Freewheel self-locking differential
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, specifically to differential gears of wheeled tractor front driving axles, as well as can be used as differential for wheeled vehicles and other transport means. Freewheel self-locking differential represents double-acting coupled ratchet free-wheel clutch installed on bearings in axle body. It contains differential housing with driven gear (3) of central gear group. In the borings of the housing, ratchets (5) and spring-loaded axes (7) with catches (8) installed on them are mounted. The axes have on their each butt end one main eccentric projection (A), interacting with stationary disc (10) installed in axle body, and one additional projection (B) located diametrically opposite to the main projection. In the axle body there is additional disc (12) installed being able to move in axial direction by means of guides (11) and to act on additional projections.
EFFECT: invention has possibility of forced locking differential ratchet mechanisms and switching on front wheels during braking.
The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular differential gear front axles wheeled tractors, and also can be used as a differential wheeled cars and other vehicles.
Known self-locking differential free running containing the hub of the driven gear and the case in which you installed half-shaft casing, with the end surfaces of the lugs, a sleeve inside the casing on the outer surface of which is made diametrically located slots, in which the tangential clearance posted by shanks dogs, located on the axes and set its ends in the housing parts movably in the axial direction.
The disadvantage of this design is fuzzy triggered dogs at high speeds occurring due to the weak pressing them to the end projections of the half-shafts clips, due to the appearance at high speeds of rotation of the friction forces arising from the centrifugal forces that impede the movement of the axes of the dogs along the axis and the clamping dogs to end stops half-shafts clips. The increase of permanent axial force due to the spring at a small turnover differential leads to an increase in wear as stops half-shaft casing and liners dogs.
Known samolocie the clinical differential free running , which is mounted on bearings in the housing of the axle dual ratcheting overrunning clutch double action and includes a housing differential driven gear, the Central gear, the bores of which it is the star wheels, spring-loaded axis available at their ends on one main eccentric protrusion and a pawl, pivotally mounted on the axis and cooperating with a fixed disk installed in the body of the bridge.
A disadvantage of known construction conventional prefilled auto-disable free running differential is the lack of engine braking.
The basis of the proposed technical solutions task transfer braking torque from the main transmission to the front wheels of the vehicle during braking.
The technical result of the implementation of the tasks is the ability to push lock hrapovic mechanisms of differential front axle and turn the front wheels in the braking process. This improves braking performance due to the use of 100% of the towing vehicle weight and safety when braking on steep descents.
The problem is solved in that a limited-slip differential freewheel is a mounted on bearings in the housing mos is and dual ratcheting overrunning clutch double action. The differential includes a housing driven gear, the Central gear, the bores of which it is the star wheels and spring-loaded axis attached to their dogs. The axis are on the ends of one of the main eccentric protrusion that interacts with a fixed disk installed in the body of the bridge, and diametrically oppositely located relative to the main ledge, the additional ledge. In the case of the bridge has an extra disk that has the ability to move in the axial direction with the help of leads and act on additional tabs.
New for this design is that the axis are on the ends of one additional protrusion located diametrically opposite eccentric relative to the main ledge. In the case of the bridge has a drive that has the ability to move in the axial direction with the help of leads and act on additional tabs.
The design of conventional prefilled auto-disable differential freewheel illustrated by the following drawings.
1 shows a limited-slip differential freewheel. Figure 2 shows the operation of the differential mode-locking. Figure 3 shows the section b-b In figure 2. Figure 4 shows the operation of the differential-mode push lock. Figure 5 the image is but the cross-section y-Y figure 4.
A limited-slip differential freewheel is a double overrunning clutch ratcheting double action type, installed in the housing of the axle 1 in the bearings 2. Driven gear 3 is fixed to the clutch housing 4, which has a bore with installed 5 star wheels. The star wheels 5 are grooves on the outer surfaces and connected to the axes 6 of the front wheels. The shaft 7 mounted in the bores of the housing of the clutch 4 and have at their ends the main "A" and an additional "B" tabs eccentric and diametrically opposed relative to each other. On the axes 7 installed dogs 8 stops swinging together with the axis 7. Spring 9 constantly press axis 7 main eccentric projections "A" to the stationary disk 10 attached to the housing 1. In the bores of the housing of the axle 1 set leashes 11, which can move in the axial direction together with attached to them by the disk 12 and, by means of springs 13, press the disc 12 to the stationary disk 10.
