Tire tread with several wearing plies

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tire tread has at least two wearing plies including outer wearing ply and at least one inner wearing ply located at mid tread under outer wearing ply, and at least one outer groove located in outer wearing ply. Besides, said tread features volumetric cavity ratio of 0.25-0.40 in sound state and of about 0.25-0.40 in worn-out state. External side interacting with ground extends along one of inner wearing ply in worn-out tread. Additionally, said tread features contact surface ratio of 0.66-0.72 in sound state and of about 0.56-0.66 in worn-out state.

EFFECT: enhanced performances.

15 cl, 19 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

[0002] the Present invention generally relates to the tyre tread for use in tires, and in particular to the tyre tread, containing layers of wear.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

[0003] the Protectors of the entire bus pass around the outer circumference of the tyre and act as an intermediate link between the tyre and the surface on which it moves (i.e. the working surface or the surface of the earth). The contact between the tyre tread and the working surface occurs along the overall area of the tire. The tyre tread provides grip to resist lateral transfer to a bus that may occur during acceleration of the tire, braking and/or move in rotation with dry and wet working surface. The tyre tread can also contain elements of the tread, such as ribs or projections, and characteristics of the tread, such as grooves and slots, each of which can contribute to the achievement of the target performance tires, when the tire is running in specific conditions.

[0004] One common problem faced by the tyre manufacturers is the improved performance of waste tires without affecting the performance characteristics of the new tyres. For example, despite the fact that the change in characteristics of the tread and/or increase surface or volumetric cavity protectorate to improve performance tyre in the wet conditions of the road surface, these changes can lead to an increase in the number of surface and/or volume of the cavities in the new tire over a sufficient limit. The increase of the cavities may also reduce the rigidity of the tread. Despite the fact that the changing composition of the protector can provide enhanced worn performance tires, it can also lead to the increase of the wear rate and/or rolling resistance to undesirable values, deteriorating the performance of the tyres.

[0005] Thus, there is a need to tread that provides improved performance characteristics of worn-out tires, especially in wet or snowy road surfaces without affecting the performance characteristics of the new tyres.

DISCLOSURE of INVENTIONS

[0006] In specific implementations according to the present invention described tiered tread with:

the thickness of passing in the inner direction of the depth from the outer interacting with the earth side of the tread having an outer contact surface;

at least two of the wear layer, located in the thickness of the tread at various depths and containing the outer wear layer and at least one inner layer of wear, located in the thickness of the tread under outer wear layer; and

at least one darwinulidae, located in the outer layer of wear which is open with the outer interacting with the ground side when the protector is in neizvestnom state;

when this is specified, the protector has a ratio of the volume of the cavity is approximately 0.25 to 0.40 in neizvestnom condition and about 0.25 to 0.40 in worn condition, with the outer interacting with the earth side is located along one of the inner layers of wear in a worn condition, moreover, the protector has a contact surface that is approximately equal to 0.66-0.72 for neizvestnom condition and about up 0,56 0,66 in a worn condition.

[0007] According to another implementation variant, stacked layer of protector includes an outer interacting with the earth side having an outer contact surface;

the thickness of passing in the inner direction of the depth from the outer interacting with the earth side of the tread, containing layers of wear, each of these layers of wear located at different depths from the outer interacting with the earth side of the tread;

at least one intermediate element, located longitudinally along the length of the tread, limited in the transverse direction of at least one of the shoulder element, and each of these shoulder elements is located near the edge b is a similar side tread and contains in-depth cavity, passing in a generally lateral direction of the tire and located in the thickness of the tread under the outer interacting with the land side; and

at least one longitudinal groove, located between the shoulder elements and passing longitudinally along the length of the tread, and the specified at least one longitudinal groove has a width that increases as it passes deeper into the thickness of the tread in the direction from the outer interacting with the earth side.

[0008] the Above and other objectives, features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent after reading the detailed description of the specific variants of realization of the present invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which like reference numbers represent similar parts of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

[0009] figure 1 shows a perspective view of the upper part of the stacked tread according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0010] figure 2 shows a view of the upper part of the stacked tread of the tire shown in figure 1, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0011] figure 3 shows a cut stacked the tire tread shown in figure 1, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0012] the and Figure 4 shows a cut tiered tread on the line 4-4, shown in figure 2, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0013] figure 5 shows a cut tiered tread along the line 5-5 shown in figure 2, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0014] figure 6 shows the upper part of the stacked tread of the tire shown in figure 1, in a worn layer according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0015] figure 7 shows a perspective view of the upper part of the second variant of realization of multilevel tread according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0016] In Fig shows the upper part of the stacked tread shown in Fig.7, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0017] figure 9 shows a cut tiered tread on the line 9-9 shown in Fig, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0018] figure 10 shows a perspective view of the insert in the mold having an inverted Y-shaped cross section, used for forming a cavity having an inverted Y-shaped cross-section and a conjugate displays a form specified will be inserted in the thickness of the tread, as shown in multilevel protector 7, according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

p> [0019] figure 11 shows a view of the upper part of the stacked tread shown in Fig.7, in a worn layer according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0020] In Fig shows a perspective view of the upper part of the stacked tread according to another implementation variant of the present invention.

[0021] In Fig shows the upper part of the stacked tread shown in Fig, neizvestnom layer according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0022] In Fig shows the upper part of the stacked tread shown in Fig, in a worn layer according to one implementation variant of the present invention.

[0023] In Fig shows a table containing performance data obtained from the various tests to compare tyres, which used a multi-tiered protector, shown in figure 1, with the reference bus.

[0024] In Fig shows a table containing performance data obtained from the various tests to compare tyres, which used a multi-tiered protector, shown in Fig.7, with the reference bus.

[0025] On Fig shows a table containing performance data obtained from the various tests to compare tyres, which used a multi-tiered protector, shows the output for Fig, with reference bus.

[0026] On Fig presents a graph showing the different tyre tread having a specific ratio of the volume of the cavity in the new and worn conditions, including the first group of protectors according to specific variants of implementation of the present invention, having a ratio of the volume of the cavity 25-40% in new condition and 25-40% in a worn condition; a second group of protectors according to specific variants of implementation of the present invention, having a ratio of voids 30-35% in new condition and 30-35% in a worn condition; and a third group of protectors, having traditional attitude of voids 20-30% in new condition and 10-20% in a worn condition and tread wear in a worn state is 1.6 mm, the First group is bounded by a rectangle And the second group is limited to the rectangle, and the third group is bounded by a rectangle C. the Data corresponding to the protector shown in Figure 1-5, the chart designated as the first option E1 implementation; the data corresponding to the protector shown in Fig.6-9, 11, chart, designated as the second option E2 implementation. The data corresponding to the protector shown in Fig-14, the chart is designated as a third option E3 implementation. The diagram also shows other data relevant to other structures of the protector according to the of the present invention, which similarly represent protectors 1-3, shown in Fig-17.

