Device for determination of oil products quality

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. A device contains a container for sampling with a scale with a piston and rod placed in it, software and hardware to measure time and temperature, a tube for liquid intake during sampling in order to determine the relative viscosity, a thermistor which can be installed at the tube during determination of microcone penetration, demulsifying ability and index of the liquid heating dynamics, a cone that can be installed instead of the piston on the rod by means of a threaded connection for determination of microcone penetration, a plug or a cover which can be installed into the container nipple instead of the tube for determination of microcone penetration and demulsifying ability, and a support for the container installation.

EFFECT: simplification and acceleration of the analysis as well as increase in its information content and reliability.

5 cl, 4 tbl, 10 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of analysis of physical properties of liquids. The invention allows to define various parameters of quality fluids, including viscosity, micromineral, demulsifying ability and the dynamics of heating and cooling fluid. Can be applied for rapid analysis of fuels and lubricants in machines; scientific research; for qualification testing in all areas. The device consists of a container with a volume of 20 ml with the piston and the tube. The selection of the product can be produced from any of tanks and reservoirs, including from the crankcase of the engine or gearbox, the fuel tank of the vehicle.

The technical result - the reduction of time for the analysis, reducing the number of preparatory operations, reducing pollution, increasing the number of defined quality parameters.

The invention can be used in refining, petrochemical, chemical, food, medical, pharmaceutical and other industries that require quality control of low and high viscosity liquids, including liquid and semi-liquid lubricants, pastes, suspensions, etc.

A known method of determining the viscosity of the oil bitumen (GOST 6258-85. Oil products. Method definitions in lowney viscosity). The essence of the method consists in measuring the time during which a certain amount of oil flows through a calibrated orifice viscometer type WU GOST 1532-81 at a given temperature, and comparing this time with the expiration time of the same amount of water from the viscometer at 20°C. the Disadvantage of this method is the high temperature oil (100°C) and the need for preliminary testing with water.

Also known a method of determining viscosity oil bitumen (GOST 11503-74. The bitumen. The method of determining the viscosity). The essence of the method consists in measuring the time during which a certain amount of bitumen flows through a calibrated orifice cylinder apparatus at a given temperature. The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of heating to a high temperature when determining the viscosity of high-viscosity liquids.

A known method for the determination of penetration (GOST 5346-78. Lubricating plastic. Methods for determining penetration of the penetrometer cone). The essence of the method consists in determining the depth of immersion in the tested lubricant standard cone for 5 s at 25°C with a total load of 150 g, expressed as an integer tenths of a millimeter on the scale of the penetrometer. The disadvantage of this method is not bodymist preliminary operations of sampling and sample preparation.

A known method of determining micromineral on THE 0254-010-86136683-2009 on lubrication gear "STP". The essence of the method consists in determining the depth of immersion in the tested lubricant cone with plunger (total weight 9,38 g) for 5 s, expressed as an integer tenths of a millimeter on the scale of the penetrometer. The disadvantage of this method is the need for preliminary operations of sampling and sample preparation, as well as the need for special equipment.

A known method of determining the demulsifying properties of liquids (ASTM D1401-10. The standard method of determining the rate of water separation from petroleum oils and synthetic fluids). The essence of the method lies in the fact that 40 ml of product is heated to 54°C (82°f), add 40 ml of water and stirred for 5 minutes at a speed of 1500 rpm, then after a certain period of time write the ratio of the volumes of the pure product, emulsions and pure water.

The prototype of the technical essence and the achieved result is a method and apparatus for determining the health and quality of lubricants (RF Patent No. 2392607, G01N 11/02, 20.06.2010). The invention consists in that by means of a diagnostic device determines the performance of a lubricant for a consolidated index obtained on the basis of viscosity, the lotnosti, electric capacity, corrosion activity, the content of the wear particles. The disadvantage of the prototype is the inability to determine micromineral and demulsifying ability of the liquid.

The purpose of the invention is to simplify the operations of determining viscosity, micromineral and demulsifying ability of the liquid, reducing the time of testing, creation of possibilities for determining the viscosity of the oil field at all temperatures, creating the possibility of determining the dynamics of heating the liquid.

The device (see figure 1, 2) consists of:

- the tank 1;

- rod with a piston 2;

- spring 3;

tube 4;

- software-hardware complex 5;

- thermistor 6;

- cover 7;

- stand 8;

- cone 9.

