Facing hollow-porous ceramic unit
SUBSTANCE: facing hollow-porous ceramic unit is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side stretching and binding faces and inner constructive insulating structure made of spaced apart ceramic baffles and bridges of series of through hollows, unit has vertical and horizontal grooves that extend beyond the stretching and bed faces to the width of one hollow and side face thickness, as well as vertical mark extending through the middle of the stretching side. Rows of through cavities are arranged alternately in parallel and perpendicularly with respect to the unit binding faces, besides the unit on the stretching side has a solid facing layer with textured surface imitating the brickwork.
EFFECT: improvement of physical and technical indicators both of the unit and laying method of the building wall, increase of laying precision during wall construction, reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, increase of laying resistance of shear due to the use of geometric parameters of the ceramic unit, its rows of through hollows made perpendicularly with respect to each other, its vertical and horizontal slots.
The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction hollow ceramic blocks, widely used in the single-layer masonry external walls of buildings with the required thermal resistance for different climatic conditions.
Known hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for the construction of homogeneous walls and ways of its masonry (patent RU 2377371 C1, 23.06.2008)containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure, and structural and heat-shielding structure is deployed relative to the header and stretcher faces at 45° and is divided lengthwise into two equal parts ceramic strap passing across the header and parallel bonder faces.
The disadvantage of this brick-block is the lack of horizontal and vertical grooves, which reduces the strength of masonry shear in its operation. Also a disadvantage is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This leads to a deterioration of the efficiency of the walls, made of this block, due to the presence of end-to-end suture, and increased construction time. Also a disadvantage is the lack of a solid layer facing unit that can gain and to accelerated destruction of the cladding part in the operation process when moisture penetrates into the outer void and the impact of the processes of freezing and thawing.
Well-known large-scale porous ceramic block POROTHERM (THICK) PTH 51 (510×250×219), PTH 38 (380×250×219), PTH 25 (250×380×219) and PTH 12 (120×500×219). (Large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (GOST 5 30-2007), PTH 51 and PTH 38. [Electronic resource]/the Wienerberger group (Wienerberger) - Vienna (Austria). Mode of access: http:// www.wienerberger.ru). The ceramic block is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block. Voids in the ceramic block to the rectangular shape of 40×15 mm and parallel to the header side. Ribs are parallel as well as perpendicular to the header side. Additional cavities have the shape of a square and are located on the borders of the pair stretcher bond faces, and with two structural holes 42,5×42.5 mm, located at a distance of 50 mm from the bonder faces. Mark block strength M100-M150.
The disadvantage of this large porous ceramic block POROTHERM (THICK) is the necessity of imposing a solution on a flat horizontal surface of the block for coupling with the overlying blocks. This results in the deterioration of the efficiency of the walls, made from this block, due to the presence of end-to-end suture, and increased construction time. Also, a significant disadvantage of this ceramic block is the lack of horizontal grooves that during the construction of masonry leads to a decrease in the accuracy and stability of construction. In addition, decreases the resistance of masonry shear in its operation. Also a disadvantage is the lack of a solid layer facing unit, which can lead to accelerated destruction of the cladding part in the operation process when moisture penetrates into the outer void and the impact of the processes of freezing and thawing.
Closest to the claimed invention is a hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall (patent application for invention No. 2011120531/03(030396) dated 20.05.2011, representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through voids, parallel bonder faces of the block, wherein the end-to-end cavities are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows by half their width, in addition, the block has a vertical and horizontal the grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face and the vertical risk center stretcher bond side faces.
The disadvantage of this hollow-porous ceramic block is the lack of a solid layer facing unit, which can lead to accelerated destruction of the cladding part in the operation process when moisture penetrates into the outer void and the impact of the processes of freezing and thawing. Also the disadvantage of this unit is the location of the end-to-end cavities are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows, which may in the outer layers perpendicular to the direction of the heat resistance may lead to the formation of moisture and accelerated destruction of the unit. Also the disadvantage of this unit is the lack of size in the thickness of 640 mm, the closest normalized thermal resistance walling for most regions of the middle zone of the Russian Federation.
