SUBSTANCE: construction material is made in the form of unit from rows of bottles fixed together, in which the bottles are stacked in horizontal rows, besides the necks of neighbour bottles are oriented in opposite directions with thrust into the side walls of the unit, made of completely or partly transparent material, and the bottles are secured with each other via lateral surfaces by means of cement mixture.
EFFECT: simplification of the manufacturing process, increase of the strength of construction material.
Building material on the International patent classification (IPC) revised 01.2013 (2013.01) should be referred under construction (F) to the class above-ground structures (A), where in a subclass of building materials (ES) to choose the classification group - building elements in the form of blocks (AS 1/00), including a subgroup with different material composition and consisting of layers of different materials (AS 1/40).
Known building material in the form of glazed brick (Certificate of the Russian Federation for useful model No. 16162, IPC7AS 1/40, op). Ceramic brick is compressed at specific pressure and humidity burnt on manual mode with the shutter speed at certain temperatures the product wet grinding of waste foundry in the form of casting rods, granulated cupola slag, and glass breakage, preferably, the window. This complex manufacturing building material and requires time and high temperatures, which complicates and increases the cost of construction material.
Known building material (RF Patent for the invention №2163581, IPC7SW 40/00, op). In the moldable mixture contains shredded wood, cement, water glass and water. But the manufacture of the construction material requires electricity to electrostaticaly being formed is a mixture of direct current with a periodic change of the poles, what complicates and increases the cost of construction material.
Closest to the patented construction material is a building material used in the blocks for the construction of greenhouses and polytunnels (RF Patent for the invention №2243649, IPC A01G 9/14, IN 5/08, op).
It is made in the form of block rows of the (truncated) plastic bottles collected (vertical) rows and framed (joined together).
But circumcision bottles, join their ranks, the manufacture of the frame and securing ranks in the framework - all this adds cost and complexity to the process of manufacturing a building material. In addition, there is not sufficient transverse strength of the series from plastic.
Patent-pending construction material made in the form of a block of rows, bonded bottles.
But new in it is the fact that the bottles in the block laid in horizontal rows, with the necks of adjacent bottles are oriented in opposite directions with emphasis in the side walls of the block, made of fully or partially transparent material (for example, from organic glass - polymethylmethacrylate), and bottles between the bonded side surfaces of the cement mixture.
This block provides a simplification of the manufacturing process (no need to cut the bottle), and hence cheaper. In addition to the CSO, increases the strength of the construction material (cement), but there is still a light permeability units (through the necks and clear the bottoms of the bottles to the appropriate bottles of transparent bottoms and open necks).
The drawing shows the construction of the unit 1 of the new building material. It contains a bottle, sealed side surfaces of the cement mixture 2 and laid in horizontal rows with the orientation of their necks 3 and Donskov 4 in opposite directions with emphasis in the side walls, which are made in the form of plates 5 polymethyl methacrylate.
Obviously, the production of new building materials from industrial bottles easily achievable by known methods.
Building material made in the form of a block of rows is bonded between a bottle, wherein the bottle in the block laid in horizontal rows, with the necks of adjacent bottles are oriented in opposite directions with emphasis in the side walls of the block, made of fully or partially transparent material, and a bottle between a bonded side surfaces of the cement mixture.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to methods and ways to erect and construct cast-in-place concrete frame buildings with different number of floors with multilayer walls that do not require insulation, additional treatment and finishing of internal and external surfaces, from multi-layer panels with longitudinal internal cavities, and also to equipment for production of construction materials, to large-panel folding formworks. In the method to manufacture multi-layer panels, the decorative layer is applied by the method of concrete guniting, and longitudinal through channels are formed in a heat insulation layer. In the multilayer panel they arrange a strengthened layer between the decorative layer and the heat insulation layer, and the heat insulation layer is equipped with through longitudinal channels. In the folding formwork they arrange additional end boards with folding, non-folding and collapsible boards, and upper end boards are equipped with fixators for longitudinal pipes. In the process line for manufacturing of multi-layer panels they use a multi-stream section for filling of formworks, comprising several lines with tilters for reloading and distribution of formworks along the lines in the inlet zone and for step feed of filled formworks from the outlet zone into the stacking zone, and the section of drying of finished panels in formworks is equipped with chambers of heat treatment and a stacking crane, besides, the process line is equipped with facilities for unloading of panels from formworks with subsequent tilting of panels with a decorative layer upwards, their washing and drying. In the method to erect a cast-in-place concrete frame building with decorative external finishing they use multi-layer panels with a strengthened layer, arranged between the decorative and heat insulation layers, in which cavities for pouring concrete are made in the form of vertical channels arranged in the heat insulation layer.
