Deposit reduction in gasoline fractionation, water cooling system and product recovery section

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of selecting a solvent or mixture of solvents useful for reducing deposit formation, cleaning existing deposits, and/or decreasing the rate of deposit formation. The invention relates to a method of dispersing contaminants in a liquid hydrocarbon stream, wherein the method includes steps of determining the nature of contaminants in the liquid hydrocarbon stream by measuring flow rate of the liquid hydrocarbon and estimating the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the liquid hydrocarbon stream based on the measured value; selecting a solvent or a mixture of solvents suitable to disperse the contaminants based on the determined nature, wherein the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the selected solvent or mixture of solvents is less than the estimated ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the liquid hydrocarbon stream; and contacting the contaminants with the selected solvent or mixture of solvents.

EFFECT: efficient dispersion and removal of contaminants from equipment.

18 cl, 2 dwg

 

The technical field to which the invention relates.

In one aspect disclosed here, the options are to reduce sediment or decrease in the rate of formation of deposits due to contaminating impurities in various streams of hydrocarbons such as fuel oil fraction. More specifically, disclosed here options refer to the way the choice of the solvent or mixture of solvents, can be applied to reduce the formation of deposits, cleaning of existing deposits and/or slow down the formation of plaque.

The level of technology

With all the increasing demand for low-sulfur middle distillates refinery experts are showing keen interest in the conversion of fuel oil vacuum distillation into a distillate. Search for the Best Available Technology ("BAT") in the last few years has intensified due to the reduction of the supply of low-sulfur crude oils and build-up of supply coming mainly from heavy sour crude oils and heavy synthetic oils.

Heavy oil mainly relates to such crude oils with high viscosity or specific gravity in degrees API (American Petroleum Institute) less than about 23. Examples of heavy oils are crude oil and fuel oil from crude oil obtained by atmospheric or is akoume distillation of crude oil. Traditional product for vacuum residue was high-sulphur fuel oil (“HSFO”), however, the need for HSFO in most areas has decreased over the last ten years, creating an additional incentive to find ways of converting oil residue.

One way conversion, recently attracted attention is hydrobromide oil residue or oil. In the process of hydrobromide fuel oil quality oil residue increases with hydrogen and a catalyst hydrobromide for more valuable low-boiling liquid products. Chevron Lummus Global ("CLG") has developed a variety of technologies catalytic modification of petroleum residues, including desulfuromonas atmospheric petroleum residue (ARDS), desulfuromonas vacuum oil residues (VRDS), the reactor with submerged nozzle (UFR), catalyst replacement mode "online" (OCR), and the process LC-FINING®. The process LC-FINING®integrated into the ISOCRACKING process®is a proven alternative technology with a high degree of conversion. The combined process is particularly attractive in situations requiring a high degree of conversion of fuel oil with a high content of metals, and where the demand for diesel is higher than gasoline demand.

During the existence of the Oia such conversion processes impurities can form solid hydrocarbon deposits on process equipment and associated piping, creating numerous problems for specialists in oil refining. Contaminants can stick to each other, to stick to the walls and accumulating. Being passionate about any flow of product, impurities can also be put in placed downstream equipment and piping.

The situation is further complicated when two or more process hydrobromide are connected in series, as is typically done in industrial operations. In such cases, the impurities not only form nucleation centers for the growth and accumulation of solids in the first process, but are carried by the flow of product hydrobromide in the subsequent process, which can generate additional deposits.

It is well known that sediment contaminants clog the pipes and tubular equipment, clog the pipes, reducing the cross-section area of flow, create a bad regimes of flow and damage equipment. For example, impurities can wear out valves and other equipment, or may form insulating layers on the surfaces of heat exchangers, reducing heat transfer efficiency. Continuous deposition may cause the need for repairs, increase downtime, stop producing the tion and decrease overall performance and output.

Another aspect in relation to contaminants is that they can promote the formation of emulsions inside of crude oil, which can result in higher viscosity, making it difficult and complicating the transportation of oil through pipelines from one place to another. These effects are significant problems in processing and transportation of heavy oil and can significantly increase production costs to a level that eliminates all incentives to continue to strive to obtain benefits from conversion of fuel oil.

One type of impurities that are often found in heavy oil, which to the greatest extent responsible for the deposition of layers and high viscosity, represents the asphaltenes. Asphaltenes is most often defined as part of the crude oil that is insoluble in paraffin, low molecular weight (i.e. n-heptane and so on), and were found in crude oils in quantities of more than 20 percent. Asphaltenes typically are amorphous solids with color from brown to black, which is mainly formed of condensed aromatic cycles associated with alicyclic groups. In addition to carbon and hydrogen, complex atomic structure may also include atoms of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur. The particle size can argirov shall be from less than 0.03 microns (0.03 µm) up to several thousand microns, and they can be described as sticky or cohesive and can aglomerirovanie.

Asphaltenes are polar molecules, which are combined with each other in units by aromatic π-π-orbital bonding, hydrogen bonding and acid-base interactions. They exist in the form of colloidal dispersions, stable thermodynamic equilibrium with other components in crude oil. However, the balance in the oil may be broken during the manufacturing process or by any other mechanical or physico-chemical treatment, where there may be changes of pressure, temperature and phase composition. It would destabilize asphaltenes, resulting in aggregation and precipitation of the particles on the surrounding surfaces.