The proposed design solution allows you to use the differential in two modes: mode-locking and forced the lock.
Mode-locking of a driven gear 3 to the clutch housing 4 rotates relative to the housing of the axle 1. Due to the friction force of the main eccentric protrusions "And" about fixed on the IC 10, the shaft 7 rotates together with dogs 8. When this stops dogs 8 come into the outer grooves of the star wheels 5 one side or the other, depending on the direction of rotation of the clutch housing 4.
In this case, if the angular velocity of rotation ω1driven gear 3 to the clutch housing 4 more speed ω2the star wheels 5 lugs dogs 8 are in the outer grooves of the star wheels 5 and rest on their ledges (Figure 3). Thus the 5 star wheels are blocked and transmit torque from the driven gear 3 through the axis 6 on the driving wheels.
If the angular velocity of rotation ω1driven gear 3 to the clutch housing 4 is less than the rotation speed ω2the star wheels 5, the tabs on the star wheels 5 is pushed from the exterior grooves stops dogs 8. While the star wheels 5 axes 6 are able to rotate freely relative to the driven gear 3.
In the forced mode locking when braking moves in the axial direction of leads 11 and the compression springs 13. As a result, the disk 12 mounted on the leads 11, also moves in the axial direction and presses the extra tabs "B". In this case the axis 7, compressing the spring 9, the sink in the bore of the clutch housing 4, and the main tabs "And" depart from the fixed disk 10. In the absence of contact of the main tabs "And" fixed disk 10, and actions with the crystals of friction between the extra tabs "B" and the disk 12, axis 7 with dogs 8 are rotated in the opposite direction and enter stops dogs 8 in the outer grooves of the star wheels 5.
In this case, if the angular velocity of rotation ω2the star wheels 5 more angular speed ω1driven gear 3 to the clutch housing 4, the tabs on the star wheels 5 influence stops dogs 8, 5 star wheels are blocked and transmit the braking torque from the driven gear 3 to the clutch housing 4 on the axis 6, which leads to braking of the front wheels (Figure 5).
Thus, when force-locking differential is hard kinematic relationship of the axes 6 with the Central transmission that allows you to use the front wheels when braking the engine.
The control mechanism forced locking differential interlocked with the mechanism of the brake control of the vehicle and may be mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, etc.
Sources of information
1. SU, No. 479670, IPC WC 17/20, publ. 03.08.1975. (No. 29).
2. Manual 310, 320, "Minsk tractor plant", 1998 (Prototype).
A limited-slip differential freewheel, which is mounted on bearings in the housing of the axle dual ratcheting overrunning clutch double action and includes a housing differential driven gear hub transport in plants is the customs which has the star wheels, pawl, pivotally mounted on the spring axis, having at their ends on one main eccentric protrusion that interacts with a fixed disk, characterized in that at the ends of the axes diametrically opposite the respective main eccentric projections made additional tabs, and in the case of the bridge has an extra disc with leashes, with which he can move in the axial direction and to influence additional tabs.
SUBSTANCE: control device 10 comprises separate first connecting means 14 that moves relative to axial direction of driven shaft 6 but is locked in direction of its rotation, and second connecting means 16 locked relative to second driven shaft 8 in its axial direction. Differential locking is thrown in by displacing separate first connecting means 14 in mesh with second connecting means 16 by means of control yoke 32 with two arms 52, 54. Proximal ends 64, 66 of arms 52, 54 are jointed together by case 50 while distal ends 68,70 of said arms are bent inward toward each other. Said arms elastically bend outward on passing centre 57 of cross section of first connecting means.
EFFECT: higher reliability.
7 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; transfer cases.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to all-wheel-drive cars designed for movement along traffic roads and offroad. Proposed transfer case gearshift mechanism consists of pneumatic chamber with spring-loaded rod. Gearshift forks are coupled with movable sleeves installed on shafts and engaging with high and low gear rims. High and low gears are fixed on shafts. Gearshift forks are installed on one rod, and their working surfaces engage with toothed sleeves installed on different shafts. In neutral position, toothed sleeves are located at a distance equal to or larger than working stroke of toothed sleeve from low and high gears installed on shafts.