[0027] On Fig presents a graph showing the different tyre tread, with specific respect to the contact surface ("CSR") in new and worn conditions, including the first group of protectors according to specific variants of implementation of the present invention, having a CSR 66-72% in new condition and 56-66% in worn condition, and a second group of protectors, having traditional attitude CSR 20-30% in new condition and 10-20% in a worn condition and tread wear in a worn state is 1.6 mm, the First group on the chart is limited to the rectangle, and the second group is bounded by a rectangle Century Data, corresponding to the protector shown in Figure 1-5, the chart designated as the first option E1 implementation; the data corresponding to the protector shown in Fig.6-9, 11, chart, designated as the second option E2 implementation. The data corresponding to the protector shown in Fig-14, the chart is designated as a third option E3 implementation. The diagram also shows other data relevant to other structures of the protector according to the present invention, which likewise represent protectors 1-3, shown in Fig-17.

The IMPLEMENTATION of the INVENTION

[0028] In General, it is known that PR is the wear of the tire outer interacting with the earth side of the tread wears down to the depth or thickness of the tire tread. The tyre tread to maintain performance tires and controllability of the vehicle on wet or snow-covered road or off-road often designed with additional cavities in the tread for enhanced removal or redirection of water, snow, or dirt from the area where the tire comes in contact with the surface of the earth (which may also be termed the "contact patch" or "the tire imprint"). However, when increasing the cavities of the tread stiffness decreases. It can also cause the reduction of other quality parameters of the tire. Accordingly, in accordance with the specific options for the implementation of the present invention, the tread has multiple tiers or layers of wear, in which the protector as a whole contains cavities that become available with external interacting with the earth side of the tread, when the wear on the merits without sacrificing some of the quality characteristics of the new tyres. In other words, instead of some performance degradation inherent in the new tire, when the increase in cavities in a worn tread, performance characteristics inherent in the new tire can be maintained or even improved, and thus can be provided with the proper working condition of the tire throughout its life cycle.

[0029] Polo the tee, located in the tread, can be determined or quantified as the surface of the cavity or volume of the cavity. Surface of the cavity as a whole is estimated as the amount of empty area is present along the outer interacting with the earth side of the tyre. In fact, the number of surface cavity within the contact patch of the tire is often analyze how the contact patch, which is the boundary surface between the tire and the working or ground surface (i.e. the surface which interacts bus). In particular, the surface of the cavity can be quantified or estimated as the ratio of the area of the contact surface, which represents the surface area of the tread in contact with the ground, i.e. limited by the perimeter of the contact spot along the outer interacting with the earth side of the protector to complete the area bounded by the perimeter of the contact spot. The contact area, which does not include the outer tread surface (i.e. the surface), consider the surface cavity. If the tyre tread is brought to the fully worn condition, i.e. worn down to its Foundation, which is missing all the cavities of the tread, the ratio of the contact surface approaches unity. In General, new or unused shall protector according to the present invention, having outer interacting with the ground side, which is located along the initial wear layer, is characterized as having a ratio of the contact surface about 0,66-0,72 (i.e. 66-72%), while used or worn tire having an outer interacting with the land side, which is located along the subsequent layer, characterized as having relations contact surface of about 0.56 to 0,66 (i.e. 56-66%) or about 0,58-0,64 (i.e. 58-64%) according to other variants of implementation. According to some variants of the implementation of the subsequent layer of wear is reached when the tread is worn to a thickness of 1.6 mm These relations contact surface is shown in Fig on which specific ranges for different implementations of the present invention is shown in the rectangle And for the new and worn conditions, while traditional ranges shown in the rectangle B on both new and worn conditions, and the thickness of the tread in a worn state is 1.6 mm According to additional options for the implementation of the ratio of the contact surface is approximately the same if the outer interacting with the earth side of the tread located on different layers of wear, i.e. other words, the relationship of the new and the worn contact surfaces to protect the RA can be approximately equal. Initial wear layer may also be designated as the first or outer layer of wear. Any subsequent wear layer may also be designated as the inner layer of wear, and may be the second, last or intermediate layer of wear.

[0030] can Also be considered and analyzed the number of three-dimensional cavities in the tread, since the cavity may be suitable for use to capture and divert water through the channel from the contact spot on a wet road. Volumetric cavity (or "empty volume") generally includes the volume of the cavity contained within a given part of the tread. The ratio of the volume of the cavity is defined as the volume of the cavity contained in the protector, divided by the total volume of the tread, which contains both the full volume of the material of the tread, and the total volume of voids contained in the thickness of the tread, passing from the outer side of the tread toward its inner side. For example, the specified portion can be carried out: in depth from the outer interacting with the ground side to the surface or plane, located at the base of the deepest grooves or cavities of the tread; transversely between the planes passing vertically along the opposite side edges of the tread sides; and longitudinally along the length of the tread (such as length, rises the I, for the formation of rings around the bus). When the wear of the tire tread cavity is reduced, and the ratio of the volume of the cavity can approach zero if the tread is brought to the fully worn state (i.e. zero cavity, divided by the total volume of the tread). In General, new or unused protector according to the present invention, with the outer interacting with the ground side, which is located along the initial wear layer, is characterized as having a ratio of the volume of the cavity is about 0,25-0,40 (i.e. 25-40%), while used or worn tire having an outer interacting with the ground side, which is located along the subsequent layer, characterized as having a ratio of the volume of the cavity is about 0,25-0,40 (i.e. 25-40%). According to another implementation variant, the protector is characterized as having a ratio of the volume of the cavity is approximately 0,30-0,35 (i.e. 30-35%) in both used and unused conditions. According to specific options follow the wear layer reaches the worn state, if the protector has a wear thickness of 1.6 mm the Specified relationship of the volume of voids is shown in Fig, where a wider range limited to A rectangle, and a more narrow range is limited by the rectangle B, each of which is shown in connect the Institute with traditional ranges, identified by the rectangle C, resulting in each such traditional range has a new attitude of voids between 0.20 to 0.30 (i.e. 20 and 30%) in the new state of the tread and between 0.10 and 0.20 (i.e. 10 and 20%) in a worn tire tread. In a worn condition of the tread has worn down to the thickness of 1.6 mm

[0031] As indicated above, the increase in oral protector can reduce the local and global rigidity of the tread. For example, the longitudinal stiffness can affect the performance of tires, such as acceleration and braking, in which the speed change causes longitudinal elastic deformation of the tread. As an additional example, the lateral stiffness can affect handling characteristics when the vehicle executes a turn. Accordingly, when increasing the cavity of the protector can be used a means to preserve or increase the rigidity of the tread. This can be achieved not only within the whole bus, but also within each level of the tread wear. Thus, the longitudinal and/or lateral stiffness can be maintained or increased to tread in unused condition by adding additional voids in the tread to increase the cavity in the tire wears down.