The measurement is carried out as follows:

1) Determination of viscosity on the location of the oil (figure 1).

Fully compress the spring 3, omitting the rod 2, then immersed end of the tube 4 in the analyzed fluid and release the spring. Due to this vacuum, the liquid begins to flow through the pipe 4 into the container 1. After completing 20 cm3on the display the software-hardware complex 5 shows the temperature T and the filling time t. The filling time of 20 cm3an indicator of the viscosity of the oil at a temperature of ispy the project: WU T=t. The diameter of the tube 4 is selected depending on the viscosity of the product and the required accuracy of the determination of viscosity. For example, for a relatively low-viscosity oil SAE 5W-40 is advisable to use a tube inner diameter of 1.5 mm, to lubricate the STF-3 is 2 mm, for high-viscosity grease OSP-L - 3 mm. For the convenience sampling can be used by the holder for mounting the device on barrels and other containers, comprising a plate with a hole and a screw (figure 4), or suspended mounting with tape and a hook mounted on the bonnet, in the case of sampling from the crankcase of the vehicle (figure 5). Using vacuum instead of gravity allows you to define viscosity even high-viscosity products at low temperatures. For translation received on the device values of the viscosity in the standard for the analyte units should use the graph of viscosity-temperature dependence and the conversion coefficient. The conversion factor is the ratio of the viscosity of the product in standard units of measurement for viscosity, obtained by the device (at the same temperature). The graph of the viscosity-temperature dependence is built once for a particular product (make several measurements at different temperatures), the example graph is shown in Fig.6.

2) Determine what s micromineral (figure 2).

After sampling using stem 2 push the fluid up to level 7...12 cm3take the tube 4 with thermistor 6 and the hardware-software complex 5 and install the cover 7 for fitting the container 1. Set the tank on the stand 8, is removed from the container stock, cool the sample to the desired temperature (if necessary). Set the cone 9 instead of the rubber seal on the rod 2 by svorachivaniya threaded rod extending from the base of the cone into the hole on the rod). The weight of the stem with cone should be 9,38±0,025, Then put the measuring cone 9 so that its tip touched the surface of the investigated product. Position the base of the cone 9 on a scale on the container 1 to define the initial position of the cone. The cone is released, under the action of gravity it is embedded in the analyzed product. On a scale determine the final position of the cone. The difference between the values before and after immersion microelettronica is an indicator of micromineral for this product.

3) Determination of demulsifying ability (figure 3).

After sampling using stem 2 push the liquid up to a level of 10 cm3take the tube 4 with thermistor 6 and the hardware-software complex of 5, trying to use stem 10 cm3water and hermetically install the cover 7 for fitting the container 1. At room temperature the round mix by shaking for 5 minutes. Set the tank on the stand 8 and start the stopwatch. Every 5 minutes during the hour record net oil, net water, and emulsions.

4) determine the dynamics of heating the liquid. Determination of the dynamics of heat is to measure the time during which the liquid is heated to a certain temperature. The end of the tube 4 with thermistor 6 is immersed in the analyzed liquid, then heat the liquid. To display the software-hardware complex 5 control the time and temperature. Periodically record the time and temperature (e.g., every 5°C), the results build curve (examples heating curves shown in Fig). Time changes in temperature in a certain range is an indicator of the dynamics of the heating fluid. Determination of the dynamics of heating can be performed, for example, for the oil in the crankcase of the vehicle with the purpose of establishing the presence of impurities (water, carbon black, and other). During this warm-up time of the engine, for example, from 30 to 90°C, and the shape of the curve of heat will be different for pure oil and oil mixed with water. To facilitate comparison, the results of measurement of the indicator definition of the dynamics of heating should be carried out in the same conditions. Similarly, we can determine the dynamics of the cooling fluid.

Also, the device may idea is to tematica probe, includes plastic tube, magnet and wire, to determine the content of the magnetized wear products (Fig.9). The probe eliminates the influence of particles of corrosion that may be present in the channel for macroscope, when determining the content of the magnetized wear products in oil, covered in ice. For analysis using wire install the magnet in the position I put the probe on channel macroscope, after the probe was released from the channel, but not yet reached the oil, the magnet is switched to position II. As a result, the products, erased from the walls of the channel, will remain with the limiter. Then the end of the probe is immersed in the oil at a certain time, and then return the magnet in position I and remove the dipstick. The content of the magnetic wear particles in the oil is characterized by the number of particles on the magnet. Particles collected in the channel for macroscope, will be located on the outer side of the plastic tube.

