Method of guiding aircraft to ground object

FIELD: physics, navigation.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to autonomous aircraft navigation systems, particularly aircraft navigation systems comprising on-board radar equipment which guides the aircraft to ground objects. Guiding an aircraft to a ground object includes measuring the viewing angle of the ground object in the horizontal plane relative to the direction of the ground velocity of the aircraft, the angular velocity of the line of vision of the ground object in the horizontal plane, the distance from the aircraft to the ground object, the flight velocity of the aircraft and acceleration thereof in the horizontal plane. The method also includes measuring the current value of the deviation angle of the line of vision of the ground object from the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft, the current value of the viewing angle of the ground object in the vertical plane, the current value of the inclination angle of the velocity vector of the aircraft in the vertical plane, the current value of the angular velocity of the line of vision of the ground object in the vertical plane and the current value of acceleration of the aircraft in the vertical plane. The method includes calculating the current value of the deviation angle of the projection of the line of vision of the ground object on the horizontal plane from the projection of the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft on the same plane. The obtained results are used to control flight in the horizontal and vertical planes to enable stabilisation of the linear azimuthal resolution of the radar image of the ground object generated by on-board synthetic aperture radar, stabilisation of resolution of said radar image on the horizontal range, and such that the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft in the vertical plane at each moment in time matches the direction towards the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the horizontal projection of the line of vision of the ground object, passing through said object and belonging to the horizontal plane, with the vertical plane to which the velocity vector of the aircraft belongs. The value of deviations (discrepancies) of current angle measurements, as well as the current inclination angle of the line of vision of the ground object from the required values is estimated and trajectory control signals for the aircraft in the horizontal and vertical planes, which enable to eliminate said deviations, are generated.

EFFECT: high accuracy of guiding an aircraft to given ground objects using on-board synthetic aperture radar.

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The invention relates to navigation systems aircraft (LA), in particular to systems Autonomous navigation of aircraft, and includes on-Board radar means to ensure that aircraft (including hover and landing) to terrestrial objects (landmarks, beacons) on radar images (SAR) of these objects obtained on the background of the earth's surface using synthetic antenna aperture (SAR).

Known [1] a way of bringing LA to ground object that is implemented offline using onboard radar station (radar) small range.

As the specified object in [1] considers the runway (runway). When landing and in-flight and on landing trajectory radar by scanning a real antenna pattern provides an indication of runway image in real time. If you deviate from the landing trajectory in the horizontal plane is fixed asymmetrical contour radar images of the runway. The line of descent is maintained by imposing the label glide range on the radar image of the end of the runway.

The asymmetry of the contour of the runway and the offset of the label glide range relative to the beginning of the runway floor is si provide the possibility of estimating deviations from LA landing trajectories in the horizontal and vertical planes. The elimination of these deviations provides the conversion of LA to the beginning of the runway.

The disadvantage of this method of bringing LA to ground object is the formation of a radar image of the object by scanning the earth's surface the actual radiation pattern of the radar antenna. This circumstance determines the possibility of obtaining radar images with high resolution only at small distances to the ground object, the need omogenia pattern of the antenna by providing a working radar high-frequency radar range of electromagnetic waves and, as a consequence, low-range radar in difficult weather conditions.

Known [2] the method of bringing LA to terrestrial objects, by which the possibility of radar observations of these objects in flight aboard LA is provided with the help of airborne radars, using the synthetic antenna aperture or Doppler oburzenie of antenna directional diagram.

The known method [2] is the formation of a (curved) trajectory of aircraft flight in the horizontal plane, which provides the possibility of obtaining radar images of the ground object with a high linear azimuthal resolution. The magnitude of this resolution Δl is associated with side bearing terrestrial object in the accordance with the expression

Δl=DλΔF2(-D)sin(φG),(1)

where D is the distance from LA to ground object;

(-D)- the speed of convergence of an aircraft with a ground object;

λ is the wavelength of the radar;

ΔF is the bandwidth of the Doppler filter;

φGside bearing terrestrial object in the horizontal plane (assuming that the side bearing ground object is defined as the angle between the velocity vector of the aircraft and the direction of ground object in the horizontal plane).