[0032] the Longitudinal stiffness can be determined or estimated to lionstone using a ratio of axial stiffness. The modulus of rigidity is determined by the vertical load on the tire and the measured value of the longitudinal force (Fx)required for displacement of the tread on one unit (such as 1 mm). The modulus of rigidity is calculated by dividing the longitudinal force (Fx) radial force (i.e. vertical force) (Fz), or: Fx/Fz. This can be done manually or by computer modeling, such as finite element analysis. For example, the following specific finite element analysis used to obtain axial stiffness coefficients, the model of a protector having a specific thickness, is applied to the ground surface, resulting in a protector limited along its rear side (i.e. the side that is attached to the tire carcass) in the longitudinal direction (x) and lateral direction (y). Then load (Fz) at a pressure of 3 bar is applied to the back side, so that the load acts as a compressive load, forcing the outer side of the tread toward the earth's surface. Perform a displacement of 1 mm between the surface of the earth and the tire in the longitudinal direction, and measure the force (Fx) reaction protector acting in the longitudinal direction. Then get the modulus of rigidity, as described above. In a is m, new or unused protector according to the present invention, with the outer interacting with the ground side, which is located along the initial wear layer, is characterized as having a modulus of rigidity about 0,39-0,55 (i.e. 39-55%), while used or worn tire having an outer interacting with the ground side, which is located along the subsequent layer, characterized as having a modulus of rigidity about 1,43-1,75 (i.e. 143-175%). According to specific options follow the wear layer reaches the worn-out condition if the tread is worn to a thickness of 1.6 mm

[0033] By controlling the content of voids and rigidity sculpture protector can be achieved improved balance performance of the new (i.e. unused) and the worn tread on snow-covered and wet roads during the entire service life of the tire. In other words, the content management voids and rigidity sculpture of a protector according to the present invention achieves improved performance of the worn tyres in terms of water and snow without affecting the performance characteristics of the new tyres. Below with reference to the accompanying drawings described examples of the tyre tread having the above-described relationship of the contact surface, against the Oia volume of the cavity and the relationship of longitudinal stiffness.

[0034] According to various implementations of the present invention to the particular features of the tread shipped (i.e. hidden, or are contained in) tread depth and thus form the tread having at least two layers of wear. Initial wear layer contains the outer surface of the tread of a new tire, while the features of the tread associated with at least one submerged wear layer, become open after the wear of the desired amount of the tire tread. To ensure superior performance of the worn tyres in terms of water and snow hidden layer of protector may include at least one of the features, such as additional cuts and/or additional lateral grooves made in the shoulder. Other features that can apply to all layers of wear and tear, are longitudinal grooves having a negative angle of convergence (i.e. grooves having a width which increases in the direction of passage of the specified groove in the tread depth from the outer interacting with the earth side). To restore, preserve or even increase the rigidity of the tread can be used wavy or interconnected slits made in the shoulder area and/or along the greater part of the intermediate is Eber or elements of the tire tread. Below are described various options for implementation of protectors that use these and other concepts.

[0035] figure 1-2 shows a first specific embodiment of the tire tread, with several layers of wear and features to improve the performance conditions for water and snow of new and used tires. Shown in the drawing, the protector 10 has five (5) edges, including three (3) intermediate ribs 22, transversely bounded by a pair of shoulder ribs 20, passing longitudinally along the tread 10 (or circumferentially around the tire) with longitudinal grooves 24 located between them. Each shoulder rib 20 has a tread shoulder elements 30 located in the longitudinal (or peripheral) array along the tread 10. Each intermediate rib 22 contains intermediate tread elements 40, also located in the longitudinal (or peripheral) array along the tread 10. The longitudinal groove 24 restricts each of the intermediate ribs 22 in the transverse direction. Each of the elements 30 and 40 has an upper outer tread surface (i.e. outer interacting with the ground contact surface), each of which may be present in the new layer 31a, 41a of the tread or in a worn layer 31b, 41b of the tread. The outer surface of the tread is located along the Nar is the author interacting with the earth side of the tread. It is implied that the shoulder and/or intermediate elements 30, 40 of the protector may be located in the longitudinal or peripheral array to generate an appropriate shoulder or intermediate ribs 20, 22 (as generally shown in the drawing) or may be located otherwise, different from the arrangement in the longitudinal or peripheral array.

[0036] As shown in Fig.1-2, each arm includes a pair of teardrop-shaped slots 32. Each teardrop-shaped slot 32 extends from the inner peripheral grooves 24 transversely in the outer direction to the side of the tread at a constant depth. One of these two teardrop-shaped slots 32 passes transversely the entire length of the shoulder element 30, while another teardrop-shaped slot passes transversely of the length of the shoulder element and ends in the side drain groove 38. Each element 40 in any intermediate rib 22 is limited in the longitudinal direction partially deep groove 26. At the base of each partially-depth of the groove 26 has a transversely and radially undulating slot 28, passing down into the tread depth. In this application undulating means passing through the periodic non-planar path, and specified non-linear way, for example, may be a curved or zigzag path. Also what about the, transversely undulating undulating path means the path, passing in a generally lateral direction of the tread or across the width of the TWtread and radially undulating undulating path means a path passing through a thickness TTthe tread. Each element 40 comprises a pair of slots 42. The slots 42 are held across the width of each element 40 through a wavy path, which in General is at an angle α relative to a line perpendicular or normal relative to the longitudinal grooves 24. In the form shown in the drawing implementation, the angle α is approximately equal to thirty degrees (30°), however, according to other variants of implementation can also be used for other angles. A pair of slots 42 generally located at some distance from each other uniformly along each element 40 in the longitudinal direction of the protector 10. The thickness of the slits in the tread 10 is approximately 0.4 mm, but according to other variants of the implementation can be in the thickness range between 0.2 mm and 0.5 mm

[0037] As shown in Figure 3, each of the longitudinal grooves 24 includes side walls 25 having a negative angle γ convergence. The side wall 25 having a "negative angle of convergence"means that the width of the groove increases with tread depth (i.e. when passing grooves deeper into the thickness of the inu protector relative to the outer interacting with the earth side). As shown in the drawing, the width W24Tthe upper part of the longitudinal grooves 24 along the surface of the new tread is narrower compared to the width W24Bthe bottom of the groove. In the form shown in the drawing variant of realization of the negative convergence angle γ is approximately equal to eleven degrees (11°), but in this implementation variant may be approximately ten to twelve degrees (10°-12°). Width W24Tthe upper part of the groove is approximately equal to 8.45 mm, but in this implementation variant can be 8-14 mm. Each groove 24 is held in the tread depth D24which in this implementation variant is also about the full depth of DTthe tread pattern. Under this implementation variant longitudinal depth D24the groove is approximately nine millimeters (9 mm), but may be 6-10 mm. However, according to other alternative implementations may be used other negative angles γ convergence, the width W24T,W24Bgrooves andthe depth D24grooves without additional clarification. Used in this application, the term "approximately the full depth tread" means a total depth of DTtread with a deviation of approximately 0.5 mm.