Many processes that are advantageous for the production of crude oil are limited, since the processes also create conditions favorable for the formation of sediments. Used a variety of methods to remove sediment and prevent their formation, as well as to reduce the viscosity of heavy oils. In one method of deposition is controlled by strict regulatory environment. In U.S. patent No. 4381987 the flow of raw hydrocarbons containing asphaltenes, are hydrobromide by passing the stream through a catalytic re Klenow zone in the presence of a catalyst layer. It revealed that the clogging of the catalytic layer can be avoided by regulating the rigidity conditions hydrobromide in a catalytic reaction, reducing the likelihood of formation of asphaltene deposits. However, the environment outside the reactor zone is not as predictable and comparable control outside the zone cannot be reached.

In U.S. patent No. 5139088 stated suppressing deposition of asphaltenes in the path of movement of oil in the production well by pumping heavy fractions of crude oil having a relatively high content of aromatic components and high molecular weight.

In U.S. patent No. 4081360, issued on March 28, 1978 in the name of Tan and others, to the fractions of the products of coal liquefaction add a light solvent to suppress the formation of asphaltenes.

Technology also presents numerous chemical treatment for exposure to contaminants, including the use of dispersing agents and reagents to reduce the viscosity. Was presented approach "dispersant-plus-solvent" for impact on asphaltenes, and known and are commercially available on the market numerous composition of the dispersing agents suitable for this purpose, such as disclosed in the Publication U.S. 2006/0014654. Also described inhibitors, asphaltene precipitation for use in continuous processing or the well is different operations with the injection under high pressure into the formation.

However, the sources of raw materials can be considerably varied in its composition, and individual dispersers and reagents to reduce the viscosity can operate efficiently only within a limited range. Even small changes in the oil composition can have a decisive influence on the characteristics of the dispersion of asphaltenes. In addition, even if the dispersants and inhibitors deposition solve the problem of slowing or preventing asphaltene deposits, but deposits are formed, the effect of these inhibitors is reduced to zero, because the deletion, in General, needs cleaning, scraping, or operation of hydrobromide to eliminate fat. This is undesirable because it usually requires reduction or complete cessation of production.

The invention

Disclosed here, the options are to reduce sediment or decrease in the rate of deposition due to contaminating impurities in various streams of hydrocarbons such as fuel oil fraction. More specifically, disclosed here options refer to the way the choice of solvent or solvent mixture, applicable to reduce the formation of deposits, cleaning of existing deposits and/or reducing the rate of formation of otlozhenii is. Reducing the speed at which deposits can be formed, and increase the speed with which deposits may be removed, can dramatically improve the economic performance of the method (e.g., a reduction in the duration of downtime due to the formation of deposits).

In one aspect disclosed here options refer to the way a dispersion of pollutants in the stream of hydrocarbons. The method may include the stages in which: determine the nature of contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons; choose a solvent or mixture of solvents suitable for the dispersion of pollutants, based on the definition of their nature; and provide the contact of pollutants with the selected solvent or mixture of solvents.

In another aspect disclosed here options refer to the way of impact on the condition of contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons, comprising a stage in which: serves the flow of hydrocarbons in the recycling process; determine the nature of contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons; set input parameters and input components for thermodynamic models, and the simulation results are used to select a mixture of hydrocarbons suitable for exposure to contaminants in the desired manner, based on ODA the division of their nature; ensure the contact of pollutants with the selected mixture.

Other aspects and advantages will be apparent from the following description and the attached patent claims.

Brief description of drawings

Figure 1 represents the proposed chemical structure, depicting the asphalt.

Figure 2 is a General block diagram showing a method of dispersing pollutants according to the disclosed here variants of execution.

Detailed description of the invention

Disclosed here options relate to the treatment of hydrocarbon streams containing impurities, such as asphaltenes and other asvaltirovannye connection. Asphaltenes mainly relate to the class of compounds, but not to the pure component. They consist of chemical particle number from dozens to thousands, and their composition is not precisely defined. In addition, they demonstrate the ability to interact among themselves and with other components of the oil complex. For asphaltenes proposed numerous hypothetical patterns, leading to various contradictory model approaches. One proposed structure asphaltene illustrated in figure 1.

The flow of hydrocarbons containing impurities that may have originated from a variety of sources, including the x condensates at the wellhead, crude oil, heavy crude oil, synthetic crude oil, the raw mineral oils, residues atmospheric or vacuum distillation, topped crude, maltretowanie oils or their fractions. Sources can also contain other suspended substances, such as added catalysts or contact materials. In other examples, the source of raw material may include a mixture of coal/solvent" or "coal/oil formed from coal liquids containing suspended solids from coal (e.g., ash), hydrocarbon liquid derived from bituminous, sub-bituminous or brown coal or lignite, hydrocarbon liquid derived from bituminous shale, for example, shale oil is subjected to distillation in a retort, and other hydrocarbon liquids originating from other mineral sources such as tar Sands, Gilsonite etc. Source can also occur from the process stage upstream, such as a column for vacuum distillation column for distillation at atmospheric pressure, or a reactor with a layer of catalyst circulating in the reaction volume, or, alternatively, the source may have originated from an underground reservoir.

The impurities present in the stream of hydrocarbons, can be described as existing the various States, which may include dissolved, precipitated, dispersed, suspended or equilibrium state. For example, in its natural state, the fuel oil may contain dispersed impurities. However, during the various processes (such as injection, transportation, heating, cooling, distillation, reaction, condensation, boiling, etc.) stability of contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons can be broken due to changes in pressure, temperature, chemical composition, flow, and other factors. Once disturbed, the impurities can easily form deposits on the equipment and associated pipelines.

Disclosed here options mainly relate to methods of prevention, inhibition, suppression, removal, cleaning, dispersion, reduction, dissolution, etc. of the sediment that has formed or may be formed from contaminants contained in the flow of hydrocarbons. The application disclosed here can provide the possibility of one or more of the steps in which: effectively clean/remove deposits from pipelines and equipment, remove sediments in situ in the chemical process and reduce the formation of deposits during the chemical process is CA. Disclosed here options eliminate the disadvantages of the previously mentioned controversial modeling approaches, introducing the way of effective treatment of hydrocarbon streams containing impurities.

