Device for determination of oil products quality
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. A device contains a container for sampling with a scale with a piston and rod placed in it, software and hardware to measure time and temperature, a tube for liquid intake during sampling in order to determine the relative viscosity, a thermistor which can be installed at the tube during determination of microcone penetration, demulsifying ability and index of the liquid heating dynamics, a cone that can be installed instead of the piston on the rod by means of a threaded connection for determination of microcone penetration, a plug or a cover which can be installed into the container nipple instead of the tube for determination of microcone penetration and demulsifying ability, and a support for the container installation.
EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the analysis as well as increase in its information content and reliability.
5 cl, 4 tbl, 10 dwg
The invention relates to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. The invention allows to define various parameters of quality fluids, including viscosity, micromineral, demulsifying ability and the dynamics of heating and cooling fluid. Can be applied for rapid analysis of fuels and lubricants in machines; scientific research; for qualification testing in all areas. The device consists of a container with a volume of 20 ml with the piston and the tube. The selection of the product can be produced from any of tanks and reservoirs, including from the crankcase of the engine or gearbox, the fuel tank of the vehicle.
The technical result - the reduction of time for the analysis, reducing the number of preparatory operations, reducing pollution, increasing the number of defined quality parameters.
The invention can be used in refining, petrochemical, chemical, food, medical, pharmaceutical and other industries that require quality control of low and high viscosity liquids, including liquid and semi-liquid lubricants, pastes, suspensions, etc.
A known method of determining the viscosity of the oil bitumen (GOST 6258-85. Oil products. Method definitions in lowney viscosity). The essence of the method consists in measuring the time during which a certain amount of oil flows through a calibrated orifice viscometer type WU GOST 1532-81 at a given temperature, and comparing this time with the expiration time of the same amount of water from the viscometer at 20°C. the Disadvantage of this method is the high temperature oil (100°C) and the need for preliminary testing with water.
Also known a method of determining viscosity oil bitumen (GOST 11503-74. The bitumen. The method of determining the viscosity). The essence of the method consists in measuring the time during which a certain amount of bitumen flows through a calibrated orifice cylinder apparatus at a given temperature. The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of heating to a high temperature when determining the viscosity of high-viscosity liquids.
A known method for the determination of penetration (GOST 5346-78. Lubricating plastic. Methods for determining penetration of the penetrometer cone). The essence of the method consists in determining the depth of immersion in the tested lubricant standard cone for 5 s at 25°C with a total load of 150 g, expressed as an integer tenths of a millimeter on the scale of the penetrometer. The disadvantage of this method is not bodymist preliminary operations of sampling and sample preparation.
A known method of determining micromineral on THE 0254-010-86136683-2009 on lubrication gear "STP". The essence of the method consists in determining the depth of immersion in the tested lubricant cone with plunger (total weight 9,38 g) for 5 s, expressed as an integer tenths of a millimeter on the scale of the penetrometer. The disadvantage of this method is the need for preliminary operations of sampling and sample preparation, as well as the need for special equipment.
A known method of determining the demulsifying properties of liquids (ASTM D1401-10. The standard method of determining the rate of water separation from petroleum oils and synthetic fluids). The essence of the method lies in the fact that 40 ml of product is heated to 54°C (82°f), add 40 ml of water and stirred for 5 minutes at a speed of 1500 rpm, then after a certain period of time write the ratio of the volumes of the pure product, emulsions and pure water.
The prototype of the technical essence and the achieved result is a method and apparatus for determining the health and quality of lubricants (RF Patent No. 2392607, G01N 11/02, 20.06.2010). The invention consists in that by means of a diagnostic device determines the performance of a lubricant for a consolidated index obtained on the basis of viscosity, the lotnosti, electric capacity, corrosion activity, the content of the wear particles. The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to determine micromineral and demulsifying ability of the liquid.
The purpose of the invention is to simplify the operations of determining viscosity, micromineral and demulsifying ability of the liquid, reducing the time of testing, creation of possibilities for determining the viscosity of the oil field at all temperatures, creating the possibility of determining the dynamics of heating the liquid.
