FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electron-beam welding. Proposed method comprises applying of local magnetic field to parts butt, directing of electron beam to said butt to form penetration channel and electron-beam welding of parts at bottom position with part-through penetration. Applied is magnetic field its direction being perpendicular to butt plane. Electron beam is directed at acute angle to the interface selected to make electron beam enter the penetration channel at 90°±15°, to form beam curvilinear path and to direct electron beam nearby penetration channel bottom at 0÷30°.
EFFECT: higher quality of weld joint.
The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to a method of welding, and may find application in the production of various welded structures responsible destination.
There is a method of electron beam welding in the down position (Mamutov EL, electron beam welding of large thickness, Moscow, Mashinostroyeniye, 1992, 125 C.) containing electron-beam gun, the parts to be welded, e-beam welding bath, channel penetration and weld bead. However, during the electron beam welding with deep penetration occurs periodic screening of beam pairs of the metal and moving liquid metal welded bath, which leads to periodic defocusing of the beam and instability of impact of the electron beam on the front melt and weld root.
However, with this method of welding is the formation of root defects, such as the variability of depth of penetration, the presence of cavities and incomplete fusion at root peaks, which leads to the reduction of quality of welded joints.
Known welding method, in which the simultaneous penetration of the joint welded parts of the electron beam and coaxially located with him arc discharge, which is formed by a hollow cathode. E-beam is directed from the front side of the junction through the plasma on the new category and create a magnetic field of the arc discharge the same direction with the magnetic field of the electron beam, forming the desired geometry of the electron beam and channel penetration, which bring the energy of the arc discharge and electron beam reject the thickness of the parts in the desired direction by a specified amount (patent RF №2174067, IPC B23K 15/00).
The disadvantage of this method is a significant complication of the equipment due to the introduction in the weld area of the hollow cathode, in addition, the magnetic field of the arc discharge currents flowing on the details is not enough for significant deviations of the electron beam.
The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of electron beam welding in the downhand position, including education to the plane of the weld joint, the application of a local magnetic field, at least part of the welded joint, and this magnetic field is perpendicular to the axis of the electron beam, and parallel to the plane of the welded joint details, the direction of the electron beam on the weld joint for electron beam welding parts, and obtain a welded joint. Moreover, the specified local magnetic field controls the electron beam as it passes through the interface (patent RF №2346795, IPC B23K 15/00).
However, in this method is the main solution to the problem of distortion of the electron beam at the bottom of the weld in the direction of the one on the hoist when welding dissimilar metals. Thus there is a decrease in the quality of welded joints due to the formation of root defects.
An object of the invention is to improve the quality of welded joints.
The technical result consists in the reduction of root defects arising from fluctuations of the depth of penetration during electron beam welding without complete penetration in the lower position and is achieved by the fact that in the known method, including education to the plane of the welded joint details, attachment to part of the welded joint of the local magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the electron beam, the direction of the electron beam at the junction for electron beam welding parts, welding is carried out in a lower position with non-penetration, and the lines of the magnetic field is directed perpendicular to the plane of the junction, while the electron beam is directed at an acute angle to the surface of the welded parts.
The invention is illustrated by the diagram that implements the method of welding. Scheme for implementing the method comprises electron beam gun 1, the parts to be welded 2, an electron beam 3, the movement of parts 4, table 5, the weld pool 6, channel penetration 7, the welding seam 8.
The method ELS is as follows.
Create a magnetic field, lines of induction which is directed perpendicular what about the e-beam and the plane of the weld joint and pass through the weld joint details.
The welding process is conducted by a vertical beam in the down position with non-penetration. Under the welding of the vertical beam in the down position common to understand that the depth of penetration combined with the depth of the welding bath (direction of gravity); the welding of the horizontal beam to a vertical wall - the depth of the weld pool (direction of gravity) is combined with the width of the seam (horizontal seam). It is known that a particle of charge q and velocity
The angle of the velocity vector of an electron moving in a uniform magnetic field acting within the welded joint perpendicular to its plane, is defined by the following expression:
where e is the electron charge, B is the magnetic field, m is the electron mass, t is the time of motion of the electron from the surface to the bottom of the channel.
