Source of reference voltage
SUBSTANCE: device includes first and second resistors connected with their first outputs to power bus, third resistor connected with one its output to the common bus, first transistor connected with its source to second output of the first resistor, second transistor connected with its emitter to the common bus, third transistor connected with its collector to gate connection of the first transistor with second output of the second resistor, fourth and fifth resistors with their first output connected to collector of the second transistor, second output of the fifth resistor connected to bases of the first and third transistors, emitter of the third transistor connected to second output of the third resistor, second output of the fourth resistor and drain of the second transistor connected to output circuit.
EFFECT: reduced temperature coefficient of output voltage.
The device relates to the field of electrical engineering and can be used as a temperature-stable reference voltage (ION).
Known temperature-stable reference voltage sources, the disadvantages of which are unnecessary complexity caused by the use of a large number of elements [U.S. Patent 4380706. Voltage reference circuit / Robert S. Wrathall - Dec. 24, 1980], or the need to use the "ideal" reference current [Soclof C. Analog integrated circuits: TRANS. from English. - M.: Mir, 1988 - S, is], which significantly complicates their use.
The closest technical solution adopted for the prototype, is the voltage regulator (CH), shown in figure 1 [U.S. Pat. 2394266 of the Russian Federation. The compensation voltage stabilizer / Iverilog, Ehistoric. - Publ. 10.07.2010, bull. No. 19].
The disadvantage of the prototype is excessively high temperature coefficient of output voltage is about 5·10-4/°C. This is due, mainly, the total temperature drift voltage of the Zener diode VD1 and the transition base-emitter voltage of transistor VT4.
The task to be solved by the invention, is to provide the claimed technical result is the decrease of temperature coefficient of output voltage ION.
To achieve the claimed technical result is in a circuit prototype, containing the first and second resistors connected to the first pins to the power bus, a third resistor connected from one output to the common bus, the first transistor, a source connected to the second output of the first resistor, the second transistor, an emitter connected to a common bus, a third transistor, a collector connected to the connection of the gate of the first transistor to the second output of the second resistor, entered the fourth and fifth resistors, the first conclusions of which is connected to the collector of the second transistor, the second terminal of the fifth resistor is connected to bases of the first and third transistors, the emitter of the third transistor is connected to the second output of the third resistor, the second terminal of the fourth resistor and the drain of the second transistor is connected to the output terminal.
The outline of the prototype is shown in figure 1, the inventive device in figure 2. Figure 3 shows the simulation results.
The inventive ION (figure 2) contains the first resistor 1 and the second resistor 2 connected to the first pins to the power bus, the first transistor 3, a source connected to the second output of the resistor 1, the second transistor 4, an emitter connected to a common bus, a third resistor 5 connected to one output to the shared bus, the third transistor 6, the collector of which is connected to the connection of the transistor 3 with the second output resistor 2, cyberdynesystems 7 and the fifth resistor 8, the first conclusions of which is connected to the collector of the transistor 4, the emitter of transistor 6 is connected with the second output of the resistor 5, the second terminal of the resistor 7 are United with the bases of the transistors 4 and 6, the second terminal of the resistor 8 and the drain of the transistor 3 is connected to the output terminal.
Analyze the operation of the claimed device (figure 2). The output voltage UOsuch stabilizer is determined by the amount of voltage base-emitter voltage UBEtransistor 4 and the voltage drops U7and U8resistors 7 and 8 respectively.
Ignoring the current speed and considering the coefficients of the transfer current of the transistors 4 and 6 are equal to β, we write the expression (1) in the following form:
where φT=kT/q is the potential temperature; k is the Boltzmann constant; T - absolute temperature; q is the electron charge; I4and I6currents emitters of transistors 4 and 6, respectively; ISthe saturation current is shifted in the opposite direction of the p-n junction; I1the drain current of the transistor 3, is equal to the current through the resistors 1 and 8; R7and R8the resistance of the resistors 7 and 8 respectively.
The dependence of IStemperature has the following form:
where C is a constant factor determined by the production technology of integrated transistor and proportional ploader-n junction; E - the energy width of the forbidden zone at absolute zero, obtained by linear extrapolation from room temperature to absolute zero, equal to silicon 1,205 Century
It should also be noted that the temperature dependence of the gain of the base current can be represented as follows
where β0- gain base current at room (nominal) temperature T0.