EFFECT: simplified erection of a cast-in-place concrete frame building with increased strength characteristics of a building frame with prefabricated monolithic walls that do not require additional finish and repair of inner and outer surfaces, simplified process of pouring a concrete mix into longitudinal cavities of multi-layer panels during erection of building walls regardless of weather conditions, higher reliability, strength and aseismic stability of a structure, facilitated manufacturing, tilting and transportation of panels.
23 cl, 119 dwg
SUBSTANCE: thermal squared beam comprises wooden parts-lamels, connected to each other by means of pins, with deepening of the latter by 1/3 of part thickness, and a sealant between parts-lamels. The sealant is a thermal insert either from foam polyethylene or from polyethylene with a single-sided or double-sided reflecting coating using foil and/or metallised lavsan, either from a different heat-sound insulating material. Dimensions of the thermal insert by length and width are equal to dimensions of wooden parts-lamels, and its thickness is taken within the 3 mm and above. Plastic spacer rings are installed onto pins, with thickness less than thickness of the thermal insert by 0.5-1 mm, in which holes are made for these rings in advance. With reduction of pin quantity on the squared beam the outer diameter of spacer rings is increased.
EFFECT: higher heat and sound protection properties of a squared beam.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to multi-layer power structural elements in the form of columns, towers, beams, grooves, etc., used in construction. A multi-layer power structural element comprises inner and outer layers, made by winding of reinforcing threads or rovings onto a mandrel, impregnated with a polymer binder with specified protective properties to form a solid layer, and a structural layer placed between them and stiffly connected to them, made of previously prepared volume elements, providing for adhesion of inner and outer layers. The previously prepared volume elements are made in the form of meshed longitudinal power elements with transverse links formed from reinforcing threads or rovings impregnated by a polymer binder, and the formed cavity between the external and internal layers connected by the structural layer serves to introduce a filler. Also a version of a multi-layer element is described.
EFFECT: increased reliability of an item due to provision of higher adhesion of layers with simultaneous provision of non-combustibility of protective layers, higher strength and heat resistance, increased speed of manufacturing of a finished item.
19 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multi-layer thermal block for construction comprises a stiff spatial element - a matrix, besides, the block comprises three bearing concrete layers and two thermal insulation layers from foam plastic arranged between them, for instance, foam polystyrene, having holes for connection of three concrete layers into a single monolithic structure with the help of formation of solid links during pouring, besides, heat insulation layers are shifted relative to bearing layers along the vertical line and along the horizontal line for production of a slot and comb connection of blocks, which insulates bearing layers from each other by thermal insulating layers along edges of the block in the zone of contact with an adhesive mixture. Concrete links in one heat insulating layer are shifted relative to links in the other heat insulating layer to the maximum possible value and have the size of cross section required for provision of strength of the structure, and in case of the slot and comb connection the adhesive layer having the highest heat conductivity, in process of mounting it is broken into 5 segments, in accordance with the number of layers. Also the method and the device for its manufacturing are described.
EFFECT: higher strength of connection between block layers, higher thermal protection properties of a block and heat and wind protection properties of an erected structure, higher quality of mounting, reduced time of construction.