The device (see figure 1, 2) consists of:
- the tank 1;
- rod with a piston 2;
- spring 3;
- software-hardware complex 5;
- thermistor 6;
- cover 7;
- stand 8;
- cone 9.
The measurement is carried out as follows:
1) Determination of viscosity on the location of the oil (figure 1).
Fully compress the spring 3, omitting the rod 2, then immersed end of the tube 4 in the analyzed fluid and release the spring. Due to this vacuum, the liquid begins to flow through the pipe 4 into the container 1. After completing 20 cm3on the display the software-hardware complex 5 shows the temperature T and the filling time t. The filling time of 20 cm3an indicator of the viscosity of the oil at a temperature of ispy the project: WU T=t. The diameter of the tube 4 is selected depending on the viscosity of the product and the required accuracy of the determination of viscosity. For example, for a relatively low-viscosity oil SAE 5W-40 is advisable to use a tube inner diameter of 1.5 mm, to lubricate the STF-3 is 2 mm, for high-viscosity grease OSP-L - 3 mm. For the convenience sampling can be used by the holder for mounting the device on barrels and other containers, comprising a plate with a hole and a screw (figure 4), or suspended mounting with tape and a hook mounted on the bonnet, in the case of sampling from the crankcase of the vehicle (figure 5). Using vacuum instead of gravity allows you to define viscosity even high-viscosity products at low temperatures. For translation received on the device values of the viscosity in the standard for the analyte units should use the graph of viscosity-temperature dependence and the conversion coefficient. The conversion factor is the ratio of the viscosity of the product in standard units of measurement for viscosity, obtained by the device (at the same temperature). The graph of the viscosity-temperature dependence is built once for a particular product (make several measurements at different temperatures), the example graph is shown in Fig.6.
2) Determine what s micromineral (figure 2).
After sampling using stem 2 push the fluid up to level 7...12 cm3take the tube 4 with thermistor 6 and the hardware-software complex 5 and install the cover 7 for fitting the container 1. Set the tank on the stand 8, is removed from the container stock, cool the sample to the desired temperature (if necessary). Set the cone 9 instead of the rubber seal on the rod 2 by svorachivaniya threaded rod extending from the base of the cone into the hole on the rod). The weight of the stem with cone should be 9,38±0,025, Then put the measuring cone 9 so that its tip touched the surface of the investigated product. Position the base of the cone 9 on a scale on the container 1 to define the initial position of the cone. The cone is released, under the action of gravity it is embedded in the analyzed product. On a scale determine the final position of the cone. The difference between the values before and after immersion microelettronica is an indicator of micromineral for this product.
3) Determination of demulsifying ability (figure 3).
After sampling using stem 2 push the liquid up to a level of 10 cm3take the tube 4 with thermistor 6 and the hardware-software complex of 5, trying to use stem 10 cm3water and hermetically install the cover 7 for fitting the container 1. At room temperature the round mix by shaking for 5 minutes. Set the tank on the stand 8 and start the stopwatch. Every 5 minutes during the hour record net oil, net water, and emulsions.
4) determine the dynamics of heating the liquid. Determination of the dynamics of heat is to measure the time during which the liquid is heated to a certain temperature. The end of the tube 4 with thermistor 6 is immersed in the analyzed liquid, then heat the liquid. To display the software-hardware complex 5 control the time and temperature. Periodically record the time and temperature (e.g., every 5°C), the results build curve (examples heating curves shown in Fig). Time changes in temperature in a certain range is an indicator of the dynamics of the heating fluid. Determination of the dynamics of heating can be performed, for example, for the oil in the crankcase of the vehicle with the purpose of establishing the presence of impurities (water, carbon black, and other). During this warm-up time of the engine, for example, from 30 to 90°C, and the shape of the curve of heat will be different for pure oil and oil mixed with water. To facilitate comparison, the results of measurement of the indicator definition of the dynamics of heating should be carried out in the same conditions. Similarly, we can determine the dynamics of the cooling fluid.