To find the current I6consider the voltage base-emitter voltage UBEand UBE, transistors 4 and 6, and the voltage drop across the resistor 5, specifying the expression:
where R5the resistor 5; N is the ratio of the areas of the emitters of transistors 6 and 4.
The drain current I1expressed in terms of the voltage UZIbetween the gate and source of the transistor 3, defined by the difference of the voltage drops at the resistors 1 and 2, which, in turn, depends on the currents I1and I2:
where I0- the initial drain current, when UZI=0; UO- voltage cutoff; I2the current through the resistor 2; R2the resistor 2.
Because I2=I6β/(β+1), taking into account expressions (2-6) can be a system of equations, deciding which you can determine the value of the output voltage. However, the corresponding exact solution cannot be represented in the form of an analytical expression that contains only elementary functions. However, setting the parameters included in the device elements, it is possible to obtain an approximate solution using numerical methods.
Figure 3 shows the change of the output voltage of the inventive ION when the temperature (lower graph). From the simulation results we can conclude the following: the absolute change of the output voltage of the inventive ION does not exceed 0.5 mV when the temperature changes from -40 to +120°C. the temperature coefficient of output voltage (upper graph) does not exceed the value of 1·10-5/°C which is much less than that of the prototype.
Thus, analysis, and data circuit simulation confirm that achieves the claimed technical result is a lower temperature coefficient of output voltage.
Voltage reference, containing the first and the second cut is story, connected to the first pins to the power bus, a third resistor connected from one output to the common bus, the first transistor, a source connected to the second output of the first resistor, the second transistor, an emitter connected to a common bus, a third transistor, a collector connected to the connection of the gate of the first transistor to the second output of the second resistor, characterized in that the input of the fourth and fifth resistors, the first conclusions of which is connected to the collector of the second transistor, the second terminal of the fifth resistor is connected to bases of the first and third transistors, the emitter of the third transistor is connected to the second output of the third resistor, the second terminal of the fourth resistor and the drain the second transistor is connected to the output terminal.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electric engineering and can be applied in spacecrafts for current limitation in electric power supply system of solar battery panel opening for a drive opened to the limits. Redundant DC stabiliser includes control element (CE) connected in series with current sensor and load and based on four n-channel MIS transistors connected in parallel and in series, negative CE output connected via current sensor to common power supply bus and positive output connected via load to positive power supply bus; four identical control circuits (CC) of CE MIS transistors are added; each CC output is connected to gate of separate MIS transistor of CE; negative power supply output of each CC is connected to common power supply bus and positive output is connected to positive power supply bus; gauge input of each CC is connected to the point of CE connection with current sensor; each CC includes input non-inverting amplifier with its input connected to CC gauge input and output connected to inverting input of output amplifier (OA), output of which is connected to CC output; reference voltage source with its output connected to non-inverting input of OA; power supply pulse generator with its output connected to inverting OA input.
EFFECT: improved reliability of DC stabiliser.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to a capacitive power supply unit, moreover to an electronic device equipped with the capacitive power supply unit. To this end at the first facility the capacitive power supply unit contains an input part (10) having input contacts (Ln, Nt) to connect an alternating-current source and a capacitive coupling; a rectifying part (20) connected through the capacitive coupling to the input contacts (Ln, Nt) and an output part (30) connected to the rectifying part, there's an auxiliary device (R1) limiting start-up current where output contacts (V+, V-) are connected to the respective contacts of a device (D5) limiting output voltage, and in-series capacitive impedance (Zdc) conducting direct current has a resistive component with a resistive value equal to at least 0.2 of the first circuit resistive value. At the second facility the electronic device contains a power input (101), (102) for connection to the supply mains; a capacitive power supply unit (110) coupled to the power input; the first functional unit (140) receiving power supply from the capacitive power supply unit.
EFFECT: reduction of heat dispersion losses.