The objective of the invention is the creation of facing hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer walls, providing high thermal performance during the operation, the destruction of the cladding layer, convenience and easy installation, reducing labor costs.
Our tasks is and is solved by in facing hollow porous ceramic block representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through cavities with vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face and the vertical risk passing through the center of the stretcher bond (front) side, according to the invention, the series of through cavities are alternately parallel and perpendicular to the bonder faces of the block, in addition, the block on stretcher bond (front) side has a full facing layer with a textured surface, imitating brickwork.
Facing hollow porous ceramic block side contains the header 1 and header 2 faces, internal structural thermal insulation structure, made of separated from each other by ceramic walls 3 and ridges 4 rows of end-to-end rectangular cavities 5, alternating between the parallel and perpendicular to the bonder 2 faces of the block, through the voids 5 are offset relative to each other in adjacent rows by half their width is ment to improve the efficiency of the unit. The block 8 has a vertical and horizontal grooves 9, which are for the header 1 and bed 10 faces to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face. On the front (stretcher bond) sides 1 unit applied vertical risk 6 passing through the center of the stretcher bond (face) face 1. Figure 1-2 the risk is located in the center stretcher bond (face) face (1) to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry. Block in stretcher bond side has a full facing layer 11 with textured surface, imitating brickwork.
From the point of view of efficiency of the unit through a rectangular cavities 5 are both perpendicular and parallel to the bonder face 2 of the block.
The raw material for the creation of ceramic block is a natural clay with additives. Structural thermal insulation structure is deployed perpendicular to the header 1 and header 2 faces. Each rectangular void separated from each other by ceramic walls 3 and ridges 4 on the entire height of the block, intersecting at an angle of 90°. All cavities 5 are oriented relative to the header 1 and header 2 faces of the ceramic block so that the diagonal of a rectangular cavities placed perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer resistance from the side of the header 1, and the bonder 2 faces./p>
Use facing hollow porous ceramic block allows you to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without cladding layer and filling the vertical joints with mortar during the construction of masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other (in some cases only requires a vertical sealing interface with the outside). One hollow-porous ceramic block is placed on the entire wall thickness, which is determined by thermal calculation for a specific region construction without ligation of the installed blocks and without filling the vertical joints in the construction of masonry. In stretcher bond (front) 1 the faces of the block applied vertical risk 6, 7, passing through the center of the stretcher bond (front) 1 faces to improve the performance of laying the blocks in a row and accurate erection of masonry. A facing layer of a solid block is made.
The invention relates to building structures, it helps to build the outer wall (bearing or self-supporting) without cladding layer and filling the vertical grooves solution when erecting masonry (or adhesive) due to the formation of the castle in the joint area between the grooves closely adjacent to each other.
It does not require filling VERTIC is selected grooves of the binder material during the construction of masonry (in some cases only requires a vertical sealing interface with the outside). When this bearing or non-load-bearing construction can be performed in thickness in one unit. By the arrangement then made perpendicular relative to each other, as well as the location of the vertical and horizontal grooves increases thermal efficiency of the walls. Due to the special form that allows you to evenly distribute the load on neighboring blocks, this ceramic block can be used as load bearing walls in buildings up to 10 floors. Due to the presence of solid cladding layer there is no possibility of its destruction during operation when moisture penetrates into the outer void and the impact of the processes of freezing and thawing.
Figure 1 shows the types and risks facing hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer walls with size 640×250×250 mm figure 2 shows a spatial image, and the view from the top facing hollow porous ceramic block for the construction of single-layer and multi-layer wall size 640×250×250 mm
Facing hollow porous ceramic block for walls has a size of 640×250×250 mm; average weight 16,1 kg; the average density of 720 kg/m3. The facing layer is solid. Blocks can be used for low-rise and high-rise construction, as melkostupova filling the Oia bearing and self-supporting walls of buildings and constructions. An example of execution of hollow porous block:
1) as a self-supporting structures;
2) as load-bearing walls;
3) as an additional insulation of walls in the reconstruction of buildings and structures;
4) as the facades of the building.