Scheme to implement the method ELS works as follows. Create a magnetic field, lines of induction which is perpendicular to the welded edges. Electron beam gun 1 is installed vertically at an angle α to the front plane of the workpiece 2, selected from the conditions 0°<α<90°. Electron beam 3 from the electron gun 1 is directed weld joint 2 thus, the beam entered the channel penetration angle
The use of the proposed method of welding ensures the formation of welded joints without the formation of root defects such peaks penetration, instability of the depth of penetration.
The method of electron beam welding parts, including the Annex to the plane of the joint of the welded components of the local magnetic field, the direction of the electron beam at the junction with the formation of channel penetration and electron beam welding of parts in the lower position, characterized in that the welding is performed with non-penetration, with applied magnetic field, the direction of which is perpendicular to the plane of the junction, and an electron beam is directed at an acute angle to the surface of sariva the number of parts, choice of conditions for the entry of the electron beam in the channel penetration at an angle of 90°±15°, education curved trajectory of the beam and ensure that the electron beam near the bottom of the channel penetration angle 0÷30°.
SUBSTANCE: proposed process of production of cages for prosthetic cardiac valves from commercially pure titanium comprises assembly and soldering of drawn wire and plate and thermal treatment. Prior to assembly, wire is annealed in vacuum furnace at 550-600°C for 30-40 minutes and cooled with furnace. After soldering, the cage is annealed in vacuum furnace at 550-600°C for 1.5-2 hours and cooled with furnace.
EFFECT: better manufacturability, lower labour input, high mechanical properties.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to welding, particularly, to electron beam welding vacuum of different-thickness parts. Said butt locking joint is made between large-depth part, lock base being made at weld edge end, and smaller-depth part to be jointed thereto. Note here that lock base is skewed at 45°≤α≤60°, while welding is effected with butt penetration through entire depth. Lock base can be skewed straightly or in zigzag manner.
EFFECT: higher quality of seam.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: joint of a pipeline from stainless steel with a vessel from titanium alloy comprises an adapter made in the form of a bushing, the lower part of which is made according to a spherical shell shape and is connected to it by means of electronic beam welding. The upper part of the bushing is installed coaxially inside the pipeline and is connected with it by means of high-temperature vacuum soldering. The adapter is made from a niobium-based alloy alloyed with at least one of the metals selected from the following group: tantalum, molybdenum, vanadium, titanium. Electronic beam welding of the adapter with the vessel shell is carried out with beam displacement along the shell joint surface with the adapter towards the adapter.
EFFECT: invention provides for tightness and high strength of connection.
6 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method may be used for making critical welded structures in machine building. Parts of be welded are arranged with clearance. Adding material is fed into said clearance. Grooves and adding material are washed by electron beam and common molten pool is produced. Clearance width is selected proceeding from the condition 1.1d≤h≤1.2d, where h is clearance width and d is adding material diameter.
EFFECT: higher quality of welded joints.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electron-beam processing. Pre-welding is performed without grooving and with part-through penetration. Face bead width and height are defined. Grooving is made for main welding to prepare grooving cavity 5 and main welding is carried out on transmitting electron beam through grooving cavity 5. Grooving before main welding is performed to produce groove 6 nearby grooving cavity base with width and height, at least, 15% larger than those of face bead after pre-welding.
EFFECT: high-quality welded joints between large-thickness articles.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a device for retention of components during repair of a blade of a single-block turbine wheel by means of electron-beam welding of an insert with a blade along the joint plane. The device comprises facilities to retain the wheel and facilities for controlled retention of the blade and the insert. The facilities for controlled retention of the blade and the insert comprise a support, where facilities are placed to retain the blade and the insert so that the space above the joint plane makes it possible for the electron beam to pass through. The relative position of the blade and the insert is controlled with the help of facilities installed on a single support, letting the electron beam pass through.
EFFECT: device differs by simplicity and reliability.
19 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of electron beam welding of nonmagnetic metals and alloys. Proposed method comprises penetrating the butt of parts 3 to be welded together by electron beam 2, inducing magnetic field inside said parts and forming presser geometry of electron beam and penetration channel in displacing electron beam over part thickness. Blind penetration of but 4 is performed. In welding, beam 2 is deflected across the butt to vary shape and sizes of seam root 6 at constant size of weld seam apex. For this, variable magnetic field is induced on the side of seam root.