6 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains five transistors, two resistors and current source coupled between the power supply bus and output terminal, bases of the first and second transistors are connected to collectors of the first and fifth transistors, the first resistor is coupled between the common bus and emitter of the second transistor, the second transistor is coupled between the output terminal and connected emitters of the fourth and fifth transistors, emitters of the first and third transistors are coupled to the common bus, bases of the third, fourth and fifth transistors are joined with collectors of the first and fourth transistors, a collector of the third transistor is connected to the output terminal.
EFFECT: obtainment of thermally stable output voltage at values closed to double energy gap width.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for driving a light-emitting diode (LED), an apparatus having said device and a method of driving a LED. In the first object, the disclosed device comprises an output stage for feeding current to the LED, wherein the current has an average value and a peak value, wherein the peak value, divided by the average value, forms a ratio, and an input stage for receiving a signal from a power supply unit, wherein the input stage includes a tool, having a resonance circuit for reducing the ratio through a frequency component to the signal or adaptation of the frequency component of the signal, which improves efficiency of the LED. According to the second object, in the method on the output stage, current is fed to the LED, wherein the current has an average value and a peak value, wherein the peak value, divided by the average value, forms a ratio, and an input stage for receiving a signal from a power supply unit, wherein the input stage includes a tool, having a resonance circuit for reducing the ratio by adding a frequency component to the signal or adaptation of the amplitude of the frequency component of the signal, which improves efficiency of the LED.
EFFECT: designing a device for driving a LED with high efficiency.
13 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device contains the first and second transistors which bases are united and connected to the device output, the first resistor, an emitter of the first resistor, a common bus, the second resistor, an emitter of the second resistor, the first output of the second resistor, the third resistor, the second output of the second resistor, a current repeater, the third transistor, a collector of the second resistor, a connection point of the first transistor collector, a base of the third transistor, a feed input of the current repeater, a power bus, a collector of the third transistor.
EFFECT: simplification of scheme with high temperature stability of output voltage.
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to the field of electric engineering and can be used for manufacturing of power supply facilities. Device contains direct voltage source, converter of direct voltage to pulse voltage connected by its inputs to outputs of direct voltage source, converter of pulse voltage to direct voltage connected by its inputs to outputs of converter of direct voltage to pulse voltage connected by its output to the first control input of converter of direct voltage to pulse voltage, direct current stabiliser connected by its first input to output of converter of pulse voltage to direct voltage and by its second input to positive output of direct voltage source, by its first output to one of load outputs and by its other output to negative output of direct voltage source; device contains control circuit connected to its first input to output of converter of pulse voltage to direct voltage by its second input to the second output of direct current stabiliser, by its first output to the second (negative) output of direct voltage source, and by its second output to the second control input of converter of pulse voltage to direct voltage.
EFFECT: stabilisation of dissipation power in direct current stabiliser at change of load resistance.
SUBSTANCE: voltage Uout is measured at the outlet of the stabiliser, as well as inlet voltage Uin, currents of the throttle IL, and load l, these signals are selected in each period of conversion at certain moments of time h; the signal "capacitor current" is calculated, its dynamic component is extrapolated, and to ensure static accuracy of output voltage of the pulse voltage stabiliser, they generate a mismatch signal by voltage, and its digital summation is carried out with accumulation (they perform digital integration); the signal "capacitor current" after frequency correction and in the sum with the integrated signal of mismatch is sent to the inlet of the width-pulse modulator.
EFFECT: increased quality of outlet voltage of pulse voltage stabiliser PV under dynamic and static modes of operation during discrete processing of its information signals.
SUBSTANCE: pulsed dc voltage controller comprises series-connected first diode, controlled switch, filter inductance and load, two zero-diodes and filter capacitors, a microcontroller, a control driver, a feedback circuit and a manual control panel, a synchronisation unit, two inputs of which are connected to second unlike terminals of first diodes, and two outputs are respectively connected to inputs of the control driver and the microcontroller. The filter inductances are made on a common magnetic conductor and are magnetically coupled. The pulsed controller includes two additional capacitors and two second diodes. Each of the filter inductances is made with an additional lead. The leads of the additional capacitors are connected to additional leads of the filter inductances and the common terminal of the alternating current primary supply, respectively, and leads of the second diodes are connected to the additional and output leads of corresponding filter inductances.