Facing hollow porous ceramic block representing a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side header and stretcher faces and internal structural insulating structure made of separated from each other by ceramic walls and bridges rows of through holes, the block has a vertical and horizontal grooves, which are beyond the stretcher bond and bed face to the width of one of the cavities and the thickness of the side face and the vertical risk passing through the center of the stretcher bond side, characterized in that the rows of through cavities are alternately parallel and perpendicular to the bonder faces of the block, in addition, the block in stretcher bond side has full facing layer with a textured surface, imitating brickwork.
SUBSTANCE: leave-in-place form comprises two oppositely arranged slabs, an external one from heat insulation material and an internal one from concrete, attached to each other and forming a space between each other for filling with a fluid material, capable of hardening. The internal slab of concrete is made as reinforced and comprises reinforcing elements of two types, at the same time reinforcing elements of the first type are made as V-shaped in the cross section from bent mesh and are installed in parallel and at the identical distance from each other and provide for placement of reinforcing elements of the second type at the identical distance from each other and fixation parallel to them, and the reinforcing elements of the second type represent spatial reinforcing elements made of three longitudinal rods and two rods bent with a V-shaped zigzag. Bent rods are simultaneously connected by tops to one longitudinal rod, and by other tops - to two other rods with formation of reinforced frames of prismatic shape. Reinforcing elements of the first type are made as protruding from the concrete slab and providing for connection and fixation of the external slab to it, being made of heat insulation material and pierced by glass plastic rods with fixators providing for connection and fixation of a mesh to the rear surface of the slab from heat insulation material, and the mesh is made as capable of connection of reinforcing elements of the first type to it.
EFFECT: simplified usage of this device in performance of construction works, provided by absence of complicated operations in performance of assembly or facing works, no transfer of temperature effects inside a concrete structure, exclusion of local freezing and formation of dew point on steel reinforcement inside concrete.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building block with through cavities separated by partitions, perpendicular to a longitudinal axis, is made with ledges that frame its cavities on the upper end surface and their responsive mutually penetrating slots on the lower end surface. Also the block comprises a system of holes plugged in their central part by a partition with the possibility of its removal in order to convert them from plugged into through ones, besides, walls and partitions of the block are made with additional stiffening ribs and have a bulge in their central part, and slots are arranged at the side surfaces of the building block.
EFFECT: higher strength and reliability, stable fixation of blocks to each other.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction industry, in particular, to one of types of construction equipment - non-detachable curb with lining external surfaces from slabs, for use in monolithic housing construction. A non-detachable construction curb comprises external and internal slabs, installed at a certain distance from each other to from an inner volume for installation of reinforcement and filling with construction filler, and connecting links between the slabs. Links are made as connected pairwise metal brackets, each of which is at one side fixed on the inner surface of one slab, and end parts of brackets have 4 strips with engaged teeth, limiting stops and response windows for teeth, at the same time end parts of engaged strips are made of two types, some of them in the tail part have a stepped site, on which there is an engagement tooth and a limiting stop in the form of stamped ledges, and other engaged strips have response rectangular windows for engaged teeth, at the same time edges of engaged strips, on which there are teeth, have flanging with width of 5-7 mm, bent by 8-10° from the plane of the bracket shelf towards the opposite side from the tooth.
EFFECT: provision of reliable fixation of facing boards and preservation of parameters of a slab-to-slab gap when filled with concrete and other fillers.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.
13 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.
EFFECT: possibility to create proposed blocks of different spatial shape, which provides for the possibility to create construction objects of different shape, having a monolithic homogeneous strong and stiff structure, with increased speed of object construction and improvement of its aseismic stability.
30 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.
EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cellular-porous ceramic block for erection of single-layer and multi-layer walls represents a rectangular parallelepiped comprising outer side stretcher and header faces and an inner structural-insulation structure made of rows of through cavities separated from each other with ceramic partitions and links and parallel to header faces of the block. Through cavities are arranged with displacement relative to each other in neighbouring rows for half of their width, besides, the block has vertical and horizontal slots, which protrude beyond the limits of the stretcher and bed faces by width of one cavity and thickness of a side face, and also a vertical mark at the centre of the stretcher side of the face.
EFFECT: improved physical and technical parameters of a block and method to lay a building wall, increased accuracy of laying in erection of a wall, reduced deviations from horizontal and vertical planes, higher resistance of work to shifting.