To reduce the risk of the output shaft from the tank and reduce the measurement error of viscosity (due to the stabilization of the values generated vacuum) can be used to clamp consisting of two parts - plate and wire (figure 10). The latch plate is a circle with a cut to the leg of a rod and is mounted between the tank and spring. One end of the wire is key lock secured on the end of the rod, the second is free. Before compression of the spring wire retainer are bent into position I, so that when the spring compression it was held in the gap between the rod and plate retainer. After that, the spring is compressed, the lower end of the tube in the test fluid, release the rod. The spring will open the stock will return to its original position, under the action of the elastic force of the wire retainer will position II (if the elastic force of the spring is not enough to return the rod to its original position, the rod may be tightened manually). Plate retainer prevents the output shaft from the tank under the action of the spring wire latch secures the rod in the end position, which allows to achieve the consistency of the obtained volume and, therefore, generated in the vessel rarefaction.

List of figures. Figure 1 shows the external appearance of the device when determining viscosity. Figure 2 shows the process of determining micromineral using a special cone. Figure 3 shows the process of determining the demulsifying ability of the liquid. Figure 4 shows the holder for mounting the device on barrels and other containers. Figure 5 shows a ribbon for hanging the device to the bonnet when sampling from the crankcase of the vehicle. Figure 6 shows a plot of viscosity lubricant STF-3 temperature. Figure 7 shows the graph for the W ill viscosity gear lube PCB temperature. On Fig shows graphs of the temperatures of various samples of Nissan oil SAE 5W-40 from the heating time. Figure 9 shows a probe for determining the content of the magnetized wear products. Figure 10 shows a clamp to stabilize the vacuum created in the container.

Examples of tests of petroleum products offered by the device.

1. Determination of viscosity of lubricating gear STF-3.

At the present methodology was determined by the viscosity of the lubricant STF-3 at different temperatures (tube length - 150 mm, inner diameter 2 mm).

Table 1.
The results of the measurement of the viscosity of the lubricant STF-3.
Temperature, °CThe filling capacity of the device
01006
10678
25238
4064
1003

According to the results of the measurements was constructed graph (Fig.6).

Found GOST 6258-85 viscosity at 100°C is 3 conditional degrees.

efficient translation in conditional degrees for lubrication STF-3: 3/3=1.

2. Determination of viscosity of lubricating gear OSP-L.

At the present methodology was determined by the viscosity of the lubricant OSP-L at different temperatures (tube length - 150 mm, inner diameter 3 mm).

Table 2.
The results of the measurement of the viscosity of the lubricant OSP-HP
Temperature, °CThe filling capacity of the device
02409
10995
25327
1006

According to the results of the measurements was constructed graph (Fig.7).

Found GOST 6258-85 viscosity at 100°C is 13 conditional degrees.

The conversion coefficient in the conditional degrees for lubrication OSP-L: 13/6=2,17.

3. Definition of micromineral lubrication gear STF-3.

With the help of the device made a selection of 10 ml of grease was cooled to 0°C, put the cone on the stem until it touches the surface of the grease. The base of the cone is at the rate of 13.3. Then let go of the stem with cone. The base of the cone fell to the level of 10.6. Micromineral 13.3-1,6=2.7 units given the distance between tick marks (3.5 mm) this corresponds to 2.7*3,5=9,45 mm = 94,5 mm/10.

Measured micromineral at 0°C according to GOST 5346-78, method b has been set to 95 mm/10. The measurement results of micromineral with the help of the device match the measurement results according to GOST 5346-78.

In accordance with standard grease TSS-3 its micromineral must lie in the range 80...100 mm/10 therefore analyzed grease meets the standard.

4. The definition of a demulsifying ability compressor oil KP-8S.

With the help of the device selected in 10 ml of oil KP-8S and water, was stirred for 5 minutes, then put left standing at room temperature (25°C). Every 5 minutes was measured volume of oil, water and emulsion. Also identified demulsifying ability standard method (ASTM D1401-10) at 54°C. the Results are shown in table 3.