4 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flaky items used in construction for heat insulation of buildings and premises in it. The heat and sound insulation unit comprises filler webs laid one onto another, every of which comprises a corrugated sheet with corrugations of zigzag shape and a flat sheet connected to it. In each filler web, at least at one longitudinal side of the filler web, the flat sheet is arranged with a transverse size below the corrugated sheet by value of at least half of a pitch of a zigzag-shaped corrugation, thus producing a compensator from corrugations protruding beyond the flat sheet, capable of being compressed in transverse direction for gapless laying of the filler web into a building structure. A serrated line of corrugated sheet bend matches the edge of the flat sheet of the web. In the first version of block laying into a building structure the block is pressed with its longitudinal side with a compensator to the element of the building structure, and in this condition it is installed into the filled space of the building structure. The block compensator due to action of springing forces fills a gap produced between the block and the element of the building structure. In the second version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 180°, and thus the compensator of the below block filler web is covered with a flat sheet of the filler web sheet. In the third version, in case of layer-by-layer installation of block filler webs into a building structure with equal longitudinal and transverse dimensions, block filler webs that are adjacent along the height of the building structure are laid with a rotation relative to each other by 90°, and thus gapless laying of the block is provided at all sides of the building structure.
EFFECT: invention provides for higher heat and sound insulation properties of blocks due to elimination of gaps between elements of building structures and fillers.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block consists of a decorative face layer, a bearing layer and a heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. The block is arranged in the form of a prism, trapezoid bases of which are ends of the block, and non-parallel prism faces of identical area are upper and lower bases of the block. The parallel side face of the prism of larger area is an outer side of the decorative layer of the block, the parallel side face of the prism of smaller area is an inner side of the bearing layer of the block, besides, the angle between planes of prism bases and the outer side of the face decorative layer makes 89 and less degrees, on one of bases in the decorative and bearing layers there are slots, axes of which are in planes parallel to the face side of the decorative layer, with the area of section of each slot of more than 5 sq. cm., on the other base there are ledges arranged as complying with slots. The method of construction of the multilayer construction blocks is also described.
EFFECT: higher labour efficiency in erection of a building, elimination of damages on a decorative layer when erecting a building, compensation of uneven subsidence of a block during laying, strict dosing of mortar, reduced flow of concrete mortar in laying and reduced costs for erection of a building.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall unit is arranged in the form of a faceted structure from a hardened material, having a face surface arranged on the outer face side of the unit, an inner surface arranged on the inner side of the unit, lower, upper and side surfaces, at the same time the unit comprises a face layer, an intermediate layer and an inner layer arranged serially along its width, besides, the face layer has thickness of s1, which is less than the thickness s2 of the intermediate layer, and the thickness s3 of the inner layer is less than the thickness s1 of the face layer, the latter contains cement, a plasticiser and ground haydite with fractions within 1 to 5 mm, the intermediate layer of the unit contains cement, a plasticiser and haydite with fractions within 5 to 20 mm, the inner layer of the unit contains sand, cement and a plasticiser, the specified thicknesses of the unit layers are selected depending on the width S of the unit and are in the ratio of s1:s2:s3=(0.10-0.17)S:(0.89-0.79)S:(0.007-0.037)S, the unit comprises a L-shaped crest made in the face layer and covering it at two adjacent lateral and lower sides, and also a L-shaped groove made in the face layer and covering at two other adjacent lateral and upper sides of the unit, the crest and the groove are installed in a single plane, parallel to the face surface of the unit, the surface of the crest and the groove, the face and inner surfaces are arranged as solid and smooth, and the lower, upper and lateral sides of the unit arranged between the face and inner layers are made as rough with grooves stretching inside the unit from 0.1 mm to 20 mm between fractions, at the same time the length of the unit L at its face side is selected depending on the width S of the unit within the limits of L=(0.99-1.01)S, the length Lin of the unit at its inner side is selected as equal to the length of the unit at its face side, the face surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s4 from the crest axis, the inner surface of the unit is arranged at the distance s5 from the crest axis, which is more than the distance s4, besides, s4 and s5 are in the ratio s4=(0.08-0.16)s5. Also the versions of units design are described, as well as a material for manufacturing of a unit, versions of molds for manufacturing of a unit, the method to manufacture the unit and a line for unit manufacturing.
