to limit the undesirable effect of the precession mode of the gyroscope on measurement accuracy.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: hemispherical resonator (7) includes bell-shaped element (4) fixed on base (3) that carries the main electrodes (2) that facing to annular rim (6.2) of the bell-shaped element, and at least one guard electrode (1) located near main electrodes (2). At least some part of inner surface (6.1) At least some part of inner surface (6.2) are coated with electrically conducting layer (6) that also covers section (6.3) of outer surface of the bell-shaped element, which is adjacent to its annular rim.
EFFECT: invention provides minimisation of angular velocity measurement errors and restricts damping of oscillations of a bell-shaped element, which improves accuracy and reliability.
6 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a sensitive element made in the form of a disc, on which eight conducting electrodes-sectors are applied onto upper surface, and a solid electrode is made on lower surface. The first electronic converter, the input of which is connected to two diametrically opposite exciting electrodes-sectors, and the output thereof is connected to two diametrically opposite exciting electrodes-sectors arranged crosswise relative to the first ones. The second electronic converter, the input of which is connected to two measuring electrodes-sectors located at an angle of 45° to exciting electrodes-sectors, and the output of the second converter is connected to the rest two feedback electrodes-sectors and is the output of piezogyroscope, a central pin electrode, one end of which is connected to a fixed base (substrate), and a piezodisc is fixed on the other end of the electrode. With that, in the piezodisc there is N through openings around the electrode for attachment of the piezodisc to the fixed substrate.
EFFECT: increasing sensitivity of a piezogyroscope in an angular velocity variation mode.