In accordance with the local way [2] the control signal Δ Gaircraft (parameter error) in the horizontal plane formed by the ratio

ΔG=N0(-D)(ωG+ΔωGTP)-jG,(2)

where N0- navigation option is calculated based on the distances of start and end of guidance;

ωG- is the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

ΔωGTRthe desired increment (offset) the angular velocity of the line of sight in the horizontal plane;

jG- the value of the lateral acceleration induced aircraft in the horizontal plane.

In the expression (1), converted to the form/p>

(-D)sin(φG)D=λΔF2Δl,(3)

the left part (3) in the first approximation corresponds to the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane when it is in sight of this plane with side bearing & Phi;G.

The value of ΔωGTRcalculated in accordance with (3) and KMOUTHdetermining the precision pointing and stabilization of the desired linear resolution (Δl=ΔlTin the horizontal plane ratio

ΔωGTP=KYWith aTλΔF2ΔlT/mtext> (4)

The disadvantages of this method [2] are:

1. The formation of a trajectory LA, driven to ground object is performed only in the horizontal plane.

2. The value of the desired increment (offset) the angular velocity of the line of sight in the horizontal plane generated according to (4), does not take into account possible variation and change the speed of the aircraft flight, the value of which, as is known, depends on the size of the synthesized aperture radar antenna, and hence the size of the linear resolution of the generated radar images of the ground object in the horizontal plane.

3. When implementing a bring LA to ground object in accordance with a known method [2], it does not check the degree of compliance to provide the angle φGside bearing terrestrial object in the horizontal plane of its required is the value of φ GT.

The last of these shortcomings is not in the known, taken as a prototype method [3] cast LA using radar with SAR to terrestrial objects, in accordance with which the measured values of the side bearing of the ground object and the angular velocity of its line of sight in the horizontal plane and form the control signal ΔGthe aircraft in the horizontal plane ratio

ΔG=qφGkjGVWith aB(φG-φGT)+qωGkjGDωG-jG,(5)

where qφ, qωthe factors that determine the pointing accuracy on-Board bearing and the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

kjthe factor that determines the efficiency of the LA guidance in the horizontal plane;

D - value range from direct LA to ground object;

VSAT- the value of the speed of convergence induced an aircraft with a ground object;

φG- value airborne ground bearing of the object in the horizontal plane (assuming that the side bearing ground object is defined as the angle between the velocity vector of the aircraft and the direction of ground object in the horizontal plane);

ωG- is the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

jG- the value of the acceleration induced LA in a horizontal plane;

φGT- the angle of pre-emption, which provides the required linear azimuthal resolution in the horizontal plane, which is calculated by the ratio

φGT=arcsin(DλΔF2VΔlT),/mtext> (6)

where λ is the wavelength of the onboard radar;

ΔF is the bandwidth of the Doppler filter;

V - is the velocity induced LA;

ΔlTrequired linear resolution in the horizontal plane.

However, the practical application of a known method [3] when casting LA to ground objects in conditions of significant changes in the altitude of LA faces significant challenges, including those related to the influence of the vertical component of airspeed LA on the characteristics of linear resolution radar images of the observed terrestrial object generated by the radar with SAR.

The control signal forming LA in the vertical plane entails a change in the direction of the velocity vector in LA this plane and, accordingly, the change in the value of ground speed of the aircraft flight. In turn, this change entails a change in the value of the azimuthal linear resolution radar images, formiruet who's radar with SAR. Due to the vertical component of airspeed LA, you may experience distortion RI, manifested in increasing blur and spread synthesized radar images.

On the other hand, changing the position of LA in the horizontal plane entail changes the angle of the line of sight of the ground object. This can significantly change the terms-of-sight terrestrial object in the vertical plane, which is manifested in undesirable fluctuations of the power of the reflected radar signals, and change the permissions form RI horizontal range.