Also, the device may idea is to tematica probe, includes plastic tube, magnet and wire, to determine the content of the magnetized wear products (Fig.9). The probe eliminates the influence of particles of corrosion that may be present in the channel for macroscope, when determining the content of the magnetized wear products in oil, covered in ice. For analysis using wire install the magnet in the position I put the probe on channel macroscope, after the probe was released from the channel, but not yet reached the oil, the magnet is switched to position II. As a result, the products, erased from the walls of the channel, will remain with the limiter. Then the end of the probe is immersed in the oil at a certain time, and then return the magnet in position I and remove the dipstick. The content of the magnetic wear particles in the oil is characterized by the number of particles on the magnet. Particles collected in the channel for macroscope, will be located on the outer side of the plastic tube.
To reduce the risk of the output shaft from the tank and reduce the measurement error of viscosity (due to the stabilization of the values generated vacuum) can be used to clamp consisting of two parts - plate and wire (figure 10). The latch plate is a circle with a cut to the leg of a rod and is mounted between the tank and spring. One end of the wire is key lock secured on the end of the rod, the second is free. Before compression of the spring wire retainer are bent into position I, so that when the spring compression it was held in the gap between the rod and plate retainer. After that, the spring is compressed, the lower end of the tube in the test fluid, release the rod. The spring will open the stock will return to its original position, under the action of the elastic force of the wire retainer will position II (if the elastic force of the spring is not enough to return the rod to its original position, the rod may be tightened manually). Plate retainer prevents the output shaft from the tank under the action of the spring wire latch secures the rod in the end position, which allows to achieve the consistency of the obtained volume and, therefore, generated in the vessel rarefaction.
List of figures. Figure 1 shows the external appearance of the device when determining viscosity. Figure 2 shows the process of determining micromineral using a special cone. Figure 3 shows the process of determining the demulsifying ability of the liquid. Figure 4 shows the holder for mounting the device on barrels and other containers. Figure 5 shows a ribbon for hanging the device to the bonnet when sampling from the crankcase of the vehicle. Figure 6 shows a plot of viscosity lubricant STF-3 temperature. Figure 7 shows the graph for the W ill viscosity gear lube PCB temperature. On Fig shows graphs of the temperatures of various samples of Nissan oil SAE 5W-40 from the heating time. Figure 9 shows a probe for determining the content of the magnetized wear products. Figure 10 shows a clamp to stabilize the vacuum created in the container.
Examples of tests of petroleum products offered by the device.
1. Determination of viscosity of lubricating gear STF-3.
At the present methodology was determined by the viscosity of the lubricant STF-3 at different temperatures (tube length - 150 mm, inner diameter 2 mm).
|The results of the measurement of the viscosity of the lubricant STF-3.|
|Temperature, °C||The filling capacity of the device|
According to the results of the measurements was constructed graph (Fig.6).
Found GOST 6258-85 viscosity at 100°C is 3 conditional degrees.
efficient translation in conditional degrees for lubrication STF-3: 3/3=1.
2. Determination of viscosity of lubricating gear OSP-L.
At the present methodology was determined by the viscosity of the lubricant OSP-L at different temperatures (tube length - 150 mm, inner diameter 3 mm).
|The results of the measurement of the viscosity of the lubricant OSP-HP|
|Temperature, °C||The filling capacity of the device|
According to the results of the measurements was constructed graph (Fig.7).
Found GOST 6258-85 viscosity at 100°C is 13 conditional degrees.
The conversion coefficient in the conditional degrees for lubrication OSP-L: 13/6=2,17.
3. Definition of micromineral lubrication gear STF-3.
With the help of the device made a selection of 10 ml of grease was cooled to 0°C, put the cone on the stem until it touches the surface of the grease. The base of the cone is at the rate of 13.3. Then let go of the stem with cone. The base of the cone fell to the level of 10.6. Micromineral 13.3-1,6=2.7 units given the distance between tick marks (3.5 mm) this corresponds to 2.7*3,5=9,45 mm = 94,5 mm/10.