EFFECT: simplified design of transfer case gearshift mechanism wire prevention of engagement of two gears at a time.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: cam-conical differential comprises housing (1), pinion (2) of the differential, carrier (3) with conical satellites (4), two conical differential gears (5), and two braking mechanisms (6). Braking mechanisms (6) are composed of two cylinders (7) and (8). One face of cylinders (7) and (8) has three expansion cams (9), and the other face is flat. Three stop projections (10) are made over periphery of the cylinders of braking mechanisms (6). The cylinders arrest angular rotation and are arranged at an angle of 120° over the periphery of the cylinder. Cylinder (7) of each braking mechanism (6) is rigidly connected with housing (1) of the differential. The smooth face of second cylinder (8) is provided with friction coating (11) that slides over the rim of the differential gear. The expansion cams of the cylinders face each other.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed differential has case 1 which accommodates coaxially installed axle-shafts of drive wheels, cages 7, 8, driven bushings 3, 4 with splines for connection with drive wheel axle-shafts coaxially installed in cages. Case 1 is made in form of cylindrical bushing on inner surface of which longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers 5, 6 are made. Each roller in each cavity can move along driven bushing from one wedging position into the other. Cages 7, 8 are made in form of hollow cylinders with rectangular holes on surface whose number corresponds to number of longitudinal wedging cavities for rollers. On end face surface of cages 7, 8 at least one slot is made on end face surface of one cage and hole with rigidly fitted-in pin on end face surface of other cage. Pin of one cage gets into slot of other cage forming movable link for angular displacement of cages in relatively opposite directions.
EFFECT: improved reliability, roadability and safety of vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: differential mechanism comprises crankcase (1), main gear, simple differential gear, planetary gearbox and friction control clutch. Main gear consists of drive gear (2) and driven gear (3). Driven gear (3) is composed by planet carrier (4) wherein fitted is said simple differential including planet gears (6, 7). Every planet gear (6, 7) is engaged via shaft (15) with planet gear (9) engaged with epicycle (16) and sun gear (8). Every friction control clutch (10, 11) is composed by the set of clutches. Inner drive drum (13) of friction clutch (10) is rigidly engaged with epicycle (16). Inner drive drum (12) of friction clutch (11) is engaged via hollow shaft (17) with sun gear (8). Every outer drum (14) is composed of a unit shared by gears of every planetary gearbox and fitted on fight or left output shaft of differential mechanism.
EFFECT: redistribution of torques at output shafts ratio defined by vehicle running conditions.
4 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry. Vehicle comprises set of wheels mounted at the frame. Every wheel is engaged with engine to drive the vehicle. Self-locking differential gear is supported by the frame. First and second half-axles are engaged with said self-locking differential gear. First half-axle supports first wheel of aforesaid set. Second half-axle supports second wheel of aforesaid set. Brake is engaged with self-locking differential gear. Said brake selectively applies braking force to said first and second wheels via one part of self-locking differential gear to reduce vehicle speed. When said brake is engaged, control unit selectively increases engagement of self-locking differential gear in response to difference in rpm of said first and second wheels exceeding the first preset rpm. Invention covers also the method of vehicle control.
EFFECT: better braking, minimised and well-centered vehicle weight.
15 cl, 18 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building and may be used in transport facilities. Proposed main gear comprises drive conical gear 1 running in conical bearings 2, 3 fitted in sleeve 4. Sleeve 4 is elongated radially and secured in reduction gear case 5 by bolts 6 via shims 7. Driven spur gear 8 is fitted on splined shank of gear 1. Master differential has solid cup 10 accommodating differential pinions 11 running on spider 12 splined onto drive shaft 13. Half-axle gears 14, 15 are engaged with differential pinions 11. Gear 14 is made integral with drive sour gear 16. Gear 15 runs in conical bearing 17 fitted in elongated part of sleeve 4.
EFFECT: simplified assembly of main gear.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wheeled vehicles. Proposed final drive comprises reduction gear case 1 and cover 2 with crown gear wheel 3 engaged via threaded elements 4. Case element axial zone has rolling bearing seats. Drive shaft runs in said bearings. Said drive shaft is made up of input shaft 5 and output shaft 6 whereon flange 9 is splined. Sun gear 12 is mounted at input shaft center while forward and underdrive gear throw-in clutch 13 with synchro unit 14 is fitted nearby output shaft end. Internal end of output shaft 6 supports three-pin pinion frame 18, its pins supporting pinions 18 running in bearings 17. Underdrive gear throw-in clutch 19 with synchro unit 20 is fitted at output shaft center.