EFFECT: reduced weight of units, its higher strength, provision of possibility to increase strength of units connection in a wall, simplified technology of production by usage of moulds from unified elements, using a simplified method for manufacturing of units and a line for method implementation.
41 cl, 61 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tape is designed to fill seams between construction slabs. It contains a non-woven base, containing fibres, selected from a group made of natural cellulose fibres, synthetic polymer fibres, glass fibres and their combinations. At the same time the nonwoven base has the following properties, determined according to ASTM C474-05: relative swelling in cross direction is below approximately 1.3%; relative swelling in longitudinal direction is below approximately 0.2% and breaking strength in cross direction is at least approximately 2625 N/m. Besides, a method is proposed for finishing treatment of a seam between slabs, including the following: (1) application of a tape for filling seams onto a seam between slabs by submersion of a tape for seam filling into the first layer of the composition for filling seams; (ii) application of the second layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (ii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the composition for seam filling applied at the stage (i), have dried substantially, and if required, (iii) application of the third, filling or final layer of the composition for filling seams above the tape, besides, the stage (iii) is carried out before the tape for seam filling and the second layer have substantially dried.
EFFECT: improved quality of the tape due to high strength and reduction of swelling during moistening at simultaneous acceleration of seams filling.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: light heat-insulation building unit arranged in internal and external walls of a building and formed from bubble synthetic resin, comprises a connecting ledge on the upper side, so that when it is laid, no cavity is formed, a connecting slot in the basement of the unit corresponding to the connecting ledge, and also a protruding section and a section of the slot arranged on the front and rear surfaces of the unit. At the same it is equipped with an auxiliary unit having the same shape as the heat insulation unit, which is cut as "L" on a segment of the upper section of its one surface, and has a ledge of cylindrical shape on the upper section of the cut element, and is joined to one side of the heat insulation unit. Also versions of the units are described.
EFFECT: development of units that make it possible to complete treatment of building walls by attachment of a finishing material to a unit, reduction of costs, simplified process of unit formation.
13 cl, 21 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multilayer building block comprises a decorative layer, a central layer arranged between an inner and outer structural layers made of ceramsite-concrete mix. The mix to make the central layer contains the following components, per 1 m3 of the mix: ceramsite gravel of 8÷22 mm fraction with apparent density of 350÷450 kg/m3 in volume of 1 m3; portland cement 130÷440 kg, polyvinyl acetate glue in volume of 1.3÷4.7 l, water in volume of 115÷125 l. The method is characterised to manufacture the multilayer building block.
EFFECT: increased strength of the block and simplified method of its manufacturing.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction industry, in particular, manufacture of multilayer construction stones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming undetachable frame by mounting of closed outer form onto pallet, with sides of frame being equipped with vertical slots; placing internal insert symmetrically in form, said insert being similar to form in shape and equipped with vertical slots; fixing form and insert with respect to one another with the help of vertical members introduced into vertical slots; filling space between form and insert with sand concrete; imparting monolith structure to filler by vibratory pressing or vibratory casting; withdrawing form, insert and vertical members; forming cells inside resultant undetachable frame by placing interconnected partition walls; fixing their free ends in slots formed in sides of undetachable frame by means of vertical members; filling cells with cellular concrete or light-weight concrete such as polystyrene, clay filler, sawdust, ash; holding; drying and removing partition walls to produce ready multilayer wall stone, which is further directed for stacking.