Measured micromineral at 0°C according to GOST 5346-78, method b has been set to 95 mm/10. The measurement results of micromineral with the help of the device match the measurement results according to GOST 5346-78.
In accordance with standard grease TSS-3 its micromineral must lie in the range 80...100 mm/10 therefore analyzed grease meets the standard.
4. The definition of a demulsifying ability compressor oil KP-8S.
With the help of the device selected in 10 ml of oil KP-8S and water, was stirred for 5 minutes, then put left standing at room temperature (25°C). Every 5 minutes was measured volume of oil, water and emulsion. Also identified demulsifying ability standard method (ASTM D1401-10) at 54°C. the Results are shown in table 3.
|The measurement results of the demulsifying ability gearbox oil-8C.|
|Time min||The proposed method||ASTM D1401-10|
|Oil volume, ml||The volume of water, ml||The volume of emulsion, ml||Oil volume, ml||The volume of water, ml||The volume of emulsion, ml|
In the proposed method of measurement demulsifying ability, and in the case of ASTM D1401-10 picture of the emulsion separation are the same, differing only in the amounts (proportions remain the same) and time (due to temperature differences).
5. Determination of the dynamics of heating oil Nissan SAE 5W-40.
Identified the dynamics of heat for a clean Nissan oil SAE 5W-40 and mixes with the main contaminants: water, gasoline, antifreeze and soot.
Samples weighing 60 g) was heated to 150°C and with an interval of 5°C was recorded during heating (table 4).
|The results of the measurement of the dynamics of heating oil Nissan SAE 5W-40.|
|Temperature, °C||Net||3% water||3% antifreeze||10% of gasoline||5% soot|
According to the results of experience built graphics (pig). From the graphs it is seen that the dynamics of heating oil has the greatest influence water - oil with addition of 3% water is heated longer than other samples (due to the greater heat capacity of water and the cost of evaporation of water). Also a significant effect on heating time has soot. A slight increase in the heating time is observed when added to the oil coolant. Adding a large number of petrol (10%) had practically no effect on the time of heating oil.
Thus, increasing the time of heating oil (compared to a net) suggests the presence of impurities (water, soot, antifreeze).
1. Device for determining the quality of the oil containing reservoir with a scale for sampling with the rod with a piston, a hardware-software complex (5) for measuring time and temperature, the tube for passing fluid into the tank when sampling to determine viscosity, thermistor, which can be installed on the tube when determining micromineral, demulsifying ability and rate of heating the liquid cone, which can be installed instead of the piston rod with a thread when determining micromineral, tube or cover, which can be installed on the fitting of the tank instead of the tube when determining micromineral and demulsifying ability, and a stand to set the capacity.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with a holder comprising a plate with a hole and a screw.
3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with hanging bracket, which consists of a strip and a hook.
4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it further equipped with a probe detector of wear particles, comprising a plastic tube, magnet and wire.
5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with a clamp that includes a plate and a wire.
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: at first sample of tested oil product with fixed volume is passed through water-coagulating agent placed between turns of a flat spiral mounted in a cavity of the element having shape of a truncated cone. When the sample is passed along the spiral the time for coagulation of free water microdrops in the sample is extended. Then the sample of the tested oil product is passed through a filter membrane with a deposited layer of water-sensitive chemical agent. At that by means of the hollow element having shape of a truncated cone this sample is localised at the surface of this water-sensitive chemical agent and water availability or concentration is evaluated by its colour changing. Additionally water concentration in the sample of the tested oil product is evaluated against decrease of the sample fixed volume before the water-sensitive chemical agent changes its colour.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of the analysis.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in application of the dependence of kerosene compatibility with rubber upon content of antioxidant therein for determination of antioxidant amount in tested kerosene. Rubber seal ring is used as the rubber specimen in proposed method. Said ring is compressed to 20% of its thickness, placed in tested kerosene to fix compression force continuously during the entire test for determination of compatibility of kerosene with rubber. Compatibility index is calculated by the formula including maximum rubber ring compression force and ring compression force after 3 hours of holding said ring in kerosene at 150°C.