[0038] figure 4 shows a partial cut side view of the of lament 40 along the line 4-4, shown in figure 2. As can be seen from the drawing, partially in-depth lateral groove 26 is held at a distance of D26in the lower direction from the tread surface to tread depth. In addition, the depth of the tread from the bottom side of the groove 26 passes transversely and radially undulating slot 28. Also the drawing shows a transverse wave slot 42 located in the element 40. The slot 42 in accordance with this implementation variant is held approximately at full tread depth, but according to other variants of implementation may be approximately less than full tread depth. The lateral groove 26 has a width W26that is about 4.5 mm, but in General accordance with the specific implementation options can range from 3 mm to 6 mm Slots generally have a width that is substantially less than the width of the groove. According to specific variants in the implementation of the slits 28, 42 respectively have a width of W28,W42that is about 0.4 mm, but may range between 0.2 mm and 0.6 mm

[0039] figure 5 shows an example of a side teardrop-shaped slot 32 along the shoulder element 30, in partial section along the line 5-5 shown in figure 2. Side drop-shaped slot 32 generally includes a slotted portion 34 and the bottom drain (e teardrop-shaped part 36. The portion 34 of the slot goes in waves to the desired depth D34between the outer tread surface and the bottom drain part 36. In addition, the cut portion 34 has a width or thickness W34,approximately 0.4 mm, but which if necessary can be changed. According to a particular implementation variant of the bottom drain portion 36 additionally goes deep into the tread DTto the desired depth D36that is about 2.8 mm, while under the more General variants of realization of the depth D36is 2-4 mm in Addition, the bottom drain portion 36 has a width of W36that is about 3.5 mm, but in General can be changed between 3 mm and 5 mm According to a variant implementation, shown in figure 2, teardrop-shaped slot 32 passes transversely to the linear or nevadaorder way. According to other variants of implementation of the teardrop-shaped slot 32 passes transversely along a curved or undulating path. Figure 5 also shows that the cut portion 34 passes radially along a curved or undulating path.

[0040] figure 6 new protector 10 shown in Fig.1-2, shown in a worn state to better identify the features previously hidden under its new surface. In particular, the worn tread, and manual is 10 Wworn out from the depths of the original tread DTapproximately 9 mm to the worn depth of about 1.6 mm Now shoulder 30 open teardrop-shaped lower drain portion 36, which adds surface of the cavity and the edge to contact the tread surface (i.e. outer space) for improved traction in water and snow. Because the shoulder facilitates the drainage of water in the transverse direction of the tread, the addition of surface cavities in the shoulder worn tires, as expected, improves overall water quality of the protector and its performance on a wet road. Because together with the bottom drain part 36 is open extra edge grip tires with snow also improved.

[0041] As shown in Fig.6, the longitudinal groove 24 is extended due to the negative slope of the side walls to provide a larger surface cavities, which facilitates the channeling of water and capture the snow. This is preferred because the groove 24 otherwise loses the volume of voids in the tread wear due to the fact that the longitudinal groove has a non-negative (i.e. positive) slope of the side walls and thus narrows (i.e. decreases its width). Thus, by increasing its width W24Bwhen the wear of the tread specified Kanak who can compensate for at least part of the bulk and surface cavities, lost due to the continuing deterioration of a protector. From consideration of the intermediate element 40 it is obvious that additional edge that contains the slot 28, is now present along the worn surface in addition to the above-described existing slots 42. Adding a slot 28 increases the number of edges of the clutch along the intermediate ribs 22, resulting in improved overall grip. The elements 40 are also becoming more stringent due to partial loss of deep grooves 26. New or Neizvestny protector according to the first variant of implementation, with a tread depth of 9 mm, has a contact surface approximately 0,68, the ratio of volume of voids around 0,34 and the modulus of rigidity about 0,40. If the tread is worn to a depth of figure 1.6 mm, the ratio of the contact surface is approximately 0,62, the ratio of the volume of voids is around 0.33, and the modulus of rigidity is approximately 1,49. The relationship of the volume of voids and the relationship of the contact surface for the new and the worn tread shown in Fig and 19, respectively, according to the first variant E1 implementation.

[0042] According to the second implementation variant, shown in Fig.7-8, the protector according to the previous implementation variant, shown in Fig.1-2, slightly modified for MF is t replace specific characteristics, along the intermediate ribs 22. In particular, the previous embodiment is modified by the use of lateral grooves 126, with a maximum depth, instead of partially in-depth grooves 26 and continuing the slots 28. In addition, wavy slits 42, with a maximum depth located in each element 40, replaced by wavy inverted Y-shaped slots 142. Other features of the protector 110 remain identical to the features of the protector 10.

[0043] figure 9 illustrates in greater detail a section of an inverted Y-shaped slots 142 on the line 9-9 shown in Fig. According to this particular implementation variant of the inverted Y-shaped slots 142 contain the upper slotted portion 144 and the lower part containing a pair of legs 146, passing in the outer direction from the lower part of the upper slotted portion 144, and each of these legs is really deep inside tread with achievement of the separating distance W146. As shown in the drawing, the specified dividing the distance W146approximately 3.4 mm, but may be approximately 3-5 mm in this implementation variant. Also according to this implementation variant of the upper slotted portion 144 is undulating along the path, passing from the contact surface 141 a new tread in the direction to a pair of legs 146, RAS is than necessary, at a depth of D 144. The upper slotted portion 144 are also undulating with the passage in the transverse direction along the width of each element 140. Under this implementation variant of the inverted Y-shaped slots are full depth D142that is approximately equal to the full depth of DTtread, and these legs are at a depth of D146that is about 3.5 mm or 3-5 mm. Finally, according to the present invention, the thickness of W144each of the upper slotted portion 144 and each leg 146 is approximately 0.4 mm, even when that can be used for other thicknesses, including the use of different thicknesses for each of the upper slotted portion 144 and each leg 146, and thicknesses that can vary along any of the upper slotted portion 144 or each leg 146.

[0044] figure 10 shows additional details of the cavity, formed an inverted Y-shaped slot 142. In particular, the upper slotted portion 144 and a pair of legs 146 waves are in the transverse direction along the width of each element 140, as well as waves pass from the contact surface 141 a new tread in the direction to a pair of legs 146 to a depth of D144as shown in Fig.9.

[0045] figure 11 new protector 110, shown in Fig-9, now shown in a worn state to brazen the ne illustrate its features, previously hidden under its new surface. In particular, the worn tread 110Wworn out from the depths of the original tread DTapproximately 9 may be, to the depth of the worn tread comprising approximately 1.6 mm, Since the only difference between the protector shown in Fig.1-2, and the protector shown in Fig-9, is replacing the side grooves 126, having full depth, partially in-depth groove 26 with the ongoing slot 28, and the replacement wavy inverted Y-shaped slots 142 on a wavy slot 42 having a depth, the following description is focused on the intermediate ribs 122 and elements 140.

[0046] As shown in figure 11, in addition to the description of 6, the intermediate ribs 122 of the worn-out tread is now open for more edge grip when inverted Y-shaped slits are shown from a single slot 144 and open both legs 146. Thus, the number of edges clutch doubles when moving from new protector 110 to sufficiently worn to the tread 110Wthat also contains an increased number of edges clutch in comparison with various implementations of protectors 10Wand 110W. In addition, the lateral grooves having a depth not substantially change the number of voids in the comparison between the new and worn conditions of the protector. Thus, in this respect there is little difference between new and worn conditions of the protector, although when compared worn protectors 10Wand 110Waccording to each implementation variant in the last protector 110Wthere is a greater number of cavities due to the presence of lateral grooves 126, which provides a greater number of cavities compared to the previous slot protector 10W. In addition, the side groove having a depth, creates additional edges clutch that improve grip with the snow. New or Neizvestny protector according to the second implementation variant, which has a depth of figure 9 mm, characterized by the ratio of the contact surface approximately 0,68, the ratio of the volume of voids about 0,36 and modulus of rigidity about 0,39. If the tread is worn to a depth of 1.6 mm, the ratio of the contact surface is approximately 0,58, the ratio of the volume of voids is approximately 0,37, and the modulus of rigidity is approximately 1,46. The relationship of the volume of voids and the relationship of the contact surface for the new and the worn tread shown in Fig and 19, respectively, according to the second variant E2 implementation.