More specifically, disclosed here options refer to the way the choice of solvent or solvent mixture, applicable to reduce the formation of deposits, cleaning of existing deposits and/or slow down the formation of plaque.

Turning now to figure 2, the effects on the status of contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons according to the disclosed here variants of execution may include a stage in which: define (10) the nature of the contaminants in the stream of hydrocarbons; select (20) a solvent or mixture of solvents suitable for the dispersion of pollutants, based on the definition of their nature; and provide (30) contacting the contaminants with the selected solvent or mixture of solvents.

On stage 10 way determine the nature of contaminants. As used in the present description, "nature" has to do with the properties of the impurities which determine the tendency of contaminants to the formation of deposits. The nature of the contaminants can be determined using the analysis is of such methods, such as performing a variety of tests on the flow of hydrocarbons or sample of sediments, formed by the application of hydrocarbon raw material. Such tests may include mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, gel permeation chromatography (for the determination of molecular mass, molecular mass distribution, etc.), brainy test, iodine test, determination of viscosity, test hot filtration company Shell, determination of the metal content, the definition of the components insoluble in pentane, heptane and/or toluene, maksuameti on Conradson (CCR), density, API gravity, NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen etc), distillation characteristics, and other methods applicable for measuring precipitation, physical properties or chemical properties of the flow of hydrocarbons.

Properties of contaminants can also be determined or estimated using experimental methods. The above analytical methods can be useful for calculating or estimating the additional characteristics of contaminants, where the experimental data can be identified correlation of various properties, or can be estimated using a variety of thermodynamic equations. Evaluation features the key may include, among others, the predicted values for the results of the above tests, as well as other properties such as the solubility parameter or the average solubility parameter, kinetic parameters, the balance of saturated components, aromatics, resins, asphaltenes (SARA), the hypothetical structure, mass or molar fraction of pollutants in the stream of hydrocarbons, the activity coefficients, the energy of evaporation, melting or sublimation, and aromaticity.

Properties of chemical compounds can also vary depending on temperature and/or pressure. In some embodiments, execution of various properties of the impurities can be estimated as a function of temperature or pressure.

After determining the nature of the contaminants on the stage (10), a mixture of solvents suitable for dispersion (i.e. dissolution, suspension or stabilization in solution, and so on) impurities that can be selected on the stage (20) based on the definition of its nature. Components applicable as the selected solvent or mixture of solvents may include aliphatic solvents, alicyclic solvents, aromatic solvents, gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel, aviation fuel, fuel for marine vessels, naphtha, gasoil, distilla the basic fuel oil, medium cycle oil (MCO), light cycle oil (LCO), thinner, heavy cycle oil (HCO), zaasfaltirovan oil (DAO). In some embodiments, execution of the solvent or mixture of solvents may include hydrocarbons or mixture of hydrocarbons containing bicyclic (tricyclic etc.) aromatic compounds with ratios of hydrogen to carbon that is similar to or smaller than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in all of the hydrocarbon raw material (for example, the General attitude of "N/s" 10 for flow of hydrocarbons). In other versions of the solvent or mixture of solvents may include hydrocarbons or mixture of hydrocarbons containing bicyclic (tricyclic etc.) aromatic compounds with ratios of hydrogen to carbon that is similar to or smaller than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon impurities. In some embodiments, execution of the solvent or solvent mixture can include one or more bicyclic aromatic compounds, tricyclic aromatic compounds, and combinations thereof.

The suitability of a solvent or mixture of solvents for the dispersion of contaminants may be due to one or more chemical and physical properties of the solvent(s), including, among others, molecular weight, aroma what was mentioned, elevationally, the olefinic unsaturation, the ratio of hydrogen to carbon, polarity, presence of heteroatoms and functional groups, and viscosity. The suitability of a solvent or mixture of solvents for the dispersion of contaminants may also depend on temperature and pressure. The properties of the solvent(s) can be measured, accidental, adapted, imposed or assessed on the basis of analytical methods, experimental methods or literature data.

Properties of one or more of the solvents can then be used to select a solvent or mixture of solvents that is capable of dispersing pollutants admixture. Properties of solvent mixtures can be estimated, for example, as a function of a variety of mass or mole fractions of each solvent used in the mixture.

In some embodiments, execution of the suitability of the solvent or mixture of solvents for the dispersion of contaminants may depend on the expected(hard) interaction(-Vij) between the solvent and contaminating impurity. Expected interactions may include, among other things, the PI-binding, the formation of hydrogen bonds and the binding forces of van der Waals forces (e.g., similarity in the characteristics of aromaticity, aliphaticity, olefinic unsaturation, the presence of which of heteroatoms and/or functional groups), the formation of micelles and the suspension of contaminants in the solvent having sufficient viscosity. For example, in some embodiments, performance may be favorable or preferred having a similar relationship of hydrogen to carbon or range of relations of hydrogen to carbon for solvent and impurities. In other versions, it may be preferable that the solvent had a lower ratio of hydrogen to carbon than the ratio in impurities.

Thus stage (20), which carried out the selection may include the stage at which: determine one or more properties of contaminants; and determine one or more desirable properties of the solvent or mixture of solvents based on a specific(related) properties(properties) of contaminants. Desirable properties of the solvent(s) can then be used for iterative determination of the solvent or mixture of solvents having the desired(-ing) property(s).