EFFECT: perfected method.
3 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in calculation of a value of a criterion showing increase of volume of explosive gases in comparison to initial charge volume based on fixation of quantity of destructed material in a metal marker plate at end influence on it of a tightly adjacent cylindrical charge of a test liquid explosive with initiation of explosion from the charge end that is opposite in relation to that adjacent to the plate in order to assess k coefficient of polytrope of explosion products as per an equation solved relative to k with further assessment of destructive properties of exploded charge as per the value of the above criterion that is calculated from the specified ratio.
EFFECT: improving assessment informativity and reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: to predict disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition, a model is created, which imitates natural processes of hydrothermall and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds. Continuous flow filtration of air and water mix is carried out via a ground coal sample, placed into a quartz reactor with the specified heating mode to temperature not exceeding temperature of coal self-ignition. Then the quartz reactor is cooled down to room temperature, and continuous flow filtration is repeated. The start of sample thermal destruction is fixed by reaction of indicator gas with water-alkaline solution. By the angle of opening of curves corresponding to the first and repeated heating in the chart they determine speed of exothermic reaction behaviour. The time for incubation period of self-ignition is calculated, which is a predictive factor of disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition.
EFFECT: development of a model that imitates natural processes of low temperature hydrothermal and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fuel or air stream is passed at a constant rate through a water separator consisting of multiple cells arranged in series one after the other, formed by a coagulator and a separating grid, and water obtained from separation on a porous partition wall is removed into a settling tank. Pressure in front and behind the partition wall is constantly or periodically measured; information on the pressure measurements is transmitted to an analytical recording unit; hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall is calculated based on the pressure difference; the obtained data are then used to determine the amount of water retained by the porous polyvinyl formal of the coagulator; based on the obtained calibration data on change in hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall depending on water content in the coagulator and in the fuel stream, and based on said data, the amount of water contained in the fuel is determined. An apparatus for realising the method is also described.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability, easy determination.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane (washed resins) is determined according to GOST 1567, and presence of a detergent additive in the motor petrol is determined from the difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. There are no detergent additives in the motor petrol if there is no difference between the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. Conversely, if a detergent additive was added to the petrol, there is a considerable difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. The method of labelling an explosive substance involves adding a labelling composition to the explosive substance, said composition containing identifiers, the number of which is equal to the number of properties to the labelled. The identifiers used are a mixture of polyorganosiloxanes with different molecular chain lengths, wherein each property matches an identifier in form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (retention) on a chromatogram. Thus a "chemical barcode" is formed in the explosive substance, which is read from the chromatrogram based on the principle of the presence or absence of a component at a certain time of its "exit" (retention). The method is suitable for labelling mixed and separate explosive substances, as well as components thereof, for example inorganic oxidants, particularly ammonia nitrate.
EFFECT: method provides high reliability of identifying an explosive substance with a simple process of determining its code.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining resins washed with n-heptane in gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive according to GOST 1567, wherein the gasoline used contains washed resins in amount of at least 5 mg per 100 ml gasoline (e.g. secondary gasoline - catalytic and thermal cracking, viscosity breaking, coking, polymerisation etc, usually with high content of olefin hydrocarbons). The analysed additive is added in amount of 0.03-0.1 wt %. Presence of detergent properties in the analysed additive is determined from the difference in the amount of washed resins in the gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring the reaction force of gasification products when burning a sample of solid fuel, armoured on the side surface, wherein the reaction force and time for complete combustion of the sample of solid fuel placed in a constant volume explosion apparatus are measured, at pressure in the range of (0.5-1.5)MPa, generated by an inert gas, e.g. nitrogen or argon, wherein the volume of the explosion apparatus and the mass of the sample are in a given ratio, and the value of the unit pulse of is determined using a calculation formula.