EFFECT: enabling use to power self-contained inverters, cathodic protection stations, micro-arc oxidation apparatus and for powering various other electrical equipment.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention suggests a current control system that contains at least one longitudinal branch with longitudinal linear controller (1, 11; 12) in order to shape a signal (u, u1, u2) controlling the impact; at that the longitudinal controller (1, 11, 12) is connected to semiconductive actuating element (2, 21, 22) connected to supply voltage (Uin) and referred to earthing and to which output voltage (Uout) is applied at the output side. At that reference signal is supplied to the longitudinal controller (1, 11, 12) while current-measuring signal and regulating signal (u, u1, u2) are referred to earthing. The regulating signal (u, u1, u2) is sent to the difference shaper (5, 51, 52) which subtracts difference of supply voltage (Uin) and output voltage (Uout, U1out, U2out) from the regulating signal (u, u1, u2). At that the shaped output signal from the difference shaper (5, 51, 52) is sent to semiconductive actuating element (2, 21, 22) as a corrected regulating signal (u', u'1, u'2).
EFFECT: improving reliability and accuracy of current control system.
10 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention suggests secondary power supply which consists of a switching element; primary wiring of a transformer which first lead is connected to the first output of power supply source and the second lead is connected through primary circuit of a current sensor to the first output of the switching element; input of the latter through pulse generator and threshold device connected in-series is connected to the first output of output circuit of an error signal shaper and its second output is connected to summator output; the first input of the summator is connected to secondary circuit of the current sensor, the second input of the summator is connected to reference-supply source, outputs of input circuit of the error signal shaper are connected to the first secondary wiring of the transformer while its second wiring is connected to the load; service power supply unit with its first and second inputs connected to the first and second outputs of the primary power supply; positive and negative supply busses of reference-supply source, pulse generator and threshold device are connected to the output of the service power supply unit and the second output of the primary power supply source respectively; and the switching element consists of two bipolar transistors.
EFFECT: enlarging the upper range of input operating voltage for secondary power supply source.
FIELD: voltage regulation circuits used in manufacture of chip-carrying card integrated circuits.
SUBSTANCE: proposed circuit has series regulator L with field-effect transistor M1. Series-connected between source lead placed at higher potential VDDext and gate lead M1 are capacitor C1 and second field-effect transistor that functions as transmitting gate TG1 controlled by power/reset signal POR. Applying external supply voltage VDDext with series-connected transmitting gate TG1 drives in conduction field-effect transistor M1 in compliance with charge of capacitor C1 that takes place in the process. As this charge takes certain time, overshoot of internal voltage VDDint can be avoided.
EFFECT: reduced degree of overshoot when driving transistor in conduction.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: support voltage source has first and second amplifiers 5, 6, two power sources 7, 8 of opposite polarity, first and second resistors 1, 2, connected serially and connected between common point 7, 8 and inverse input 5, connected to output 6, and serially connected third and fourth resistors 3, 4, which are connected to middle point of resistors 1, 2 and to output of amplifier 5, inverse amplifier input 6 is connected to middle point of resistors 3, 4, while non-inverse inputs of amplifier 5, 6 are connected by common point 7, 8. as first and fourth resistors a non-linear element is connected, having volt-ampere characteristics of voltage stabilizer. As resistor 2 or 3 non-linear element is connected, having volt-ampere characteristics of current stabilizer.
EFFECT: simplified construction.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power units designed to ensure spark safety of loads.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device 200 designed to supply with power spark-proof load provided with feedback circuit of integrated current supply and current limiting component and also to minimize voltage that should be limited in compliance with sparking safety standards has power supply PS and output terminals T1-T2 for connecting device to spark-proof load. Voltage limiting unit Z1 inserted between power supply PS and output terminals T1-T2 is used to limit voltage across load leads. Current limiting unit 202 has barrier resistors designed for current-to-voltage conversion to provide for comparison by operational amplifier that controls variable impedance Q1 and limits current supply to load.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing cost, improved sparking safety.