After selection of the solvent at the stage (20) of the selected solvent or solvent mixture can be formed, for example, mix, and put into contact (30) with contaminating impurity or the flow of hydrocarbons for the effective dispersion of contaminants during the process for cleaning/removal held the deposits from pipelines and equipment, for in situ removal of sediments in the chemical process, and/or to reduce the formation of deposits during the chemical process.

For a given chemical process one or more of the above stages can be repeated on a periodic basis. Sources of raw material over time can vary considerably in composition, and even minor changes can have a very strong impact on the tendency of contaminants to form deposits on the equipment and pipelines. Additionally, these small changes in composition can also affect the suitability of the selected solvent or mixture of solvents for effective dispersion of pollutants. Operating conditions for the reactor can also change over time, such as rising temperatures, in order to compensate for the deactivation of the catalyst, and such changes can also affect the suitability of the solvent or the tendency of contaminants to form deposits. Accordingly, it may be necessary periodic adjustments of the selected solvents. Similarly, when the selected solvent mixture used for periodic cleaning of contaminated equipment or pipelines, one or more of vishey the above stages may be repeated to fit the selected solvent mixture to the deposition of impurities, be clean at the moment.

As noted above, the sources of raw material can vary considerably in composition. When cleaning pipes or other contaminated equipment, according to the disclosed here variants of execution of cleaned sediments can thus be the origin of diverse raw materials. In such situations, the solvents applicable for removal of contaminants from one raw material may be unsuitable for removal of contaminants from the second raw material. In such cases, the background of the performance or engineering assessment may be insufficient, while the definition of the nature of contaminants and the choice of the solvent mixture according to the disclosed here variants of execution can provide the opportunity for effective removal of accumulated sediment.

When conducting these chemical processes may be desirable introduction of the selected solvent mixture in contact with a stream of hydrocarbons only part of the process, for example, where there may be a high probability of contamination that may be detected based on historical operating experience. In such cases, the selected solvent mixture may be brought into contact with a stream of hydrocarbons upstream Rel is relative to this part of the process. For example, the selected solvent mixture can be brought upstream relative to the heat exchangers, evaporation or distillation columns, reactors, etc. for holding the impurities in dispergirovannom condition, and then the selected solvent mixture may be subsequently evaporated or otherwise separated from a stream of hydrocarbons to be involved in the circulation and re-use.

The contact of pollutants with the selected mixture can be performed in any mode, which allows contaminating impurities to interact with the selected mixture. In one embodiment, the selected mixture can be brought into contact with contaminating impurities while passing the selected mixture through, over, or along the surface with impurities. In an additional embodiment, the selected mixture can be brought into contact with contaminating impurities by passing the mixture through contaminated equipment, where contaminated equipment (5) may include any equipment used within the process, such as pumps, filters, separators, heat exchangers and storage tanks.

For example, the selected mixture can be pumped through a network of pipelines for contact with contaminating impurities deposited on the surface of Trubar the water. As another example, the selected mixture can be filtered through the tubes of the heat exchanger, where impurities can be present in the form of deposits. In an alternative embodiment, the selected mixture may come in contact with contaminating impurities inside the fluid. For example, fluid may be a crude oil, and the selected mixture can be added to the crude oil so that the selected mixture could contact with contaminating impurities.

The selected mixture of hydrocarbons may be a single component or multiple components, and can be in any phase. In one embodiment, the mixture can be a mixture fluid, which may include non-aqueous fluids, aqueous fluids, or combinations thereof. In yet another embodiment, the selected mixture may include a solvent composed of polycyclic aromatic heterocycles. In yet another additional embodiment, the selected mixture may include a polar solvent, where the polar solvent can be an aromatic solvents, oxygenated solvents, chlorinated solvents or mixtures thereof. In yet another additional embodiment, the selected mixture may include at least one alipac the ical solvent, one aromatic solvent, or combinations thereof. In one additional embodiment, the selected mixture may also include at least one component of the means to reduce the viscosity, polar solvent, dispersant or combinations thereof.

Due to the variable properties of pollutants within a given stream of single hydrocarbon solvent may be unsuitable for effective dispersion of pollutants. In some embodiments, execution of the selected mixture exhibits a synergistic effect, where the mixture comprises at least two components, which themselves do not affect the status of contaminants in the desired manner in such extent that they are being selectively mixed with each other. Although such solvents could be in the past named as applicable, to some extent, the choice of solvent mixtures according to the disclosed here variants of execution may be suitable for exposure to a larger amount of impurities than would be expected based on previous applications of solvent separately.

The choice of solvent or solvent mixture according to the disclosed here variants of execution can be useful for a variety of refining processes or hydrobromide, or parts thereof, including reactors of hydrobromide with a fixed layer, reactors for hydrobromide weighted layer, reactors for hydrobromide with keen layer, mild hydrocracking, reactors for hydrobromide with a layer of catalyst circulating in the reaction volume, and the like. Such processes may include fractionation system, comprising sections gasoline fractions, system damping (water or other), section extraction product, ethylene units, hydrocracking processes, the process LC-FINING®the process of catalytic residue modification, installation for fractional distillation column for distillation at atmospheric pressure, the column to distillation in a vacuum, a variety of reactor series, associated piping connected circulation paths or combinations thereof.

As described above, properties of contaminants, measured and/or derived by correlation, is used to select a solvent or mixture of solvents that is suitable for dispersion of contaminants. For faster selection process can be useful for a variety of modeling programs, and these programs may be available as an in-house or purchased on the market, among others, such as ASPEN, PRO/II and HYSIS. Using such simulation programs can be defined in a variety of physical and chemical properties of diverse helices is their compounds/components; such programs may additionally allow manual input, modification or programming of various parameters in order to simplify the definition of the nature of contaminants and the choice of solvent or solvent mixture as described above.