EFFECT: enabling determination of a unit pulse using small fuel samples in laboratory conditions without using large stand equipment and explosion-proof boxes.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining a blood viscosity factor with the use of capillaries involves recording reference blood position in these capillaries at the specified times determined by a formula determining a blood viscosity value (the viscosity factor) through the derived reference values. The reference blood distances covered in the capillary by the specified successive times are recorded with vein puncture. Two sets of measurements are taken with the use for each set of measurements of a various, yet known underpressure generated at the outlet end of the capillary by connecting to evacuated test tubes with the required inside pressure; the reference blood distances covered in the capillary at the successive moments of time equal for both sets of measurements are processed according to formula
EFFECT: higher accuracy and reduced time for measuring, as well as its simplification.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining the coefficient of heterogeneity of a mixture of hard-to-separate granular materials involves determining the number of samples, the minimum allowable weight of a sample, collecting samples of the mixture and components thereof. The samples are distributed in a uniform layer on a smooth surface and photographed. Pixel-by-pixel analysis of images of miscible components is performed to obtain histograms of distribution of pixels of the image on shades of gray with respect to the total number thereof, followed by determination of the threshold shade. Concentration values of the key component in samples of the mixture are then determined as a ratio of the number of pixels corresponding thereto to the total number of pixels of the image of the sample and the coefficient of heterogeneity of the mixture is then calculated. When calculating the value of the threshold shade, coordinates of the centroids of areas of the histograms of distribution of pixels of the components of the mixture are found and the value corresponding to the abscissa of the middle of the section between the centroids of the areas of the histograms is assigned the threshold shade.
EFFECT: simple and accurate method of determining the coefficient of heterogeneity of a mixture of hard-to-separate components with minimum time consumption.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method to determine fluidity of powdered materials consists in the fact that a hollow cylinder is installed so that its external diameter is inside the smallest circle of the tray, the weight is lifted to the upper position and fixed with a fixator, the hollow cylinder is filled with the help of a funnel, the volume of which is equal to the volume of the hollow cylinder, the weight is lowered and fixed in the lower position, the covers are closed with a gate, the fixator is pulled out, and the weight lifts the hollow cylinder upwards, and the powder is spilled onto the surface of the tray.
EFFECT: mechanised detection of fluidity of powdered materials with the purpose to exclude manual lifting of a cylinder and to determine regulated speed of its lifting.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: rapid diagnostics method of homogeneity of molten metal by determining viscosity of an alloy specimen with known maximum viscosity and fusion point, which is taken from a melting unit and placed into a viscosimetric plant. With that, as the specified temperature, value of temperature is used, which exceeds fusion point of the alloy specimen by n°C, specimen viscosity value is compared to maximum value of viscosity of this alloy at the specimen fusion point. With that, when those values coincide, a conclusion is made on availability of homogeneous sate of molten metal, and if value v for the temperature exceeding the specimen fusion point by n°C is less than maximum viscosity value of that alloy at the specimen fusion point, a conclusion is made on absence of homogeneous state of molten metal.
EFFECT: simpler and multiple acceleration of experiments for determination of homogeneity of molten metals with possibility of implementing correction of melting modes under shop production conditions; with that, quality control of melting of this molten metal is performed during melting process.
SUBSTANCE: method of measuring viscosity involves filling a measuring pipe to a given level with the liquid to be measured. The method also involves forming an insulated gas space over the liquid and forming a gas bubble after turning the measuring pipe by a given angle. The time at which the gas bubble forms is measured, from which viscosity is determined.
EFFECT: faster measurement of viscosity and reduced sample volume.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on the measurement of filling time of certain volume with oil product supplied via the tube under negative pressure action. By gradual product cooling, temperature is determined, at which the working volume filling time becomes higher than limit one - temperature of pumping ability (for oils) or filtration ability (for fuels). When determining low-temperature viscosity and pumping ability, the device tube filling time is measured. When determining filtration ability of fuels, filter is installed in addition, and capacity filling time is measured. When determining the impurity degree, the filling time of the capacity with filter is compared to that without any filter.