The present invention is to develop a method of aligning an aircraft equipped with a radar with SAR, to terrestrial objects, by implementing such a trajectory control LA in the earth's coordinate system, which simultaneously provided:

high precision cast aircraft to ground objects using the on Board LA radar with SAR (the technical result of the invention);

stabilization of linear resolution generated radar with SAR radar images of ground objects as in azimuth and horizontal distance;

minimum distortion RI terrestrial objects generated radar with SAR in the process of bringing LA to these objects.

Technical the cue a result of the invention is to obtain high precision bring the aircraft to a given terrestrial objects, with the use of airborne radars (radar) with synthetic antenna aperture (SAR).

The technical result of the invention is achieved by forming trajectories LA, providing the possibility to obtain with minimal distortion of radar images of ground objects generated radar with SAR in the process of bringing LA to these objects, as well as stabilization of linear resolution of these radar images of ground objects in range and azimuth.

It is known that the Doppler frequency of the radar signal reflected from a fixed point of the object observed from aboard an aircraft depends on the magnitude of the deflection angle of the line of sight of this object on the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and is determined by the ratio

Fd(φN)=2Vrλ=2Vcos(φH)λ (6)

where Vr- the rate of convergence of media radar (LA) with the observed object (radial velocity);

V - speed aircraft flight;

φN- the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the observed object on the direction of the velocity vector LA (in the plane of sight of the object formed by the line of sight and the velocity vector LA);

λ is the wavelength of the probing radar signals. This ratio at the sight of the ground point of the object and the consideration of aircraft flight in the mobile-normal coordinate system (NSC), as shown in figure 1, can be written using horizontal VP(a track) and vertical VYcomponents of the airspeed LA

Fd(φG,ε)=2(VPcos(φG)cos(ε)+VYsin(ε))λ, (7)

where φGthe deflection angle of the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on the horizontal plane XOZ (earth's surface) from the projection of the velocity vector direction LA on the same plane (azimuthal angle);

ε is the angle of the line of sight of the ground observed point object.

Equating (6) and (7), it is easy to show that the angles φGand φNlinked value

φG=arccos(cos(φH)cos(Θ)cos(ε)-tg(Θ)tg(ε)), (8)

where Θ is the angle of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

Using the decomposition (7) is a multiple of the Taylor series [4], in the linear approximation, for a point on the earth's surface, which is separated from the directions on the onshore facility at small angles ΔφGin the horizontal plane and Δε in the vertical plane can be written:

Fd(φG+ΔφG,ε+Δε)=Fd(φG,ε)+ΔFd(φG,ε,ΔφG)+ΔFd(φG,ε,Δε), (9)

where

ΔFd(φG,ε,ΔφG)=Fd(φG,ε)φGΔφG,ΔFd(φG,ε,Δε)=Fd(φG,ε)εΔε(10)

value, which characterizes the change in Doppler frequency of the reflected signal with the offset direction of sight of the considered ground what about the object respectively by the angle Δφ Gin the horizontal plane and the angle Δε in the vertical plane.

For ΔφG, Δε, given their presumed small, fairly

ΔφG=ΔlDG,Δε=Δdsin(ε)DH,(11)

where Δl - linear azimuthal deviation of the observed object on the earth's surface corresponding to ΔφG. Sign Δl Δφ is determined by the signG;

∆ D is the linear deviation of the observed object on a horizontal plane (earth's surface) in the direction of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the object corresponding to ∆ Ε, as shown in figure 2.

DGDHaccordingly, horizontal and slant range from LA to ground object.