19 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: for controlling constant voltage pulse stabilizer current value of stabilized voltage is measured, measured value is compared with constant support voltage, on basis of discordance signal by means of synchronization voltage of saw-like shape broad-pulse modulated signal is formed, used for controlling adjusting stabilizer element. Also, this signal is demodulated and received correction signal is added to discordance signal. When selecting correction signal transfer coefficient, static error value of voltage stabilization is corrected. It is possible to ensure equality of static error to zero by selecting transfer coefficient appropriately. Current control method is effective for different variants of direct voltage converters (of increasing, decreasing and inverting types) and different modes of their operation (as with continuous, as with discontinuous stabilizer throttle currents).
EFFECT: lesser static error of voltage stabilization in case of external interference (change of inlet voltage or load resistance, influence of non-ideal elements of stabilizer power circuit).
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has compound adjusting element 1, force transistor 2, synchronization transistor 3, discordance signal amplifier 4, resistor 5, protective transistor 6. when main power fails, protective transistor opens to lift voltage from collector of transistor 3 and amplifier 4. this provides protection for transistor 3 from overload and increases reliability of stabilizer operation.
EFFECT: higher reliability, higher efficiency.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has adjusting element 2, input of which is connected to input 1 of voltage transformer, and output - to first output of voltage transformer, block 3 for controlling protection, output of which is connected to control input of adjusting element 2, overload detector 6, connected to common bus and input of which is connected to second output of voltage transformer. Also provided are repeated enabling delay block 4 and overload duration determining block 5.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has broadband pulse modulator, power amplifier, field transistor, service electric power source, special pulse generator, overload protection device, voltage stabilizer, voltage check connection device, also provided is overload protection device with first optic couple and differential amplifier, check connection device is made on two differential amplifiers and second optic couple, LC-filter, four resistive dividers.
EFFECT: higher reliability, lower costs, higher quality.
FIELD: converter and pulse engineering; feeding pulse-power loads.
SUBSTANCE: proposed converter designed to convert dc to pulse energy has power buses 1 with forward diodes 2, 3, regulating transistor 4 with control unit 5 in base circuit, output transformer 6 with two sections 7, 8 of input winding, first and second capacitors 9, 10 connected to starting lead of winding section 7 and to finishing lead of section 8, second leads of capacitors 9 and 10 being connected to emitter and collector of transistor 4, respectively. Novelty is that finishing lead of first section 7 is connected to collector and starting lead of second section 8, to emitter of regulating transistor 4 through cumulative magnetically coupled windings 11, 12 of choke 13, and diodes 2, 3 of power buses are connected to common point of input winding section and choke winding 13 cumulatively with transistor 4. Power buses are shorted out by additional diode 14.
EFFECT: reduced switching losses.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electronics and automatic control; power converter engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for stepless regulation of ac voltage and its phase variation includes conversion of sine-wave voltage by means of inverter into sequence of amplitude- and length-modulated bipolar pulses of much higher frequency followed by their rectification to produce sine-wave voltage of original frequency across output of ripple filter. Its amplitude is proportional to relative pulse length and phase reversal occurs in response to variation in operating phase of synchronous rectifier switches.
EFFECT: reduced size and ability of varying output voltage phase.
1 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to the sources of electric supply of electron aids whose functioning is carried out on the principles of electronic engineering and/or radio technique.
SUBSTANCE: the aids include at least one active element with three or more electrodes particularly a transistor and using this active element(elements) carry out amplification, conversion or generation (formation) of working electric signals of alternating or direct voltage including broadband signals. The mode and the arrangement for electric supply of predominantly portable electron aids is carried out by way of using at least one a three-electrode active element, amplification, conversion or generation of an electric signal of alternating or direct voltage based on supplying voltage on the clamps of the electron aid, impulse voltage whose on-off time ratio is within the limits of 1,1-20,0 is used as supply voltage. In the second variant of the mode and of the arrangement the impulse voltage has the following parameters: the frequency of impulses is at least one level higher than the maximum frequency of the spectrum of the electric signal of alternating voltage or at least one level less than the minimal frequency of the spectrum of this electric signal, and the duration of the impulse fronts is at least one level less than the magnitude inverse to the maximum frequency of the spectrum of the electric signal of alternative voltage.
EFFECT: decreases electric consumption.
10 cl, 3 dwg