EFFECT: higher quality of welded joints, control over weld seam shape.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the method of electron-beam welding and is designed to produce non-detachable welded joints. The method includes generation of an electronic beam (3), its deflection and displacement relative to the gun axis, arrangement of the beam focus inside a welded part (1) and maintenance of the beam (3) focus position along the thickness of the welded joint as permanent. Deflection and displacement of the electronic beam (3) from the gun axis is carried out with alternating magnetic field. The field is developed with supply of AC current to the lower portion of the welded part via current contact jaws (4), which are arranged at two sides symmetrically to the joint at the distance between them, equal to the width of the welding joint in the upper portion of the welded part. The magnetic field is displaced in direction of welding with the speed equal to the speed of electronic beam. The value of the alternating current supplied via current contact jaws (4) is selected provided that the width of the joint in the root zone is equal to the width of the joint in the upper part of the welded joint.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase quality of the welded joint by improvement of the root part of the joint and elimination of the defect area in the middle part of the joint.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in local pad weld of coating on at least part of blade body and in dimensional processing. Regularly distributed crossing strips are pad-welded along surface of the blade body and form a net at their crossing.
EFFECT: raised operational characteristics of blades.
25 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used for repair of parts made from high-alloy refractory steels and alloys in aircraft engineering, ship building and power engineering. Turbine blade body is, first, conditioned for powder to be applied thereon by microplasma evaporation, said powder containing 70% of nickel-based filler and 30% of high-temperature solder. High-temperature soldering is carried out. Blade body section, a transverse strip covering section to be repaired, is heated by scanning electron beam to solder solidus temperature all over blade thickness. Then, repaired section is heated to temperature 100°C-120°C higher than solder solidus temperature and said temperature is maintained in pulsed mode for 1 minute. Note here that intermittent heating is performed for 5-7 s and temperature is reduced to 1000°C and maintained for 10-15 s.
EFFECT: complete recovery of parts shape, higher efficiency of repair and longer life of recovered parts.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine part restoration, namely restoration methods suitable for using in aircraft engines, machine engineering and other branches of technology for restoring rubbing surfaces of cylindrical parts.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of mounting on surface of part prepared for restoration before surfacing, blank of additive material in the form of band; using band with thickness 0.1 - 5.0 mm and mounting it at gap no more than 0.2 mm; performing multi-layer surfacing of additive material in vacuum by means of scanning electron beam; mechanically working part after surfacing each layer of additive material.
EFFECT: simplified process of surfacing material, elimination of residual stresses and deformations in article.
11 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electronic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises processing the blank surface with the concentrated radiation flux. The radiation flux is directed to the surface to be processed and repeatedly moves over the surface thus forming required microrelief. The process is controlled by a computer.
EFFECT: improved quality of the microrelief.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: fusion welding, namely electron-beam welding of zirconium alloys, possibly visual determination of fusion depth and shape of welded seam.
SUBSTANCE: method is realized for welding samples-satellites, manufacture of slides, evaluation of fusion depth and shape of welded seam. Different alloys having similar thermal- physical and chemical properties are used as materials of parts of samples. One of said alloys is identical to material of articles; all alloys contain easily melting alloying additive whose evaporation rate exceeds that of metal being base of alloy. Said additive at reaction with reagent during etching process changes color of welded seam surface.
EFFECT: improved reliability of quality control of welded seam.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering, namely welding processes, possibly in different branches of industry for making important designation welded joints.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of melting butt of welded parts by means of electron beam; creating magnetic field for providing preset geometry of electron beam and melting-through passage; deflecting electron beam along thickness of parts and directing it towards front surface of welded parts by inlet angle is selected in range 0 -90°; passing electric current along butt and in addition deflecting electron beam from downwards to upwards in such a way that to provide outlet angle of electron beam relative to back plane of welded part equal to inlet angle of electron beam. Points of inlet and outlet of beam electrons to and from welded parts respectively are arranged in the same horizontal plane.
EFFECT: possibility for receiving high quality welded joints with small volume of metal flowing from zone of metal welding, lowered number of flaws and incomplete fusion places.
