Electron-beam welding

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electron-beam welding. Proposed method comprises applying of local magnetic field to parts butt, directing of electron beam to said butt to form penetration channel and electron-beam welding of parts at bottom position with part-through penetration. Applied is magnetic field its direction being perpendicular to butt plane. Electron beam is directed at acute angle to the interface selected to make electron beam enter the penetration channel at 90°±15°, to form beam curvilinear path and to direct electron beam nearby penetration channel bottom at 0÷30°.

EFFECT: higher quality of weld joint.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to a method of welding, and may find application in the production of various welded structures responsible destination.

There is a method of electron beam welding in the down position (Mamutov EL, electron beam welding of large thickness, Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1992, 125 C.) containing electron-beam gun, the parts to be welded, e-beam welding bath, channel penetration and weld bead. However, during the electron beam welding with deep penetration occurs periodic screening of beam pairs of the metal and moving liquid metal welded bath, which leads to periodic defocusing of the beam and instability of impact of the electron beam on the front melt and weld root.

However, with this method of welding is the formation of root defects, such as the variability of depth of penetration, the presence of cavities and incomplete fusion at root peaks, which leads to the reduction of quality of welded joints.

Known welding method, in which the simultaneous penetration of the joint welded parts of the electron beam and coaxially located with him arc discharge, which is formed by a hollow cathode. E-beam is directed from the front side of the junction through the plasma on the new category and create a magnetic field of the arc discharge the same direction with the magnetic field of the electron beam, forming the desired geometry of the electron beam and channel penetration, which bring the energy of the arc discharge and electron beam reject the thickness of the parts in the desired direction by a specified amount (patent RF №2174067, IPC B23K 15/00).

The disadvantage of this method is a significant complication of the equipment due to the introduction in the weld area of the hollow cathode, in addition, the magnetic field of the arc discharge currents flowing on the details is not enough for significant deviations of the electron beam.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of electron beam welding in the downhand position, including education to the plane of the weld joint, the application of a local magnetic field, at least part of the welded joint, and this magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the electron beam, and parallel to the plane of the welded joint details, the direction of the electron beam on the weld joint for electron beam welding parts, and obtain a welded joint. Moreover, the specified local magnetic field controls the electron beam as it passes through the interface (patent RF №2346795, IPC B23K 15/00).

However, in this method is the main solution to the problem of distortion of the electron beam at the bottom of the weld in the direction of the one on the hoist when welding dissimilar metals. Thus there is a decrease in the quality of welded joints due to the formation of root defects.

An object of the invention is to improve the quality of welded joints.

The technical result consists in the reduction of root defects arising from fluctuations of the depth of penetration during electron beam welding without complete penetration in the lower position and is achieved by the fact that in the known method, including education to the plane of the welded joint details, attachment to part of the welded joint of the local magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the electron beam, the direction of the electron beam at the junction for electron beam welding parts, welding is carried out in a lower position with non-penetration, and the lines of the magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the plane of the junction, while the electron beam is directed at an acute angle to the surface of the welded parts.

The invention is illustrated by the diagram that implements the method of welding. Scheme for implementing the method comprises electron beam gun 1, the parts to be welded 2, an electron beam 3, the movement of parts 4, table 5, the weld pool 6, channel penetration 7, the welding seam 8.

The method ELS is as follows.

Create a magnetic field, lines of induction which is directed perpendicular what about the e-beam and the plane of the weld joint and pass through the weld joint details. The welding process is conducted by a vertical beam in the down position with non-penetration. Under the welding of the vertical beam in the down position common to understand that the depth of penetration combined with the depth of the welding bath (direction of gravity); the welding of the horizontal beam to a vertical wall - the depth of the weld pool (direction of gravity) is combined with the width of the seam (horizontal seam). It is known that a particle of charge q and velocityvmoving in a magnetic fieldB, is feeling the effects of forcesFcalled the Lorentz force. This force acts perpendicular to the vectorsBandv. The magnitude and direction of this force is determined by the vector productF=q=[ v,B]. This force sets the trajectory of the electron beam in an arc of a circle. Periodic screening of beam pairs of the metal and moving liquid metal welded bath, will not have a significant impact on the macrostructure of the weld, i.e. the formation of peaks penetration at the weld root, as near the bottom of the channel penetration electron beam will be at an angle γ=(0...30°) relative to the direction of welding. Fundamental is the deviation of the beam in locally it is at the root of the weld to reduce the amplitude occurring during welding root passes. The value of the initial slope of the electron beam gun α depends on the distance between the gun and the surface of the welded parts, the distribution of the magnetic field and is selected so that the electron beam was included in the channel penetration angleβ=(9015)relative to the front plane of the welded components, which will reduce the length of the path of the electron beam in the channel penetration, and, accordingly, the energy loss of the beam electron is, caused by the scattering of pairs of metals.

The angle of the velocity vector of an electron moving in a uniform magnetic field acting within the welded joint perpendicular to its plane, is defined by the following expression:

tg(γ)=1-eBmtg(α)t,

where e is the electron charge, B is the magnetic field, m is the electron mass, t is the time of motion of the electron from the surface to the bottom of the channel.

Scheme to implement the method ELS works as follows. Create a magnetic field, lines of induction which is perpendicular to the welded edges. Electron beam gun 1 is installed vertically at an angle α to the front plane of the workpiece 2, selected from the conditions 0°<α<90°. Electron beam 3 from the electron gun 1 is directed weld joint 2 thus, the beam entered the channel penetration angleβ=(9015)relative to the front plane of the welded parts, and electrons have a curved trajectory for all who own path. Then, by means of the transfer mechanism 4, move the table with 5 buttons on it welded parts 2 with welding speed and perform welding without complete penetration welded parts. In the result of melting of the base metal of the welded parts 2 formed General welding bath 6 surrounding the curvilinear channel penetration 7, which is then crystallized with the formation of the weld 8. The magnitude of the magnetic field is chosen depending on the desired depth of penetration, accelerating voltage electron beam gun and angle of the electron beam gun to the plane of the welded components.

The use of the proposed method of welding ensures the formation of welded joints without the formation of root defects such peaks penetration, instability of the depth of penetration.

The method of electron beam welding parts, including the Annex to the plane of the joint of the welded components of the local magnetic field, the direction of the electron beam at the junction with the formation of channel penetration and electron beam welding of parts in the lower position, characterized in that the welding is performed with non-penetration, with applied magnetic field, the direction of which is perpendicular to the plane of the junction, and an electron beam is directed at an acute angle to the surface of sariva the number of parts, choice of conditions for the entry of the electron beam in the channel penetration at an angle of 90°±15°, education curved trajectory of the beam and ensure that the electron beam near the bottom of the channel penetration angle 0÷30°.



 

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