[0047] On Fig-13 shows the third embodiment of the tread 210 in neizvestnom or the new state is. Specified protector 210 is similar to the protector 10 shown in Fig.1-2, but has several significant differences. To similar elements of the tread 210 applies his design with 5 ribs containing a pair of shoulders 220 and three intermediate ribs 222, each of which is separately executed in accordance with the negative slope of the walls of the longitudinal grooves 224, which correspond with the negative slope of the longitudinal grooves 24, as described above in respect of the protector 10 and shown in Fig.1-3. In particular, a pair of shoulders 220 contains the first shoulder 220a and the second arm 220b. The first shoulder 220a may include an internal shoulder, while the second arm 220b includes an external shoulder, if the tire is installed on the vehicle. Each arm contains a teardrop-shaped slot 232, which is commensurate with teardrop-shaped slot 32 in the protector 10 shown in Figure 5, and thus has a slotted portion 234 and the bottom drain portion 236 corresponding to the parts 34 and 36, respectively, of the tread 10. The first shoulder 220a also contains a side groove 238a, passing transversely in the outer direction from the outer side of the longitudinal grooves 224. This is different from the lateral grooves 38 of the protector 110, shown in Fig.1-2, which instead runs from the slots 32, 34 between the side groove 38 and the longitudinal groove 24 along each shoulder 20. Opposite W is the second shoulder 220b also contains a side groove 238b, which is longer than the groove 38 of the protector 10, but long grooves 238a. Teardrop-shaped slot 232 is also located between the groove 238b and a longitudinal groove 224 is similar to the shoulder 20 of the protector 10. Modification of the shoulders between the protectors 10, 110 and 220 are made to regulate the number of cavities and stiffness in each protector if necessary to achieve the desired improvements stiffness neiskushennogo protector by increasing the number of cavities in a worn tread.

[0048] Relative to the intermediate ribs 222a, 222b, 222c, edge 222a generally contains the same features as the corresponding edge 22 in the tread 10. In other words, the slits 42 and lateral grooves 26 of the ribs 22 in the protector 10 are also used in edge 222a of the tread 210 and presents slots 242 and side grooves 226. The same is true for intermediate ribs 222b, located near the second shoulder 222b, except that the lateral groove is not completely between adjacent longitudinal grooves 224. Instead, the slits 242 are located between each of the side grooves 226 and each of the longitudinal grooves 224. The slots 242 are the same as the slots 42, as described above in respect of the protector 10. With respect to the Central groove 226, additional slits 242 are used instead of the lateral groove 26 used in the protector 10. With the responsibly the Central rib 222c has no lateral grooves, passing in the transverse direction over the edge.

[0049] For test purposes, the design of the protector according to the third variant of the implementation was carried out with a tread depth of 7 mm instead of tread depth of 9 mm is used in the treads according to the first and second variants of implementation. The decrease of the tread depth is part of a management strategy rigidity of the tread, whereby the rigidity of the tread is increased after increasing the number of cavities in worn-out protector layers. In any case, any of the described in this application designs protector can be made with any desired tread depth in accordance with a specified strategy to increase the rigidity of the tread. New or Neizvestny protector according to the third implementation variant, which has a depth of figure 7 mm, is characterized as having a ratio of the contact surface approximately 0,68, the ratio of volume of voids around 0,34 and the modulus of rigidity about 0,52. The protector 220, first shown in Fig-9, now shown in Fig in worn condition to illustrate its features, before hidden under the new surface. In particular, the worn tread has the wear depth of the original tread about 7 mm to the depth of the worn tread about 1.6 mm. In the specified rundown state protector according to the third implementation variant is characterized as having a ratio of the contact surface approximately of 0.64, the ratio of volume of voids about 0,31 and modulus of rigidity about 1,59. The relationship of the volume of voids and the relationship of the contact surface of the new and the worn tread shown in Fig and 19, respectively, according to the third variant E3 implementation.

[0050] Teardrop-shaped slits in the General form a recessed cavity that contains the drain part of the teardrop-shaped slits. Implies that other depth of the cavity can be used in the next layer of wear in either the shoulder or the intermediate element or the edge of the tread. For example, can be used hidden grooves without slots located above them, each of these grooves becomes open when a sufficient tread wear. Instead, at least one slot may be located near or otherwise along the tread, for example, along the outer surface of the tread in it any new or worn condition. Slots, grooves, teardrop-shaped slot, or any other depth of the cavity can be formed by any known in the art of forming cavities in the tread. Can be used any tool for fo the formation of the recessed cavities, such as the depth of the grooves or slots, or teardrop-shaped slits, for Example, to penetrate through the outer side of the tread can be used in the pressing blades located in the molds. As an additional example, the shape can be placed or inserted into the protector and extracted from the lateral edge of the tread for the formation depth of the cavities along the sides of the protector. In addition, as another example, can be used to remove the forms located in the thickness of the tread, which can be removed or destroyed when they become available with sufficient wear of the tire. It is implied that any slot, groove or teardrop-shaped slot used in the protectors described in this application can have a width which remains constant or changes with the passage of each of them in the longitudinal direction along the tread, and any means for forming each of these cavities may have a corresponding width, which also remains constant or changes if necessary.

[0051] For the assessment of options for the implementation shown in figure 1-2 (the"first embodiment"), 7-8 (the"second embodiment") and Fig-13 (the"third embodiment"), conducted multiple tests to assess the impact of cadagopoura on various performance characteristics of the tire. Tires that used each of the protectors according to the first, second and third variants of implementation, were subjected to various controlled trials to compare the influence of each tread to the reference bus. In preparation for the test during the manufacturing of all the tyres were used molds with the same profile (except third embodiments), the same architecture framework (i.e. the design of the frame) and the same tread compound as the reference bus. In addition, all protectors, including reference protector and the protector according to the first and second variants of the implementation described above were made with a tread depth of 9 mm, while the protector according to the third implementation variant was manufactured with tread depth of 7 mm, Another similarity between the treads according to the first, second and third variants of implementation and reference protector was the fact that each design protector contained five (5) full ribs (including shoulder and intermediate ribs), identically formed and have the same amount of tread elements, wherein the longitudinal grooves are also equal width of the tread. To clarify the influence of the characteristics according to the first and second variants of the implementation of longitudinal grooves, any inverted the Y-shaped slot, or any wavy slits, located along the intermediate tread elements, or any teardrop-shaped notches along each shoulder tread the reference bus, did not have a negative slope.

[0052] For comparison, the operating characteristics of each of the protector according to the first and second variants of implementation with reference protector performed the following tests. All tests, except for tests on wear and rolling resistance were performed using the new protectors (i.e. with the full depth of the figure) and worn protectors, part of which was removed by Cherkovna before the tread depth 1.6 mm tyre size 205/55 R16.