EFFECT: longer life of planetary reduction gear, higher traction on drive wheels.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: differential consists of power elements, of devices for locking and unlocking kinematic link between power elements and of lock members. As power elements there are used worms and worm gears forming self-braking worm pairs. As devices for locking and unlocking kinematic link between power element there are used controlled gear drives of worms from output shafts. The gear drives have similar gear ratios with worm pairs.
EFFECT: raised reliability of differential.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: converter of gear ratio of transmission consists of planetary differential with driving carrier (2) and two central gears (5, 6) different in diametre. One of central gears (5) transfers rotation to output shaft (7). Second central gear (6) transfers rotation via reducer (8) shifting direction of rotation and friction clutch (9), driven disk of which is rigidly coupled with the output shaft, also to output shaft (7). Both central gears rotate the output shaft in one direction, but have different speed of rotation. Difference of rotation speed is compensated with the friction clutch also distributing load between arms of the differential.
EFFECT: decreased losses and simplification of design.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building field, particularly to control methods of differentials' blocking of multi-driving wheeled machines. Control method of differential' blocking of multi-driving wheeled machines consists in interlocking of interaxle differentials for particular intervals at achievement of threshold valuation of miscoordinations of kinematic parametres of connected by them driving wheels and deblocking of differentials. Additionally deblocking of interaxle differentials is implemented at achievement of miscoordinations of kinematic parametres of driving wheels lower the values, defined by formula.
EFFECT: there is achieved effectiveness increase of running system and tractive properties of wheeled machine.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automobile production field, and also transportation equipment. Controllable interwheel (interaxial) differential contains casing (1), in which there are located input shaft (2) with toothed wheel (3), intermediate shaft (4), output shafts (7,8), controlling drive, shaft (5) of controlling drive with toothed wheel (6), lock-up clutch, shaft (9) of blocking mechanism with bevel gear (10), installed on inetrmidiate shaft (4) follower gear (11) of main drive and transmission toothed wheels (12, 13), connected to follower gear of main gear, two symmetric cycloidal reducer (CR), drive pinions (14, 15) of which are implemented at one with driving heliac wheels of these CR and are installed on controlling shafts. Intermediate bodies of revolution consists of duplex in pairs satellites (26, 27), which are installed on eccentrics (22, 23) controlling shafts and connected to each other by means of conical enveloping toothed wheels (24, 25), blocking toothed wheel and control drive (8). In the second version of implementation of controllable inter-wheel (inter-axial) differential it is used one control shaft, on which there are installed stages of front and back CR.
EFFECT: invention provides improvement of passability and steerability of vehicle.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, particularly to lock engines of differential. Mechanism of automatic blocking of differential consists of hydraulic pump with toothed wheels, two valves, isolated in open condition by springs and intermediate shafts with intermediate toothed wheels. Mechanism of hydraulic blocking of differential is in the space between differential pinion and axle shaft gear and is enclosed into case. Toothed wheels of hydraulic pump are blocked with two intermediate toothed wheels, which are engaged with other couple of intermediate toothed wheels. Intermediate toothed wheels are blocked to differential pinions. Casing is filled by working liquid for major part of its volume and by its journal bears on two bearings, compressed into semi-axial toothed wheels.
EFFECT: increasing of mechanism durability and providing of blocking of differential at growing of difference between number of revolutions of wheels.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method of controlling multi-drive vehicle differentials consists in locking differentials for preset time intervals, on reaching threshold values of mismatch in cinematic parametres of driving wheels, and in unlocking differentials at expiry of aforesaid time intervals, or on reaching threshold values of controllability ratio. Note here that, in locking differentials of the first drive axle and bogie, differentials of the second and next driving axles and bogie are locked at expiry of certain time intervals, not exceeding the ratio of distance from the first to second and subsequent driving axles and bogie to the speed of multi-drive wheeled vehicle.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of multi-drive wheeled vehicle running gear in adverse weather and road holding conditions.