EFFECT: increased efficiency by combined employment of various construction materials and reduced labor consumed for performing frame forming and handling works.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the gypsum composition made of hardened gypsum and to a method for its preparing. The composition made of hardened gypsum comprises the bound matrix unbroken phase made of hardened gypsum having the enhanced volume of empty spaces from water, and/or the indicated composition is prepared from a mixture showing the enhanced ratio of water to calcined gypsum at least 3:1. Also, invention describes an article comprising composition made of hardened gypsum. Invention provides preparing nonshrinking composition of hardened gypsum with reduced density, improved insulating and/or acoustic properties.
EFFECT: improved preparing method and properties of composition.
21 cl, 3 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: building, particularly to fill cavities in articles.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding article having at least one cavity by conveyer; providing filling station; positioning the article under vessel with filling material as viewed in vertical plane; filling the cavity with filling material along with simultaneously shaking the article; removing the article with filled cavity from the filling station by conveyer. Filling material is pumped under pressure created by rotor blades. The rotor is installed in the vessel. Filling material poured in the cavity is stirred and simultaneously compacted by pressure application during cavity filling or after filling operation termination. Filling station comprises vessel with filling material made as supply bunker, conveyer to move trays each having one article arranged in the tray, compacting means adapted to fill cavity with filling material under pressure. The compacting means has at least one rotor with guiding blades installed in vessel. The blades are secured to at least one cantilever holder and provide supply of filing material to at least one cavity of the article.
EFFECT: increased uniformity of hollow block filling.
15 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building units to erect walls characterized by increased resistance to breaking.
SUBSTANCE: building member comprises rectangular concrete body and reinforcing frame. Concrete body is formed of class B60-B90 concrete. Reinforcing frame is composed of two reinforcing members having rectangular sections and of at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member. The reinforcing members having rectangular cross-sections are flush with inner side of building member and extend to edges thereof. The V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member ends are fixedly secured to one reinforcing member having rectangular section. Top thereof faces outer side of building member. In accordance to the second embodiment building member comprises one reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section and at least one V-shaped or U-shaped reinforcing member having top fixedly secured to reinforcing member having rectangular cross-section.
EFFECT: increased resistance to breaking, reduced metal consumption and simplified structure.
17 cl, 15 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction industry; methods of manufacture of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of construction industry, in particular, to the method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes, which may be used at erection of the external walls of the buildings and structures. The technical result of the invention consists in the capability of production of the wall products from the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, and also the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding the possibility of destruction caused by delamination or spalling. The method of production of the wall products made out of the light concretes with the facial surface finish layer providing for preparation of the molding mass, its piling into the mold and the bilayered molding differs by the fact, that the molding mass for the facial surface finish layer is prepared from the cement-sand admixture with addition of the ferric oxide pigments of different colors, and the molding mass for the primary layer is prepared from the light-concrete mixture including the natural or artificial porous fillers, which is placed in the mold in the form of collapsible or detachable formwork with the mounted in it plug-in technological molding bed. Then exercise compaction by light pressure of the light-concrete admixtures and, in the mold volume formed after the compaction of the light-concrete admixture place the layer of the cement-sand admixture with the added the ferric oxide pigments, on which the upper punch with lower die, the dimension and the form of which are identical to the formwork and the mounted in it the plug-in technological pan, then, exercise the molding with the simultaneous compression and the vibration compaction of the layers being in the mold.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the wall products made out of the light concretes having the high compression strength, the low thermal conductivity, the qualitative facial finish layer, the sufficient degree of fastness of cohesion between the layers excluding destruction caused by delamination or spalling.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: construction, particularly to erect multilayered units, for instance, concrete articles, namely building blocks and slabs for envelope forming during industrial, civil and other building structures erection.
SUBSTANCE: method to produce multilayered building block on the base of rigid cement mixes and including one at least one heat-insulation layer of light-weight concrete and at least two fine concrete layers involves serially pouring different concrete mixes in form. After at least two different concrete mix layers pouring in two horizontal parallel planes upper block part is covered with additional form part. Then form with laid concrete mix layers is rotated through 90° about horizontal axis. Form part is removed from top part of the block and form is built up to adapt form for upper fine concrete layer pouring so that upper fine concrete layer is transversal to previously poured layers. After that all layers are subjected to vibroforming and curing up to cement mix stiffening. Finally form is removed.