As an example of the way in which pollutants dispersed admixture according to the disclosed here variants of execution, the flow of hydrocarbons containing asphaltenes, are treated within the long cycle, which leads to the formation of deposits. The nature of the sediments to determine figuring out what contaminating impurity has an atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon of about 1.5, the molecular weight ranging from about 700 of atomic mass units (Amu) to about 1100 Amu, and contains a mixture of aromatic and alicyclic components, among other evaluative and certain characteristics. Desirable properties of the solvent can include such atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon and to such a mixture of aromatic and aliphatic components. In some embodiments, execution of the selected solvent mixture may have a lower atomic ratio "H/C" compared to the hydrocarbon raw material containing contaminating impurity, or even lower than the contaminating impurity. The selected solvent mixture can include with the offer of secondary recycle gas oil, having the atomic ratio "H/S" from about 1.1 to about 1.2, deasphalting oil having the atomic ratio "H/C" about 1.7, and subjected to hydrobromide diesel fuel, with the atomic ratio "H/C" about 1.9. The selected solvent mixture is mixed so that the mixture contained aromatic and alicyclic components in a ratio similar to the ratio in impurities, and the ratio "H/C" - like attitude in impurities, and the solubility parameter similar to the parameter impurities. Thus, the selected solvent mixture exhibits a synergistic effect with respect to the processing of contaminants in comparison with any of the individual solvents separately. Contacts deposits/impurities with the selected mixture leads to a more efficient dispersion and removal of contaminants from the equipment.

Selecting the most appropriate mixture according to the disclosed here variants of execution provides an improved process productivity, efficiency and increased economic incentives. The contact of pollutants with the right mixture of mainly creates favorable conditions for the reduction and removal of contaminants more efficient and economical way. When the pressure drop decreases str is cheniem of the flow regimes or decrease the viscosity of the fluid, to transfer fluid requires less energy, resulting in reduced energy consumption. In addition, the removal of contaminants from the heat transfer surfaces allows the surface to operate closer to the original design parameters and provides a more intensive heat transfer, causing a further reduction in energy consumption.

It is desirable that the treated flows efficiently and reliably transported via pipelines through the valves, the exhaust channels, pumps, exchangers and other related equipment. Total benefits include increased productivity, increased equipment life and increase the duration of the working condition of the equipment. The open invention may also mainly to enable the application of selected mixtures as a means of exposure to contaminants in other fluids, in addition to crude oil.

In addition, it is advantageous that, when the impurities have the proper exposure in the conversion process, increase the operating temperature to achieve a higher degree of conversion without further enhance the deposition of contaminants. Together, reducing costs and increasing degree of conversion is equivalent to higher performance and increase the Oia income.

Although the present invention has been described in detail with the involvement of specific variants, they are intended to illustrate the invention and do not imply limitations. Additional modifications of the described variants and additional variations will be easily apparent to qualified specialists in this field of technology, and such additional options are made without going beyond the meaning and scope of the invention as set forth in the following patent claims.

1. The method of dispersion of pollutants in the stream of liquid hydrocarbons, the method includes a stage on which:
determine the nature of contaminants in the stream of liquid hydrocarbons by measuring the flow of liquid hydrocarbon and evaluate the relationship of hydrogen to carbon in a stream of liquid hydrocarbon on the basis of the measured values;
choose a solvent or mixture of solvents suitable for the dispersion of pollutants, based on the definition of their nature, and the ratio of hydrogen to carbon of the selected solvent or solvent mixture, is less than the estimated ratio of hydrogen to carbon in a stream of liquid hydrocarbon; and
ensure the contact of pollutants with the selected solvent or mixture of solvents.

2 the Method according to claim 1, in which stage, which determine the nature of contaminants, includes at least one of the stages on which:
analyze deposition resulting from the flow of raw hydrocarbons, for identifying at least one input parameter for the model that is used to select the mixture; and
analyze the flow of hydrocarbons to establish at least one input parameter for thermodynamic models used for selecting the mixture;
moreover, at least one input parameter includes at least one of:
the average molecular weight impurities;
density in degrees API;
the measured degree of deposition of contaminants;
the atomic ratios of hydrogen to carbon impurities;
the concentration of impurities in the stream of hydrocarbons;
the concentration of sediment in the feed stream;
where the value in the test hot even Shell used to predict the maximum content of impurities.

3. The method according to claim 2, further comprising a stage on which:
estimate at least one property of contaminants based on the definition of its nature;
moreover, at least one property includes at least one of:
the average molecular weight impurities;
molecular mass distribution of contaminants;
the solubility parameter of contaminants;
the calculated degree of deposition of contaminants;
aromaticity impurities;
olefinic unsaturation impurities.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the stage at which conduct the selection includes at least one of the stages on which:
determine thermodynamic characterization of impurities on the basis of at least one parameter of at least one input characteristics, at least one evaluation of the characteristics and process conditions;
determine the desired thermodynamic characterization of solvent mixtures on the basis of some thermodynamic characteristics;
calculate thermodynamic characteristics of one or more solvents on the basis of at least one parameter of at least one or more of certain input parameters and the one or more estimated performance;
in iterative mode, determine solvent or mixture of solvents having the desired thermodynamic characteristics.

5. The method according to claim 1, wherein the mixture of solvents comprises at least one aliphatic solvent, aromatic solvent, diesel fuel, medium cycle oil (MCO), light cycle oil (LCO), thinner, deepal the appropriate oil (DAO) and heavy cycle oil (HCO).

6. The method according to claim 5, in which the solvent mixture includes at least two of the aliphatic solvent, aromatic solvent, diesel fuel, medium cycle oil (MCO), light cycle oil (LCO), thinner, deasphalting oil (DAO) and heavy cycle oil (HCO), and selected components of the mixture are suitable for the dispersion of pollutants.