Braking with a low coefficient of friction on wet floor. This test was performed by comparing the distance required to stop the same vehicle moving at a speed of 50 mph (80 km/h) on a wet asphalt surface when the thickness of the water layer about 1.2 mm

Braking with a high coefficient of friction on wet surfaces.

This test was performed by comparing the distance required to stop the same vehicle moving at a speed of 40 mph (64.4 km/h) on an asphalt surface, poured water from a tank truck having a watering nozzle, and t is Lina water layer did not exceed the roughness of the surface.

Side grip with wet surface. This test was performed by comparing the time required to make the same vehicle full circle on the wet ring road with a radius of 120 m and a surface of polished concrete. Water was applied by sprinkler system, providing the thickness of the water layer between 1 mm and 3 mm

Handling on wet roads. This test was performed by comparing the time required to make the same vehicle full circle on the wet asphalt covering the tracks for testing tires. Water was applied by sprinkler system, providing the thickness of the water layer, changing from a wet state to a permanent presence of water.

Longitudinal aquaplaning. Each test was performed by determining the speed at which the level of slippage reaches 10% on the leading wheels of the same vehicle with equipment for receiving and storing data during sudden acceleration on asphalt surface coated with a controlled water layer thickness 8 mm

Grip with the snow. This test was performed by measuring the longitudinal coupling of the tested tires installed on the test vehicle moving along a straight path is and the leading surface, covered with snow or ice, in accordance with the specifications of ASTM F-1805 American society for testing materials and GMW15207 General Motors.

Rolling resistance. This test was performed by testing on the rolling resistance in accordance with the industry standard drum stand for determining the coefficient of rolling resistance (kg/ton).

The wear. This test was performed by determining the rate of loss of material of the tread for each tread for estimating service life (in miles) and the wear rate (mm/10000 miles) for each tread. When performing the test tires were mounted on identical vehicles and operated in a controlled manner according to the established pattern on the public highway. Loss of tread was measured by measuring the tread depth.

[0053] As shown in Fig, 16 and 17, testing in particular demonstrate the improved performance for each of the protectors according to the first, second and third variants of implementation, respectively, compared to the reference protector as new and worn treads. In particular, there has been a General improvement in performance for wet pavement of the new and the worn tread, and neiskushennogo tread noted improved the performance in relation to the rolling resistance and wear. In addition, the improvement of performance on the snow surface as the new and the worn treads, at least in General, the preservation of other quality criteria, which otherwise is usually worse when trying to improve traction on snow according to the methods of the prior art.

[0054] Although the present invention is described on the example of a specific implementation options, you should consider this only as an illustration but not as a limitation. For example, features of the protector described in this application can be modified in size and number when using tires of large or small size, or tires that have different architectures (i.e. design), different tread depth, or formed using molds having different profiles. Accordingly, the scope of protection and the content of the present invention is given only in accordance with paragraphs applied formula.

1. Multilevel tread with:
the thickness of passing in the inner direction of the depth from the outer interacting with the earth side of the tread having an outer contact surface;
at least two of the wear layer, located in the thickness of the tread at various depths and containing the outer with the Oh wear and at least one inner layer of wear, located in the thickness of the tread under outer wear layer; and
at least one outer groove located in the outer wear layer, which open from the outside interacting with the ground side when the protector is in neizvestnom state;
when this is specified, the protector has a ratio of the volume of the cavity is approximately 0.25 to 0.40 in neizvestnom condition and about 0.25 to 0.40 in worn condition, with the outer interacting with the earth side is located along one of the inner layers of wear in a worn condition, moreover, the protector has a contact surface that is approximately equal to 0.66-0.72 for neizvestnom condition and about up 0,56 0,66 in a worn condition.

2. The tread according to claim 1, in which the ratio of the volume of the cavity is 0,30-0,35 in his neizvestnom condition, and in its rundown state.

3. The tread according to claim 2, having a modulus of rigidity about to 0.39-0.55 in neizvestnom condition and about 1,43-1,75 in a worn condition.

4. The tread according to claim 1, in which at least one groove located in the outer layer of wear, increases in width as it passes in the inner direction of the thickness of the tread.

5. The tread according to claim 1, in which the width of at least one of the grooves located in the outer is white wear, changes linearly during its passage in the inner direction of the thickness of the tread.

6. The tread according to claim 1, additionally containing:
at least one internal groove located within at least one of the specified at least one of the inner layers of wear and passing in the inner direction of the depth from depth, starting near the outer wear layer.

7. The tread according to claim 6, in which at least one groove located in one of the inner layers of wear, generally takes place in the lateral direction.

8. The tread according to claim 1, in which at least one outer groove includes lateral grooves passing transversely and longitudinal grooves passing longitudinally, and the outer grooves form the elements of a protector.

9. The tread of claim 8, in which these elements of the tread contain at least one slot generally held in the lateral direction, and each of at least one of the slots passes through undulating path radially and transversely and contains at least one region having a reduced thickness.

10. The tread of claim 8, in which the tread elements contain a number of shoulder elements located on each of opposite lateral sides of the protector, and several intermediate elements PR is Tector, located transversely between the shoulder tread elements, and at least one of these longitudinal grooves located between each of the shoulder tread elements and the intermediate elements of the tread, while the shoulder tread elements contain at least one slot passing in a generally lateral direction of the tire and containing radial wave-like cut portion, passing in the thickness of the tire tread in the direction from the outer interacting with the earth side and containing at least one region having a reduced thickness, and the specified cut part ends in an enlarged portion containing the forming cavity of the lateral groove, the open side of the contact surface, when the tyre tread has worn down to one of the inner layers of wear.

11. The tread of claim 10, in which at least one of the slits formed in each of the intermediate tread elements, contains the upper slotted portion, passes through the lower direction from the outer interacting with the earth side in the outer wear layer, the first lower slotted portion and the second lower slotted portion, each of which takes place in the lower direction from the upper-cut parts, and these parts together form the shape, the cross section of which keyproperty Y-shaped.

12. The tread according to claim 11, in which at least one of the shoulder elements includes a first groove that is open when the tread is new, and passing in the outer wear layer in a generally lateral direction through a portion of the width of the tread, and the second groove, open on the outer interacting with the ground side when the tread is worn, and held in the inner layer in a generally lateral direction through the remainder of the width of the tread, and the specified second groove hydraulically communicates with the specified first groove.

13. The tread according to claim 3, in which the depth of the at least one outer groove, passing in the outer wear layer, and at least one internal groove, passing in one of the inner layers of wear, is 6-10 mm

14. The tread according to claim 3, in which the relationship of the volume of voids to the protector when it is new and when it is worn to one of the inner layers of wear, are approximately equal.

15. The tread according to claim 3, in which the ratio of the contact surface of the wear layer is about 90% of the relationship of the contact surface for neiskushennogo the tire tread.



 

Same patents:

Pneumatic tire // 2521052

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tread pattern of automobile non-spiked tire with improved noise characteristics. Pneumatic tire includes axially-internal lengthwise rows of crown blocks which rows are located at each side of tire equator, and axially-external lengthwise rows of shoulder blocks which rows are located axially to the outside of axially-internal lengthwise rows. Crown blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse grooves of the crown. Shoulder blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse shoulder grooves. The first transverse shoulder grooves have width of not less than 3.5 mm. The first transverse crown grooves have width of not less than 2.0 mm. The second transverse shoulder grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 3.5 mm wide. The second transverse crown grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 2.0 mm wide.