EFFECT: reduction of the time for determining low-temperature viscosity, pumping ability, filtration ability of oil products, degree of their impurity with mechanical impurities and possibility of determination of those properties.
5 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rheometre (100) has a container for material and a device for measuring its fluidity in the container. The container is in form of a reference pipe section (102) which is filled with thick material (300) with a piston (108, 970) which can move relative pipe section. The measuring device has a unit (146, 147, 148, 646, 682, 684, 946) for determining speed of relative displacement between the piston (108, 970) and the pipe section (102, 402, 502, 602, 702, 902). The measuring device also has a unit for determining pressure applied on the piston (108, 970) by the thick material (300) filling the pipe section. There is also a computational unit (302, 990) which calculates fluidity of the thick material (300) in the container based on the obtained speed and pressure values.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining fluidity of thick material.
17 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: when armouring the insertable solid-propellant charge with epoxy armour compound on side surface of cartridge, conical cavities with depth of 1.0…2.0 mm and surface area of 0.5…3.0 mm2 and at the distance between conical cavities of not less than 3 mm are made. Surface of conical cavities is degreased, cavities are filled with epoxy armour compound by means of a gun, pipette or small-size "spear" and polymerised at temperature of 15…35°C. When determining epoxy armour compound viscosity, 10 concentric circles with diameter of 6…60 mm and with a pitch of 6 mm are applied to a piece of paper. The above piece of paper with the applied circles is placed on levelled horizontal support and covered with a transparent glass plate. On the above glass plate, to the centre of concentric circles there placed is charge 0.5±0.1 g of epoxy armour compound; after that, it is covered with the second transparent glass plate with dimensions of 65×65×3 mm and load with mass of 100 g is installed on it. The above load is removed in 1 minute, and No. of circle of the largest diameter, which was reached or overlapped with the epoxy armour compound when it was spreading, is assumed as viscosity of epoxy armour compound.
EFFECT: inventions allow improving reliability of solid-propellant charge due to improving the quality of its armour coating.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises hollow cylinder and differs from known design in that its includes loading funnel with valve and seat made at its bottom for mounting on cylinder, weight retainer and pan with flanged edges fastened by adjusting screws, intake vessels and cylinder secured via pulleys mounted on crossbar fixed at struts and guide tube with weight displacing inside tube. Washer is arranged at tube bottom.
EFFECT: ruled out powder dusting, reduced consumption.
SUBSTANCE: method of analysing high-temperature metal melts, wherein temperature dependency of viscosity and electrical resistance parameters of iron, nickel or copper-based melt are determined several times, including by direct measurement, to obtain values of the parameters in form of electric signals. Viscosity and electrical resistance values of the melt are first determined by direct measurement at the same temperature values. Values of each of these parameters are fed to their own input of a correlation metre, at the output of which the value of the correlation coefficient K of these parameters is obtained. The next time said melt parameters are determined, only values of one of the parameters are determined by direct measurement and values of the other parameter are determined using values of said parameter and the correlation coefficient K.
EFFECT: reducing costs, simplification of experiments, determining one parameter from the other parameter and the correlation coefficient K, simplification of multiple experiments and preparation to said experiments based on said correlation, high quality of teaching material when teaching students.
2 cl, 16 dwg, 4 ex
FIELD: investigating composition and properties of liquids.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling a closed hollow cylinder with liquid to be investigated and setting it in rotation. The cylinder rotates until the liquid angular velocity in the cylinder reaches a constant value, then it stops instantaneously, and the relaxation time τr is measured between the first state, in which the liquid surface has the form of a paraboloid of revolution and its parameters are determined by the angular velocity of liquid ω1, and the second state, in which the parameters of the paraboloid of revolution are determined by the angular velocity ωpar. Time τr, which is necessary for the liquid to reach the second state (ω=ωpar), is a measure of viscosity and determined from the formula where k=15.4/a, a is the radius of cylinder, ρ is density, and γ is viscosity.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining viscosity.