FIELD: transport engineering; transmissions of wheeled vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed differential lock control system contains fluid medium supply source with reducing 7, three-position distributor 11, two-chamber cylinder consisting of control space A of lock-up clutch 4 formed by its housing and movable partition 34, and additional diaphragm chamber 6 having its control space Б arranged coaxially and in series relative to control space of lock-up clutch 4. Movable partition 34 is connected with pressure disk 29 by means of rod 30 rigidly connected by one end with pressure disk 29. Rod 30 interacts with diaphragm 32 of additional diaphragm chamber 6, and it passes in its middle part through central part of movable partition 34, being rigidly connected with support plate 33 interacting with partition 34. Space Б of additional diaphragm chamber 6 communicates with three-position distributor 11 selectively communicating said spaces with drain main line 14 and reducing regulated valve 7.
EFFECT: increased capacity owing to automatic reduction of locking at cornering of vehicle and decreased skidding of leading wheel.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed final drive contains housing with oil reservoir, driven bevel gear and driving bevel gear with front and rear taper bearings whose outer races are press-fitted in bearing cup, and oil collecting pocket. Holes to let oil in and out are made in housing and bearing cup. Plate-type oil slinger with hole in central part is installed in cup between bearings. Diameter of slinger hole is less than inner diameter of front bearing outer race.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of lubrication of bearing of final drive driving gear.
FIELD: transport engineering; automobiles, tractors, diesel locomotives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle stepless transmission contains final drive, differential 4 and step-up drive, brake device 13, overrunning clutch 21, damper 22 and regulator 14. Driven gear 3 of final drive is rigidly engaged with case of differential 4. Differential gears 6, 8 are engaged with driven shafts 7, 9. Shaft 7 transmits torque to drive wheels (tracks, screw, etc). Shaft 9 sets brake device 13 into motion through step-up drive. Overrunning clutch 21 and damper 22 are fitted on shaft of brake device 13.
EFFECT: reduced losses of torque, prevention of shock loads.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to transport machinery.
SUBSTANCE: latching differential has a differential gear 4, a blocker and a control device. The control device has a scheme of measuring and comparison and sensors of a wheels angular speed in the shape of tachometers 11 and 12, kinematically connected with half-axles 9 and 10. The scheme of measuring and comparison includes differential links 13 and 14 and summing units 15 and 16 of angular accelerations, and an electro-chain of connection to a servo-motor 22 has intensifiers 19 and 20 and a relay of time 21. Differential links 13 and 14 are electrically connected with the sensors of wheels angular speeds. The differential realizes automatic blocking only at skidding of any driving wheel and does not react to other exterior disturbing influences. The control device works on the principle of comparison of an angular speeding up of a skidding wheel with given critical meaning equal to maximum possible speeding up at which skidding is still impossible.
EFFECT: decreasing of dynamic loads on transmission and drive and increasing reliability and longevity of a vehicle.
FIELD: transport mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: differential comprises housing (1) with spider (2) and satellites (3), differential gears (4) and (5), locking hydraulic clutch, planet gear, and control system. The locking hydraulic clutch has housing (6) provided with driving friction disks (7) and driven friction disks (8) connected with housing (1). The control system comprises control unit (14), electric motor (15), pickups (16) of angular velocity, pickups (17) of torque, pickups (18) of linear velocity, and pickups (19) of angle of rotation of the steering wheel. The planet gear has carrier (12) provided with two rows of satellites (10) and (11), solar gear (13), and epicycloid gear (9). Solar gear (13) is connected with one of the differential gears (9), carrier (12) is connected with electric motor (15), and epicycloid gear (9) is connected with housing (6).
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wheel has rim of regular shape and center of rotation. To drive the wheel, planetary reduction gear is fitted in wheel rim whose drive gear is planet pinion installed on driving "floating shaft whose axis, taking weight of vehicle applied to wheel, executes complex movement relative to axis of wheel rotation making it possible to: 1) spread projections of axis of rotation (being simultaneously point/line of support) of wheel and point of application of vehicle weight P to wheel on horizontal surface by some distance L; 2) change position of projection of point P on vertical; plane by some height h and provide constantly acting "canting" torque PL on wheel creating effect of eccentric wheel at wheel circumference remaining unchanged and eliminating cyclic loads.
EFFECT: improved cross-country capacity of vehicle, its steerability, efficiency of wheeled propulsor, simplified design.