7. The method according to claim 6, in which the solvent mixture includes bicyclic aromatic compounds with the ratio of hydrogen to carbon, lower than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon impurities.

8. The method according to claim 6, in which the solvent mixture includes bicyclic aromatic compounds with the ratio of hydrogen to carbon, lower than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the stream of hydrocarbons.

9. The method according to claim 6, in which the solvent mixture includes one or more of bicyclic aromatic compounds, tricyclic aromatic compounds and their combinations.

10. The method according to claim 1, wherein the stage at which provide contacts includes at least one of the stages, which are:
mixing two or more solvents with the formation of selected mixtures;
serves selected mixture through the equipment containing the deposition, pollutant formed by the admixture, thereby disperse the UYa at least part of the impurities in the selected mixture and reducing the size of deposits; and
mix the selected mixture with a stream of hydrocarbons, thereby reducing the rate of formation of deposits in the processing flow of hydrocarbons.

11. The method according to claim 10, further comprising at least one of the stages on which:
allocate a selected mixture of at least one of the flow of hydrocarbons and contaminants from the mixture, which was formed as a result of the contact; and
reuse at least a portion of the selected mixture to complete the contact.

12. The way to influence the state of the contaminants in the stream of liquid hydrocarbons, including the stage at which:
a) serves the flow of liquid hydrocarbons in the recycling process;
b) determine the nature of contaminants in the stream of liquid hydrocarbons by measuring the flow of liquid hydrocarbon and evaluate the relationship of hydrogen to carbon in a stream of liquid hydrocarbon on the basis of the measured values;
c) set the input parameters and input components for thermodynamic models, and the simulation results are used to select a solvent or mixture of solvents suitable for exposure to contaminants is desirable way, based on the definition of their nature, where the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the selected solvent mixture is less than estimated from osenia of hydrogen to carbon in a stream of liquid hydrocarbon;
(d) ensure the contact of pollutants with the selected mixture.

13. The method according to item 12, in which the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the selected mixture ranges from about 1:1 to about 2:1.

14. The method according to item 13, in which the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the selected mixture is less than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon impurities.

15. The method according to item 13, in which the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the selected mixture is less than the ratio of hydrogen to carbon in the stream of hydrocarbons.

16. The method according to item 12, in which the communication occurs during processing, comprising at least one of the sections gasoline fractions, system of clearing water partition retrieve the product, installation ethylene, hydrocracking, a process hydrobromide, catalytic modification residues reactor for hydrobromide, setup for fractional distillation column for distillation at atmospheric pressure, the column to distillation in a vacuum, the reactor series, the heat exchanger, and associated piping and combinations thereof.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which the contacting reduce the deposition of contaminants during processing.

18. The method according to clause 16, in which the contacting removes at least part of the precipitated contaminants prima and at least one of equipment and pipelines in the recycling process.



 

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FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: adjustable voltage transformer comprises the following: a primary winding connected to a source of power supply, a secondary winding electrically isolated from the primary winding, besides, the secondary winding is designed to reduce the primary voltage down to the secondary voltage and a multistep switch of transformer taps connected with the secondary winding, besides, the transforer tap switch divides the secondary voltage into the specified number of voltage steps.

EFFECT: even and less distorted adjustment of current supplied to heaters of electric resistance, supply of power supply to heaters of underground beds and their adjustment.

20 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: mixing pump includes mixing gas chamber, inlet channels protruding into the mixing chamber for supply to mixing chamber of high pressure and low pressure gas; outlet channel for discharge of mixed gases; pneumatic actuating element located in inlet high pressure gas supply channel and containing movable piston rigidly attached to the plug the position of which in inlet channel determines the flow passage of high pressure gas to mixing chamber; control cavity of movable piston, to which the pressure determining the position of movable piston, pneumatic circuit between pressure source and control cavity is supplied. Besides, according to the invention, pneumatic circuit includes at least one bleed valve made so that leakage can be created in pneumatic circuit, which allows changing the pressure supplied to the control cavity.

EFFECT: creation of easy-to-operate gas mixing pump capable of changing the outlet gas pressure value with the specified or reference value.

17 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: method of control of multi-effect evaporator with natural evaporation head evaporator includes measurement and regulation of consumption of the initial solution and steam in the heating chamber and in the mortar space of the head evaporator and the boiling temperature of the solution, and the pressure of heating steam and the temperature of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber of head evaporator are measured, based on the pressure of heating steam the temperature of its saturation and the difference between it and the solution temperature at the outlet of the heating chamber Δt1 is calculated, as well as the difference between the temperatures of the solution at the outlet of the heating chamber and the bioling temperature of the solution Δt2. With that, if Δt1 reduces to the value mentioned, e.g. 5°C, then the steam is supplied to the mortar space with consumption, corresponding to the amount of steam passing through the 0.3 section of the pipe during 1-2 minutes, if Δt2 decreases to the value lower than specified, e.g. to 3°C, the steam is supplied to the mortar space with consumption, corresponding to the total cross section of the pipe, and after reaching the setpoint value, e.g. 5°C the steam supply is stopped.

EFFECT: method enables to stabilise the operation of the apparatus, to increase plant efficiency and reduce the steam consumption for evaporation.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device includes the following: continuous monitoring device of percentage of soaked carbon band; limit stops; time sweep unit of item winding; monitoring unit of volumetric distribution of binding agent; monitoring unit of shift parameters of binding agent in structure of wound item; monitoring unit of kinetic properties of binding agent in surface layer; interface unit to information display device; display device of information and communication between them.

EFFECT: increasing monitoring efficiency of manufacturing process of items by winding method and improving the quality of the item.