EFFECT: better tire noise characteristics without impairment of running characteristics over snow-covered road surface.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2520265

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed tire comprises tread zone (A) located from vehicle inner side and tread zone (B) located on vehicle outer side. There are multiple slot-like drain grooves (32A, 32B) extending over tire width and formed in every block (31A, 31B). The number of blocks (31A) in said zone (A) is larger than that of blocks (31B) in said zone (B). Note here that slot-like drain grooves (32B) in blocks (31B) of zone (B) are configured to extend linearly along their depth. Note here that slot-like drain grooves (32A) in blocks (31A) of zone (A) are configured to extend in wavy manner along their depth.

EFFECT: better road grip on dry road and snow.

7 cl, 4 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2519327

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: method is executed by means of making multiple wave-shaped grooves (20) in central belt (16) of tread between two ring grooves (14) located with tilt relative to equatorial plane of tire and consisting of central small elements (26) equatorial plane CL and side small elements (28) at two sides of this equatorial plane. In each of side small elements (28), the second transversal groove (40) is made containing wide area (42) and narrow area (44). Reducing fragmentation of rubber and cracking in side small elements (28) is achieved due to formation of area (54) with raised bottom on periphery of the first acute-angled area (50) and formation of the first bevelled area (56A) on sharp end of the first acute-angled area (50).

EFFECT: lower noise level, rubber fragmentation and cracking in tread elements, higher dewatering capability.

4 cl, 3 tbl, 13 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tread contains multiple grooved obstructing elements (4) which are formed by and located in circular grooves (2). Herewith, obstructing elements (4) go from bottom (21) of circular groove (2) and blocks at least 70% of cross-section area of circular groove (2). Bending parameter of grooved obstructing elements (4) is determined as E·I/(h3l), where E is module at 10% elongation of material used for grooved obstructing elements, I is inertia moment of grooved obstructing element cross-section, h is height of grooved obstructing element, and l is width of grooved obstructing element, and ranges from 250 Pa to 350 Pa.

EFFECT: providing grooved obstructing elements wear to degree equivalent to tread section wear degree while reducing noise caused by resonance of air columns and maintaining retraction characteristics.

6 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2513210

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tread pattern of tire designed to be used on dry road, ice- and snow-covered roads. Proposed tire comprises unidirectional tread pattern including right and left lengthwise grooves of the crown and crow rib arranged there between. Crown rib has first and second V-like grooves arranged by turns in the tire lengthwise direction. First V-like grooves extend from the left lengthwise groove of the crown. Second V-like grooves extend from the right lengthwise groove of the crown. First and second V-like grooves terminate nearby the rib while their V-like configurations have inflections located, in fact, at tire equator.

EFFECT: stable motion on dry road, ice- and snow-covered roads.

9 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern. Tire features tread asymmetric patter wherein ratio of actual area of contact to total area for zone 2o of outer side is larger than that for inner side zone 2i but with minor difference characteristic of water removal for right and left wheel tires. Said tire has tread surface 2 divided by four lengthwise grooves 3 and 4 into central area 5 of contact with soil, mid areas 6,6 of contact with soil and shoulder areas 7,7 of contact with soil. Said mid area 6o and shoulder area 7o in outer side zone 2o are divided by outer mid transverse grooves 8o and outer shoulder transverse grooves 10o into blocks 9o and blocks 11o. Mid transverse grooves 8o are inclined in opposite direction to inclination of shoulder transverse grooves 10o relative to tire axial direction while transverse grooves 8o and 10o are inclined at angle θmo of 5-45° and at angle θso over 0° and not over 40°, respectively.

EFFECT: better stability in rainy and dry weather.

8 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tread comprises multiple raised elements 10 confined by cutouts. At least one of said raised elements 10 has dents 2 of maximum depth H not larger than tread thickness. This dent is located in major direction confined by the dent track ends on new tread and in minor direction extending in tread depth. Dent 2 has first part 21 and second part 22. Dent first part 21 extends in minor direction between contact side 15 in new state and depth H1 equal to, at least, 40% of maximum depth H while second part 22 extends the first part 21 in tread depth. Note here that said second part 22 extends to depth H2. Dent second part 22 in major direction has at least one first section 221 and one second section 222.

EFFECT: improved performances.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tread 2 has rounded shoulders and is divided by the main lengthwise grooves 3 and crosswise grooves 4 in blocks 5 furnished with pockets 6, each having zigzag part 8. Lengthwise grooves 3 include at least two axially outer lengthwise grooves 3o dividing the tread 2 into shoulders Ysh and crowns Ycr wherein zigzag part 8 of pockets 6sh in shoulders Ysh features larger zigzag amplitude Wsh and larger zigzag pitch Psh that zigzag amplitude Wcr and zigzag pitch Wcr of zigzag part 8 of pockets 6cr in crowns Ycr. Inclination angle θsh of pockets 6sh relative to axial direction is smaller than angle θcr.

EFFECT: improved flotation at dry road at minimum deterioration of performances on snow-covered road.

7 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

Air tire (versions) // 2506171

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern of stud-free tire. One block of air tire has first and second slitted drain grooves. Every said groove extends in tire width direction. Said grooves are regularly spaced apart in tire circumference. First and second said grooves has first parts of slitted rain groove that features linear shape if seen in the plane. The slitted drain groove second part that features zigzag shape if seen in the plane and is connected with slitted drain groove first part. First part of slitted drain groove has two surfaces of slitted and opposed drain groove walls if seen in direction perpendicular to the length of said slitted drain groove. Said first part comprises the ledge arranged on first surface of said walls and recess arranged second surface of said walls to make recess connected with ledge.

EFFECT: better running on ice and snow.

20 cl, 20 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2506170

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern of stud-free tire. Proposed tire comprises sets of blocks G composed of polygonal blocks 10 arranged tightly in crown zone 1. Polygonal blocks 10 are confined by grooves 9 including first grooves 9a of W9a width and arranged between polygonal blocks 10 adjoining in tore circular direction. Width W9a of first grooves 9a is larger than width W9b of second grooves 9b located between polygonal blocks 10, adjoining and staggered.

EFFECT: better flotation on ice and snow.

7 cl, 7 dwg, 4 tbl

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tire has tread (1) including at least one groove (3) of circular orientation and multiple raised elements (21, 22). Note here that every said raised element comprises contact side (11) with crosswise width Lt and lateral walls (210). Note also that there is at least one raised element with multiple noise killing devices. Note that every said device has elongated cavity (4) of total volume Vc to open toward lateral wall (210). Note that said cavity features total length Lc larger than said length Lt and geometry that includes several interconnected parts (40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45). Note also that length Lc makes the sum of parts of said cavity. Note that every said cavity (4) extends over the entire length Lc with notch (5) extending radially outward out to rolling surface. Note that sum tread sum Ly of lengths in projection in crosswise direction of every cavity is at least 1.5 times larger than the sum Lx of length in projection if the cavity circumferential direction.