From (10), taking into account (11), and that

VP=Vcos(Θ),VY=Vsin(Θ),(12)

where Θ is the angle of the velocity vector LA(tg(Θ)=VYVP)you can write:

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl)=-2Vcos(Θ)sin/mi> (φG)Δlcos(ε)λDG,(13)

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δd)=2VΔdsin(ε)λDH(cos(Θ)cos(φG)sin(ε)-sin(Θ)cos(ε)). (14)

These expressions is determined by the difference

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl,Δd)=ΔFd(φG,ε,Δl)+ΔFd(φG,ε,Δd)(15)

Doppler frequency signals reflected from a point of ground objects observed in conditions characterized by the parameters (φG, ε, Θ, V, DH, λ), and separated from each other by the value of ∆ D and Δl.

(15), in the first approximation, characterizes the width of the Doppler spectrum of the radar signals reflected small ground object or terrain, having protagonist is ∆ D and Δl, respectively, along the horizontal longitudinal and transverse ranges, when his radar observation on Board the aircraft.

If the value of ∆ D does not exceed the value of the element resolution radar range, formed due to amplitude or vnutripolostnoe modulation of the probing radar signals, when observing terrestrial object that has a negligible extent in azimuth (Δl=0), the value of ∆ FdG, ε, ∆ D) determines the degree azimuthal blur radar level from the observed object on radar images generated using the SAR.

If the value of ∆ D exceeds item resolution radar range, formed due to amplitude or vnutripolostnoe modulation of the probing radar signals, the value of ∆ FdG, ε, ∆ D) also determines the degree of reversal radar images of this object as it is generated in the coordinate system of the Doppler frequency range".

Both of these effects lead to a distortion of radar images of ground objects generated radar LA in flight when using SAR.

These distortions, obviously, there is no if condition

ΔFd(φG,ε,Δd)=0. (16)

Compliance with this condition at given φGand ε≠0, as follows from (14), is provided in the case, when

cos(Θ)cos(φG)sin(ε)-sin(Θ)cos(ε)=0(17)

or the angle of the trajectory of LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture

Θ= arctg(cos(φG)tg(ε)).(18)

In this case, the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the observed point of the ground object is tangent to isotope (lines of equal Doppler frequency shift [5])that pass through the object in the horizontal plane (on earth surface), and the velocity vector of LA in the plane XOY is directed to the point (CC), as shown in figure 1, formed by the intersection of the perpendicular (NO-CC) to the horizontal projection (O-BUT) line-of-sight terrestrial object, p is uhodyashego through this object and belonging to a horizontal plane XOZ, with a vertical plane XOY, which belongs to the velocity vector of the aircraft.

The last statement is proved by the following ratios:

tg(ε)=YLAndDG;tg(Θ)=YLAndDInC;cos(φG)=DGDInC(19)

where YLAthe flight altitude of aircraft;

DCC- horizontal distance from LA to the point of CC, when substituted in (18).

The point of CC can be considered as a virtual object to which the debtor is about to be cast in LA the current time.

In terms of geometric constructions corresponding to figure 1, the segment (NO-CC) is also perpendicular to the line of sight of the ground object, and thus we have the following relation:

tg(φH)=cos(ε)tg(φG),(20)

where φN- the angle of the velocity vector direction LA of the line of sight of the ground object.

The relation (18) reflects the conditions of formation flight path LA in the process of bringing to the ground the object at which the radar with SAR provides for the formation of the LI ground object with the lowest distortion, arising due to the vertical component of airspeed of the aircraft.

In addition to providing minimal distortion of radar images generated by the radar with SAR in the process of bringing LA to ground object, it is expedient implementation of the stabilization of the linear resolution of these images in azimuth and horizontal distance. This significantly simplified the procedure of processing of radar data, with which the conversion of LA to the ground object.

Stabilization of the desired resolution radar with SAR horizontal distance (∆DT=const) when used in radar modulated probe signals, as follows from figure 2, requires the maintenance of a constancy of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane (ε=εT=const).

While ensuring the constancy of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane reduced the level and frequency fluctuations of the radar signals reflected from the object, due to the irregularity of his chart back-scattering in the vertical plane.