1 ex, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: set of a leave-in-place form comprises a main wall block, an universal clip to fix wall blocks to each other, an above-opening link and a cover roof block. Blocks of a leave-in-place form are made of a hard polyurethane foam having high heat insulation and noise-absorbing properties with higher chemical resistance to exposure to salts available in concretes (aerated concretes), and also have a fabricated decorative finish of an outer surface on the face side made as a whole with the block, and at the inner side the block has a melted-in sheet profiled in accordance with the surface geometry on its surface, and/or an expanded steel sheet, and/or a close-meshed net.
EFFECT: higher efficiency in production of civil and installation works, higher extent of adhesive engagement between finishing lining and a block of a leave-in-place form and higher adhesion of blocks with monolithic concrete, universality of elements.
5 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: building members, particularly building stones.
SUBSTANCE: building stone includes membrane walls with heat-reflecting screen and microscopic venting orifices and member sealing air slot along perimeter. Building stone is composed of regularly alternating caps connected one to another with cement mortar. Each cap is made as membrane wall with single-sided framing member extending along periphery thereof. Framing member is stamped as a single whole with membrane wall. Joining surface of framing member end is parallel to membrane wall plane. Building stone end with opened slot is closed with membrane wall formed without framing member. Membrane wall is of 10-30 mm thickness, framing member width is 12-30 mm.
EFFECT: reduced manufacturing costs.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly retainer form to erect walls of cast-in-place frame residential or industrial building.
SUBSTANCE: retained form set comprises outer and inner blocks formed of thermoplastic composite material and plate-like bridges to connect outer and inner blocks one to another. Each outer and inner block has vertical dovetail extension formed on one end surface and mating dovetail groove created in another end surface thereof. Facing surfaces of outer and inner blocks are provided with vertical rows of dovetail grooves and extensions extending for the full block height. Inner surface of each inner and outer block has cavities opened from tops thereof and defined by inner and outer side walls correspondingly. Cavities have depths equal to at least plate-like bridge thickness. The plate-like bridges have orifices for receiving vertical extension created from cavity side. Extension height exceeds cavity depth. Opposite, lower, surface of each block is provided with blind holes coaxial to above orifices. Blind holes have depths exceeding extension heights. Longitudinal facets are formed on outer block faces arranged in upper block parts. Longitudinal extension is created in lower block parts and adapted to enclose joint plane by another, lower, block. Building wall erection method with the use of above retained form set is also disclosed.
EFFECT: possibility to erect wall of any texture, color and finishing.
2 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for well wall erection with the use of retained form during residential and public building construction.
SUBSTANCE: concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Through orifice is made in bed. Orifice length in longitudinal stone direction exceeds double thickness of header wall. Opposite header faces are provided with through grooves or openings. In accordance with the second embodiment the concrete stone has blind hole and is opened from one stretcher faces. Two or more through orifices are made in bed and transversal diaphragms are arranged in inner hole between the orifices. Opposite header faces and diaphragms are provided with through grooves or openings.
EFFECT: increased reliability, strength and integrality of bond between retained form and hardened concrete.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: building materials, particularly building units used for building wall erection.
SUBSTANCE: building unit is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with length/width ratio of 1:2 and comprises stretcher, header and bed faces. Upper face is provided with rectangular extensions, lower face is provided with corresponding depressions. Lock connection members, namely dovetail extensions and dovetail depressions are formed on the faces. Mechanical solid concrete or polymeric concrete coating is created on front face. Dovetail depressions similar to that of the lock connection members are created on inner face. Some units have decorative coating formed on one face and on front face of each unit. Two steel L-shaped anchors are built in the unit.
EFFECT: increased assemblage simplicity and quality, reduced time of building envelope assemblage, reduced binding agent consumption, increased heat insulation properties of building envelope, increased building appearance and extended range of technological capabilities.