FIELD: machine engineering, namely processes and equipment for fusion welding, possibly of different-structure parts, for example providing fluid-tightness of active zones of nuclear reactors at usual condition and from remote places.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of supplying energy to welding zone by pulses; performing welding by several passes while controlling energy density in heating spot of heat source during process of forming seam; selecting relation of pulse energy density in heating spot to pulse duration at first pass in range ( 5 - 350) x 102 J/(mm2 s); selecting less values of said relation for lowered thickness of welded edges and selecting larger value of said relation for increased thickness of welded edges in given range. At each next pass relation of energy density of pulse in heating spot to pulse duration is set equal to or less than value of said relation in first pass.
EFFECT: possibility for improving quality and operational reliability of welded joints of different structures due to lowered size of pores and of oxide inclusions and due to their partial removal.
FIELD: electron-beam surfacing of flat and cylindrical surfaces, possibly manufacture of new parts and restoration of worn surfaces of parts operating at condition of intensified abrasive wear in combination with impact loads.
SUBSTANCE: in order to enlarge manufacturing possibilities of method, on surface of welded-on article melting zone by means of electron beam is created. Powder composition material for surfacing is fed to melting zone. Surfaced article is moved and powder material for surfacing is fed normally relative to motion direction of article. As coating is applied unfocused electron beam is used for acting upon surface of said coating without supply of material for surfacing. It provides separation of dispersed particles of strengthener from solid solution and formation of multimodal structure of surfacing along its whole thickness.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: manufacture of new parts and restoration of worn parts operating in condition of abrasive and percussion-abrasive wear by electron beam surfacing.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of using for surfacing material on base of quick cut steel characterized by super-plasticity effect in temperature range 750 - 820°C. Additives of tungsten carbide and titanium carbide provide increased volume of residual austenite or they provide completely the same austenite structure of matrix. At surfacing electron beam is scanned by two or more lines across motion direction of surfaced article in such a way that to melt material only in zone of first line action. Second and next lines of sweeping of electron beam due to controlling electric current of focusing, sustain temperature of welded on bead in interval of super-plasticity of quick cut steel. At wear testing meta-stable austenite of matrix promote relaxation of stresses of contact surfaces due to additional duct of deformation duct γ - α of martensite conversion.
EFFECT: uniform structure along thickness of strengthened layer having no cracking, enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method, improved physical and mechanical properties of surfaced articles.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: repairing production, possibly repairing turbine machine vanes.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of determining line vane cross section to be repaired; removing portion with flaw along said line; abutting curved parts to lateral sides of vane while using both parts with one side corresponding to curvature of vane ends; placing cover strip on end surface of vane and said parts and fixing them by means of argon-arc welding; then joining by means of electron beam welding due to surfacing end of vane at using said cover strip as additive material; performing mechanical working.
EFFECT: elimination of distortion of structure of material of vane and cover strip, prevention of flaw occurring.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: processes for laser thermal treatment of thin-sheet metallic materials, alloys, quenching high-strength steels with different thermal-physical properties, possibly used in machine engineering, aircraft manufacture, ship making.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of acting upon treated zone by laser beam and at least by one light beam; controlling rate of temperature change of said zone due to motion of laser beam spot and at least of one light beam spot along thermal treatment line; providing elliptic shape of spots of light beam and laser beam at relation of sizes of lengthwise and crosswise axes of ellipse of spot of laser beam 2 : 1 and power density of irradiation in spot in range 10 5 - 107 Wt/cm.
EFFECT: possibility for receiving high-quality welded joint by laser and light thermal treatment method.
16 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: processes for laser thermal treatment of thin-sheet metallic materials, metal alloys, hardened high-strength steels with different thermal-physical properties, possibly in machine engineering, aircraft- and ship manufacture.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of acting by means of laser beam and at least by means of one light beam upon treated zone; controlling rate of temperature change of said zone due to interrelated movement of spots of laser beam and at least of one light beam along line of thermal treatment; providing elliptical shape of spots of laser beam and light beam at relation of sizes of lengthwise and crosswise axes of ellipses of spot of laser beam equal to 2 : 1 and density of irradiation in spot 105 - 107 Wt/cm2.
EFFECT: possibility for providing high-quality welded joint by means of laser-light thermal treatment.
13 cl, 5 dwg