6 dwg

FIELD: metallurgy.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for control of the service life of the items made from A85 grade aluminium and operated under creep conditions. Creep control method of A85 grade aluminium involves attachment to the item from aluminium of one of the metal plates having work function that is different from aluminium. At attachment of the above plates the contact difference of potentials appears. Depending on value of potential contact difference the creep process is either slowed by connection of plate from Pb, Ti, Fe, Cu, or accelerated by connection of plate from Zr, Ni.

EFFECT: increasing service life of aluminium items.

1 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of synthetic carnallite. Proposed method comprises stabilising dissolution temperature, stabilising useful component concentration in varying stock consumption and determining useful component in flows entering the process. In varying said consumption relative to preset magnitude, useful component consumption is adjusted. Useful component comprises, apart from potassium chloride, magnesium chloride. Its concentration on feed stock flow is stabilised by evaporation of magnesium chloride initial solution. Additionally, content of magnesium chloride in evaporated solution is measured to calculate flow rate of evaporated solution by the following expression: where is flow rate of evaporated magnesium chloride solution, t; GKCl is potassium chloride flow rate per 100% of the product, t; is specified content of MgCl2 in evaporated solution, 35±0.5 %. Calculated magnitude is loaded in solution consumption control system as a setting point.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of control.

2 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: system for control of loose components blending additionally comprises the following components for blending of uncontrolled loose component of mixture: serially connected hopper-accumulator tank and transporter track for component supply into blended stack, serially connected scales installed on transporter track, and unit-accumulator counter for information summation on current weight of component. To blend every of dosed loose components of mixture, there are serially connected hopper-accumulator tanks according to the number of mentioned components, feeders, transporter tracks of components supply into blended stack, scales serially connected in compliance with mentioned components and installed on transporter tracks, and unit-accumulator counters for information summation on current weight of every dosed components, multiplication units that are serially connected in compliance with the number of mentioned components, control inputs of which are connected to output of unit for comparison of ratios of the amounts of current and required uncontrolled and dosed loose components of mixture, units of PID-controllers, other outputs of which are connected to appropriate information outputs of scales of every dosed loose components, and feeders, and also unit-information table, inputs of which are connected to appropriate information outputs of scales of uncontrolled loose component, scales of every dosed loose component of mixture and unit-setter for operator to set required ratio of scales of uncontrolled and dosed loose components of mixture, at that the second input of unit for comparison of ratios of the amounts of current and required uncontrolled and dosed loose components is connected to appropriate information output of unit-accumulator counter for information summation on current weight of uncontrolled loose component of mixture, and the first and second information outputs of unit-accumulator counters of information summation on current weight of every dosed components of mixture are connected accordingly to the third input of unit for comparison of ratios of the amounts of current and required uncontrolled and dosed loose components of mixture and input of unit-setter for operator to set required ratios of mixture components weights, the other information output of which is connected to appropriate inputs of multiplication unit.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of control and improved productivity.

1 dwg

FIELD: imparting odor to gases.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises tank filled with liquid to be batched, batching pump, pressure difference gage provided with the plus and minus chambers, vertical measuring pipe provided with the inlet and outlet branch pipes at the ends, source of excess gas pressure, by-pass valve, and calibrated pipe with open end that is set pressure-tightly in the vertical measuring pipe from above. The open end is positioned near the bottom end of the vertical measuring pipe, and top end is connected with the gas pipeline and by-pass valve. The batching pump is connected with the tank that is connected with the gas pipeline. The outlet of the batching pump is connected with the plus chamber of the pressure difference gage and bottom end of the vertical measuring pipe. The minus chamber of the pressure difference gage cooperates with the by-pass valve, free space of the top section of the vertical measuring pipe, and source of excess pressure .

EFFECT: enhanced precision.

1 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: polymer pour point depressant for paraffin oil contains an active component and a solvent; at that the active component is represented by copolymer of high alkyl acrylates of C18-C26 fraction with linear alkyl groups and high N-alkylacrilamides with linear or branch alkyl groups C8-C14, and toluene is used as the solvent with the following ratio of components, % by weight: copolymer - 40-60, toluene - remaining part; at that copolymer part of the depressant contains 80-95% by weight of high alkyl acrylates links of C18-C26 fraction with linear alkyl groups and 5-20% by weight of high N-alkylacrilamides links with linear or branch alkyl groups C8-C14.

EFFECT: depressant decreases pour point for oil of Sobolevskoye oil deposit, Maloye Chernigovskoye oil deposit; the depressant is highly effective as an inhibitor of and paraffin deposits.

3 tbl, 11 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the oil extraction industry. The invention relates to a polyfunctional action inhibiting additive for transporting oil field equipment, which contains tall oil, a phenol purification extract, triethanolamine, sodium hydroxide and water. The additive additionally contains urea alkenyl succinimide, with the following ratio of components, wt %: triethanolamine - 2-3; sodium hydroxide - 0.8-1.3; water - 1.0-1.5; tall oil - 11-12; urea alkenyl succinimide -10-15; phenol purification extract - the balance.

EFFECT: preventing formation of asphalt-resin-paraffin deposits and reducing setting point and viscosity when transporting paraffin and high-paraffin oil in field equipment.