Table 3.
The measurement results of the demulsifying ability gearbox oil-8C.
Time minThe proposed methodASTM D1401-10
Oil volume, mlThe volume of water, ml The volume of emulsion, mlOil volume, mlThe volume of water, mlThe volume of emulsion, ml
0051502060
53710193328
105,586,534397
1578,54,540400
20893---
2599,51,5 --
309,59,51---
3510100---

In the proposed method of measurement demulsifying ability, and in the case of ASTM D1401-10 picture of the emulsion separation are the same, differing only in the amounts (proportions remain the same) and time (due to temperature differences).

5. Determination of the dynamics of heating oil Nissan SAE 5W-40.

Identified the dynamics of heat for a clean Nissan oil SAE 5W-40 and mixes with the main contaminants: water, gasoline, antifreeze and soot.

Samples weighing 60 g) was heated to 150°C and with an interval of 5°C was recorded during heating (table 4).

Table 4.
The results of the measurement of the dynamics of heating oil Nissan SAE 5W-40.
Temperature, °CNet 3% water3% antifreeze10% of gasoline5% soot
3500000
403633323931
458872659480
50122108113132127
55156153147162154
60184185175189187
65215223200 214224
70242255223237259
75260290250268294
80279323283288325
85304356311317350
90332383345341379
95355408370362408
100377433388380436
105400463415406461
110420491436431489
115443519455451515
120467551476475540
125491576503495566
130514601530520591
135536633554541614
140561 673580564639
145584699608592662
150609736639617688

According to the results of experience built graphics (pig). From the graphs it is seen that the dynamics of heating oil has the greatest influence water - oil with addition of 3% water is heated longer than other samples (due to the greater heat capacity of water and the cost of evaporation of water). Also a significant effect on heating time has soot. A slight increase in the heating time is observed when added to the oil coolant. Adding a large number of petrol (10%) had practically no effect on the time of heating oil.

Thus, increasing the time of heating oil (compared to a net) suggests the presence of impurities (water, soot, antifreeze).

1. Device for determining the quality of the oil containing reservoir with a scale for sampling with the rod with a piston, a hardware-software complex (5) for measuring time and temperature, the tube for passing fluid into the tank when sampling to determine viscosity, thermistor, which can be installed on the tube when determining micromineral, demulsifying ability and rate of heating the liquid cone, which can be installed instead of the piston rod with a thread when determining micromineral, tube or cover, which can be installed on the fitting of the tank instead of the tube when determining micromineral and demulsifying ability, and a stand to set the capacity.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with a holder comprising a plate with a hole and a screw.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with hanging bracket, which consists of a strip and a hook.

4. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it further equipped with a probe detector of wear particles, comprising a plastic tube, magnet and wire.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that it additionally comes with a clamp that includes a plate and a wire.



 

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3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: method of analysing high-temperature metal melts, wherein temperature dependency of viscosity and electrical resistance parameters of iron, nickel or copper-based melt are determined several times, including by direct measurement, to obtain values of the parameters in form of electric signals. Viscosity and electrical resistance values of the melt are first determined by direct measurement at the same temperature values. Values of each of these parameters are fed to their own input of a correlation metre, at the output of which the value of the correlation coefficient K of these parameters is obtained. The next time said melt parameters are determined, only values of one of the parameters are determined by direct measurement and values of the other parameter are determined using values of said parameter and the correlation coefficient K.

EFFECT: reducing costs, simplification of experiments, determining one parameter from the other parameter and the correlation coefficient K, simplification of multiple experiments and preparation to said experiments based on said correlation, high quality of teaching material when teaching students.

2 cl, 16 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: investigating composition and properties of liquids.

SUBSTANCE: method includes filling a closed hollow cylinder with liquid to be investigated and setting it in rotation. The cylinder rotates until the liquid angular velocity in the cylinder reaches a constant value, then it stops instantaneously, and the relaxation time τr is measured between the first state, in which the liquid surface has the form of a paraboloid of revolution and its parameters are determined by the angular velocity of liquid ω1, and the second state, in which the parameters of the paraboloid of revolution are determined by the angular velocity ωpar. Time τr, which is necessary for the liquid to reach the second state (ω=ωpar), is a measure of viscosity and determined from the formula where k=15.4/a, a is the radius of cylinder, ρ is density, and γ is viscosity.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining viscosity.

1 dwg

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