6 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building blocks adapted to erect walls of low buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building block comprises engagement means and is made as monolithic body having cavity opened into block surface. The engagement body is made as tubular member. Central part of tubular member has length enough for tubular member grasping by user's hand or by engagement means of vehicle. The tubular member passes through above cavity and is parallel to block base. Remainder part of tubular member is built in block body, tubular member ends passes through one side surfaces of the block and are closed. Tubular member is made of transparent material and filled with liquid containing air bubble submersed in liquid. Tubular member may be filled with non-freezable liquid and surface thereof may be provided with marks. Tubular member ends passing through side surface may have nipples.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability along with simplified production.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect wall frames and inner walls, door assemblies, suspended ceilings, grids, fences and so on.
SUBSTANCE: building block is formed of wood and is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped with tie members made as projections and grooves. Projections and grooves are created in edges to be connected. Side edges of the block are provided with alternating ridges and valleys. Ridge height hr is 0.5-1.5 mm. Block width bb is greater than groove width bg by 0.3-1.7 mm. Ridges and valleys may be parallel to longitudinal block axis, transversal to longitudinal block axis or extend at an angle thereto. Ridge may have triangular or trapezoid cross-section.
EFFECT: possibility to compensate inaccuracies of modular wooden building block fabrication.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of building walls having necessary thermal resistance for different usage environment.
SUBSTANCE: building member is shaped as rectangular parallelepiped provided with slots made in building member faces. Each building member face surface has relief projections forming parallel ridges with slots to be filled with mortar. Each ridge is joined with other ridges formed on surfaces of adjacent faces along ridge edges so that united ridge is created around building member perimeter. The united ridge has longitudinal section parallel to one vertical face. Each face surface has at least two parallel ridges spaced equal distances from face edges. Wall erection method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: provision of uniform strength, improved manufacturability, increased heat-shielding properties of wall to be erected along with increased technological efficiency of the masonry, decreased wall thickness and decreased mortar usage.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 10 dwg
FIELD: manufacture of building materials.
SUBSTANCE: composition for manufacturing reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix contains, kg/m3: Portland cement 160-170, foamed granulated polystyrene 15-17, basalt fiber 0.50-0.70, saponified wood tar, plasticizing supplement 0.4-0.5, polyacrylamide 0.40-0.60, lignopan B-2 0.35-0.50, and water 50-55. Reinforced polystyrene-concrete mix consists in mixing components of mix so that foamed polystyrene, basalt fiber, and additives introduced together with part of tempering water are mixed preliminarily, after which Portland cement is added at stirring, stirring is continued for 5-15 sec and, after addition of water, mix is stirred for further 25-40 sec. Articles are manufactured from polystyrene-concrete mix using volume vibration compaction to degree of compression 8-15 kg/cm2.
EFFECT: simplified mix preparation procedure, increased strength of articles, improved heat-insulation properties and frost resistance thereof, and reduced their vapor permeability and water absorption.
9 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly building elements of block or other shape for the construction of parts of buildings.
SUBSTANCE: construction block comprises shell of solid sand concrete and core made of porous cement-based material. Block is produced by extrusion-compensatory method with shell cavity division into three sections by means of transversal stiffening diaphragms. The sections are shaped as triangular prisms. Solid sand concrete includes sand having gradation factor of at least 1.88. To provide cement-sand concrete plasticity during block forming tall oil pitch taken in amount of 0.3-1.5% of Portland cement mass is additionally used. Raw mix for porous material preparation includes (per 1m3 of ready mix) Portland cement - 159-300 kg, tall oil pitch - 0.9 l and aqueous protein solution with 0.75-0.9% concentration - 3.2-6.0 l. Shell and stiffening diaphragms of construction block have the same thicknesses. Shell production method and method for porous material production for shell filling are also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased quality and productivity.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: said utility invention relates to the field of construction and may be used for the blockwork of various purpose buildings and facilities, particularly those requiring a high degree of waterproofing of vertical block connection seams. The hollow construction block contains a hollow frame with internal and external walls connected with two crossbars with a height less than the height of the layers being connected. The internal frame wall is designed as bearing, and the external wall is ornamental and waterproofing, and has elements of a rabbeting-type waterproofing interlocking connection, forming a "tile" effect; the elements are located in the places of connection with the following similar wall of another block and coincide with the external wall front surface plane.
EFFECT: provision of reliable waterproofing connection of end joints in building under construction and attractive appearance of front part of building.
4 cl, 3 dwg