EFFECT: improved heat insulation properties of straight and corner wall areas, window and door openings, increased strength, possibility to erect high buildings and buildings characterized by varying number of stories without the use of additional structural members to cover opened heat-insulation layers at wall corners and in window and door opening edges.
FIELD: construction, particularly multilayered construction blocks and stones used for building wall erection and adapted to stabilize temperature inside room.
SUBSTANCE: construction block has several layers formed of cement based material. Block includes two extreme layers, one core layer and one face layer. Block is provided with the second face layer. Extreme layers are heat-insulating ones and are formed of porous concrete. Core layer is arranged between extreme ones and is made of fine concrete having high heat capacity and heat conductivity. Face layers lie in planes transversal to extreme and core layers and are arranged from opposite construction block ends. Face layers are hollow and made as sealed panel of two-ply sheet provided with inner stiffening ribs. Each cavity of sealed panel is defined by concrete layer in inner space of two-ply sheet along face panel perimeter. Each sealed panel has two connecting pipes with valves to be linked to pipelines. Fluid supply device is also discloses.
EFFECT: increased cold- or heat-accumulation capacity, possibility of inward and outward heat radiation.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly production of multilayered building blocks provided with pneumatic structural members used for building and building structure wall erection and having ability of heat conductive properties change in response to ambient temperature change.
SUBSTANCE: building unit comprises concrete layer made of concrete mix preferably based on rigid cement and heat insulation layer. Concrete layer is box-like member with faces defining cavity for heat-insulation layer receiving. Heat-insulation layer is made as sealed bag of air-tight elastic material. The bag is secured inside the cavity and has inlet and outlet orifices provided with two chambers. The first chamber has mechanical thermocontroller to close outlet orifice if ambient temperature is greater than predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of decreased ambient air pressure. The second chamber has the second mechanical thermocontroller to close inlet orifice if ambient temperature is below predetermined temperature value and one-way valve. The one-way valve opens in the case of increased ambient air pressure.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation properties and possibility of building block usage as load-bearing member.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: air conditioning, particularly laminated building blocks used for building wall erection and having properties facilitating dust removal from ambient air passing into building.
SUBSTANCE: filtering building block for load-bearing wall enclosure erection comprises outer concrete layers formed of material mainly based on rigid cement mixes and porous layer arranged in-between. Porous layer is located in sealed cavity defined by outer concrete layer. Inlet and outlet orifices are made in opposite cavity sides. The inlet and outlet orifices are communicated with two chambers located near porous layer. The first chamber is provided with one-way valve assembly so that if ambient air pressure increases the valves are brought into opened state. The second chamber has one-way valve assembly and opens the valves if ambient air pressure decreases.
EFFECT: improved heat-insulation and sound-proofing properties of filtering building block used in load-bearing building structure.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly heat-insulation materials used for all-purpose building frame filling structure erection.
SUBSTANCE: heat-insulated modular structure comprises multilayered shell defining inner cavity and made as plastered reinforced net. Filler is placed in the cavity. The shell is made as rectangular parallelepiped with height h equal to b or 2b, where b is parallelepiped width. Parallelepiped length is equal to b, 2b or 4b. The shell is covered with air-tight heat-shrinkable film. Modular structure comprises stiffening members made as ribs extending along diagonal lines connecting cavity corners and crossing each other. The ribs are provided with slots formed in rib centers to insert the ribs one into another to connect the ribs in cross structure.
EFFECT: facilitation of structure sides mating, increased efficiency of heated building and building structure space filling, improved rigidity and manufacturability, as well as storage and transportation ability.
3 cl, 14 dwg