EFFECT: perfected noise killing.

9 cl, 8 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2521455

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: pneumatic tire includes tread section which contains ring grooves (2-4) running in circular direction of tire, as well as lateral grooves (5, 6) running in direction of tire width, and multiple road-contacting blocks (7), separated by ring and lateral grooves. Each of road-contacting blocks contains lamellae (8), which run from tread running surface inside blocks to specified depth in radial direction of tire, herewith, each one of lamellae has end section communicating with at least any one of ring and lateral grooves. At least one of multiple lamellae contains widening ring-shaped section on its inner end in radial direction of tire. Herewith, the widening ring-shaped section is increased in its diameter gradually and smoothly running to side walls of road-contacting block.

EFFECT: creation of pneumatic tire with high drainage effect, as well as prevention of tearing lamella in tire tread.

9 cl, 12 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2521052

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tread pattern of automobile non-spiked tire with improved noise characteristics. Pneumatic tire includes axially-internal lengthwise rows of crown blocks which rows are located at each side of tire equator, and axially-external lengthwise rows of shoulder blocks which rows are located axially to the outside of axially-internal lengthwise rows. Crown blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse grooves of the crown. Shoulder blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse shoulder grooves. The first transverse shoulder grooves have width of not less than 3.5 mm. The first transverse crown grooves have width of not less than 2.0 mm. The second transverse shoulder grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 3.5 mm wide. The second transverse crown grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 2.0 mm wide.

EFFECT: better tire noise characteristics without impairment of running characteristics over snow-covered road surface.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

Automotive tire // 2521033

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive winter tire tread design. Tire (1) has tread (2) containing central part (L1) covering from two sides the equatorial plane (7), and two shoulder parts. The central part (L1) is separated from shoulder parts (L2, L3) of tread by two first circumferential grooves (3, 6). At least two second circumferential grooves (4, 5) are located in the central part (L1). The second circumferential grooves (4, 5) determine margins of the central circumferential bar (10) containing multiple sipes (20) located in parallel to each other and at certain distance from each other. The second circumferential grooves (4, 5) have a mid line running as peak-to-valley scallops throughout tire length in direction along circumference. The mid lines with peak-to-valley scallops are mainly matching in phase with each other throughout tire length (1) in direction along circumference.

EFFECT: better operational properties when moving both over snowy and dry and wet road surfaces.

20 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2520265

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: proposed tire comprises tread zone (A) located from vehicle inner side and tread zone (B) located on vehicle outer side. There are multiple slot-like drain grooves (32A, 32B) extending over tire width and formed in every block (31A, 31B). The number of blocks (31A) in said zone (A) is larger than that of blocks (31B) in said zone (B). Note here that slot-like drain grooves (32B) in blocks (31B) of zone (B) are configured to extend linearly along their depth. Note here that slot-like drain grooves (32A) in blocks (31A) of zone (A) are configured to extend in wavy manner along their depth.

EFFECT: better road grip on dry road and snow.

7 cl, 4 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2513210

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tread pattern of tire designed to be used on dry road, ice- and snow-covered roads. Proposed tire comprises unidirectional tread pattern including right and left lengthwise grooves of the crown and crow rib arranged there between. Crown rib has first and second V-like grooves arranged by turns in the tire lengthwise direction. First V-like grooves extend from the left lengthwise groove of the crown. Second V-like grooves extend from the right lengthwise groove of the crown. First and second V-like grooves terminate nearby the rib while their V-like configurations have inflections located, in fact, at tire equator.

EFFECT: stable motion on dry road, ice- and snow-covered roads.

9 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2508996

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern. Proposed tire comprises multiple circular main grooves extending in tire circumference and multiple running surfaces separated and composed by said circular main grooves in tread zone. Multiple running sections have multiple sipes. At least 90% of sipes located in inner side area represent are 2D sipes and at least 90% of sipes in outer side surface are 3D sipes. Tread zone comprises top and bottom rubber layers. Rubber hardness H1in at -10°C and rubber hardness H2in at 20°C of rubber top layer 151in in inner side area, and hardness H1out at -10°C and hardness H2out at 20°C of rubber top layer 151out in outer side area are related by relationships H1in<H1out and H2in<H2out.

EFFECT: better stability on dry and snowy surface.

18 cl, 9 dwg

Pneumatic tire // 2508995

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, namely, to tread pattern. Tire tread has circular major grooves extending in tire circumference and contact parts separated and composed on said circular major grooves. Every said central zone contact part and contact parts of right and left shoulder zone has multiple sipes. At least 90% of sipes located in inner side area represent are 2D sipes in central zone and at leas 90% of sipes in outer side surface are 3D sipes in shoulder zone. Every contact parts of right and left shoulder zones has multiple transverse side grooves arranged in definite order in tire circumference. The number N-ce of transverse side grooves in central zone contact part and the number N-sh of transverse side grooves in contact parts of right and left shoulder zones are relates as N-ce>N-sh.

EFFECT: perfected design.

20 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tread comprises multiple raised elements 10 confined by cutouts. At least one of said raised elements 10 has dents 2 of maximum depth H not larger than tread thickness. This dent is located in major direction confined by the dent track ends on new tread and in minor direction extending in tread depth. Dent 2 has first part 21 and second part 22. Dent first part 21 extends in minor direction between contact side 15 in new state and depth H1 equal to, at least, 40% of maximum depth H while second part 22 extends the first part 21 in tread depth. Note here that said second part 22 extends to depth H2. Dent second part 22 in major direction has at least one first section 221 and one second section 222.

EFFECT: improved performances.

10 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tread 2 has rounded shoulders and is divided by the main lengthwise grooves 3 and crosswise grooves 4 in blocks 5 furnished with pockets 6, each having zigzag part 8. Lengthwise grooves 3 include at least two axially outer lengthwise grooves 3o dividing the tread 2 into shoulders Ysh and crowns Ycr wherein zigzag part 8 of pockets 6sh in shoulders Ysh features larger zigzag amplitude Wsh and larger zigzag pitch Psh that zigzag amplitude Wcr and zigzag pitch Wcr of zigzag part 8 of pockets 6cr in crowns Ycr. Inclination angle θsh of pockets 6sh relative to axial direction is smaller than angle θcr.

EFFECT: improved flotation at dry road at minimum deterioration of performances on snow-covered road.

7 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

Pneumatic tire // 2521052

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to tread pattern of automobile non-spiked tire with improved noise characteristics. Pneumatic tire includes axially-internal lengthwise rows of crown blocks which rows are located at each side of tire equator, and axially-external lengthwise rows of shoulder blocks which rows are located axially to the outside of axially-internal lengthwise rows. Crown blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse grooves of the crown. Shoulder blocks are longitudinally separated by the first and the second interleaving transverse shoulder grooves. The first transverse shoulder grooves have width of not less than 3.5 mm. The first transverse crown grooves have width of not less than 2.0 mm. The second transverse shoulder grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 3.5 mm wide. The second transverse crown grooves include axially-internal slit-shaped portion with width of 0.5 to 2.0 mm and axially-external main portion at least 2.0 mm wide.

EFFECT: better tire noise characteristics without impairment of running characteristics over snow-covered road surface.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl

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