3 ex, 4 tbl

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: pipeline is described, which comprises a static mixer and has a hydrocarbon flow flowing through it, besides, the specified hydrocarbon flow contains paraffin with a temperature that is higher than the temperature, when the specified paraffin is deposited on internal walls of the specified pipeline, besides, the specified flow contacts with the specified static mixer, or at the temperature, which prevents deposition of paraffin on walls of the specified pipeline, or at the time when the temperature of the specified hydrocarbon flow drops below the temperature of paraffin formation, and forms a pumped fluid medium of hardened paraffin particles in the hydrocarbon flow. A method is described to prevent deposition of paraffin from the hydrocarbon flow at pipeline walls, when the specified flow is passed through the static mixer to form a pumped fluid medium of hardened paraffin particles in the hydrocarbon flow. Also a method is described to prevent deposition of hard paraffin and to produce pumped fluid medium from a flow of fluid hydrocarbon with paraffin components, as well as a method to produce a pumped fluid medium from a flow of liquid hydrocarbons with paraffin components, hydrate-forming gases and water or salt phase, a method to produce a pumped fluid medium from a flow of hydrocarbons, which contains a water phase and paraffin components, a method to transport a well flow of hydrocarbons, containing water, via a manifold pipeline, when suspensions of dry hydrates are created, at least with one static mixer, and the specified suspension of dry hydrates is supplied into the specified manifold pipeline, a method to produce hydrocarbons and a method to produce dry hydrates, when at least a part of a hydrocarbon flow, containing water, is passed via a reactor of cold flow, thus reducing size of drops in the specified water of the specified hydrocarbon flow, and at least a part of the specified water is turned into dry hydrates, besides, the specified reactor of cold flow contains at least one static mixer.

EFFECT: exclusion of energised equipment use for melting, grinding or scraping of hard hydrates from inner surfaces of oil lines or pipelines.

42 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to polymers which are used as an additive for inhibiting deposition of paraffin. Versions of paraffin deposition inhibitors are proposed, containing a polymer which is obtained from: (a) from approximately 1 to approximately 98 wt % of one or more C1-C30-alkyl esters of acrylic acid; (b) from approximately 1 to approximately 98 wt % of one or more C1-C30-alkyl esters of methacrylic acid; and (c) from approximately 1 to approximately 30 wt % of one or more olefin monomers, selected from a group which consists of (meth)acrylamide monomers, vinylaromatic monomers, vinylcyloalkyl monomers, vinylheterocyclic monomers, vinyl esters of aliphatic acids, vinyl esters of aromatic acids, vinyl esters of heterocyclic acids, maleimide and maleic anhydride, where the alkyl part of the ester in at least one representative selected from (a) or (b) is C10-C30-alkyl. Methods are also proposed for using the said polymer for inhibiting deposition of paraffin from oil.

EFFECT: design of a paraffin deposition inhibitor, which remains liquid at 0°C with up to 50% concentration of the active component.

18 cl, 4 tbl, 10 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: N-alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane are used in the capacity of dispersant for prevention of formation, or removing of already formed salt sedimentation of ammonium salts in devices of petroleum refineries.

EFFECT: effectiveness increase as removing as prevention of ammonium salts sedimentation.

10 cl, 12 tbl, 5 dwg, 9 ex

FIELD: petroleum industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preventing asphaltene deposits during oil production, transportation, and processing and consists in solubilizing asphaltenes in hydrocarbon mixture, e.g. crude oil containing asphaltenes, to which effective amount of at least one dendrimer compound is added. Dendrimer compound is preferably super-ramified polyesteramide and, more preferably, polyesteramide obtained from succinic anhydride and diisoprepanolamine functionalized with poly(isobutenyl)succinic anhydride. Super-ramified polyesteramide having average molecular weight 500 to 50000 is prepared by condensation of a cyclic anhydride with di- or trialkanolamine, in particular diisopropanolamine. Asphaltene-solubilizing mixture, containing crude oil, asphaltenes, and at least one dendrimer compound additionally includes diluent in amount 0.01-1.0%.

EFFECT: enhanced solubilization efficiency.

11 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention aims at lowering freezing temperature, dynamic viscosity, and limiting transverse strain of petroleums as well as preventing formation of asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits during transportation and storage of petroleum. Additive contains 43-60% of product of joint oxidation of heavy pyrolysis resin with atactic polypropylene taken at weight ratio 10:(0.5-1.5) and 43-60% of alkylaromatic hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and broadened spectrum of additive activity.

12 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention aims at lowering freezing temperature, dynamic viscosity, and limiting transverse strain of petroleums as well as preventing formation of asphalt-tar-paraffin deposits during transportation and storage of petroleum. Additive contains 43-60% of product of joint oxidation of heavy pyrolysis resin with atactic polypropylene taken at weight ratio 10:(0.5-1.5) and 43-60% of alkylaromatic hydrocarbons.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency and broadened spectrum of additive activity.

12 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: petroleum industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preventing asphaltene deposits during oil production, transportation, and processing and consists in solubilizing asphaltenes in hydrocarbon mixture, e.g. crude oil containing asphaltenes, to which effective amount of at least one dendrimer compound is added. Dendrimer compound is preferably super-ramified polyesteramide and, more preferably, polyesteramide obtained from succinic anhydride and diisoprepanolamine functionalized with poly(isobutenyl)succinic anhydride. Super-ramified polyesteramide having average molecular weight 500 to 50000 is prepared by condensation of a cyclic anhydride with di- or trialkanolamine, in particular diisopropanolamine. Asphaltene-solubilizing mixture, containing crude oil, asphaltenes, and at least one dendrimer compound additionally includes diluent in amount 0.01-1.0%.

EFFECT: enhanced solubilization efficiency.

11 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: oil and gas production.

SUBSTANCE: N-alkyl-1,3-diaminopropane are used in the capacity of dispersant for prevention of formation, or removing of already formed salt sedimentation of ammonium salts in devices of petroleum refineries.

EFFECT: effectiveness increase as removing as prevention of ammonium salts sedimentation.

10 cl, 12 tbl, 5 dwg, 9 ex

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