To stabilize the desired linear azimuthal resolution (ΔlT=const), the resulting RI in terms of sight of the ground object that is represented in figure 1, you must ensure that lateral deviation of the direction of line VI the financing of this object on the direction of the velocity vector LA in an inclined plane, formed by the velocity vector of the aircraft and the specified line of sight (plane-of-sight terrestrial object), in accordance with the known formula [6]:

φHT=arcsin(λDH2VTCΔlT),(21)

where TCthe time of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar.

From (20) under the condition that ensures compliance with the requirements (ε=εT=const), for the desired deflection angle of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object from the horizontal projection of the velocity vector of the aircraft will receive:

φGT=arctg(1cos(εT)/mfrac> tg(φNT)),(22)

and, from (18), the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar:

ΘT=arctg(cos(φGT)tg(εT)).mtext> (23)

The values of φGTΘTobtained by using the relations (21), (22) and (23), determines the desired flight path LA in the process of bringing to the ground the object while ensuring εT=const. Path providing minimal distortion of radar images generated by the radar with SAR in flight, and stabilization of the desired linear resolution of these images as horizontal distance and azimuth.

The mismatch between the estimated parameter values (ΦG, ε, Θ), describing the trajectory of LA in the process of bringing to the ground the object of their desired values (ΦGT, εTΘT) necessitates the implementation of the corresponding trajectory of the flight control of the aircraft.

When implementing the proposed method of bringing LA to ground objects can be used various known methods [7], [8] the formation of the control signals (ΔG, ΔIn,) LA in horizontal and vertical planes, including the appropriate method of direct guidance, path method, the method of proportional navigation and other

In all cases, application of these methods in the process of bringing LA to ground object using the proposed sposobamiraboty should be carried out to assess the current deviations (residuals):

the angle between the projections on the horizontal plane of the line of sight of the ground object and the velocity vector LA

ΔφG=φGT-φG;(24)

the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane

Δε=εT-ε;the (25)

the angle of the velocity vector LA

ΔΘ=ΘT-Θ.(26)

When forming the control signals (ΔG, ΔIn,) The aircraft in the horizontal and vertical planes should be taken into account that the angle ε of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane varies in the management of LA in horizontalvelocity, managing LA in the vertical plane. Deviation (Δε) of this angle from the desired value due to the action of control signals in the horizontal plane, as the deviation (ΔΘ) from the desired value of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA must be offset by the corresponding control signal in the vertical plane.

In accordance with the proposed method of bringing LA to ground objects forming control signals (ΔG, ΔIn,) The aircraft is based on the following functional relationships:

ΔG=fG(ΔφG),ΔIn=fIn(Δε,ΔΘ). (27)

As an illustration, consider the formation of control signals (ΔG, ΔIn,) LA by the method of proportional navigation with offset and method of direct induction [7, p.59], believing that regular and fluctuation errors that occur when forming evaluations (φG, ε, Θ), are absent, LA stabilized in roll and assessment of current deviation (ΔφG, Δε, ΔΘ) is carried out with a period corresponding to the time TWithsynthetic aperture radar antenna.

In this case, the control signal LA in the horizontal plane

ΔG=N(-DG)(ωG+ωGWith a)-jG, (28)

where ωG- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

ωGS- the desired offset of the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane;

jG- acceleration of the movement of LA in the horizontal plane.

When the desired offset ωGSthe angular velocity of the line of sight is defined as follows:

ωGWith a=ΔφGkGTC, (29)

where kG- coefficient taking into account the method of formation evaluation & Phi;Gand including, the time delay of its formation during the implementation of ATS in the process of bringing LA to ground object.

From (27) and (28) shows that when approaching the ground object and the desire φGTto zero in the horizontal plane by a proportional navigation LA directly from the data on the angular velocity of the line of sight of the object.

When forming by the method of proportional navigation with moving to LA in a vertical plane the control signal

ΔIn=NDH(ωIn+ωInWith a)-jIn, (30)

where ωIn- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane;

ωSun- the desired offset of the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane;

jB- acceleration of the movement of LA in the vertical plane.

When the desired offset ωSunangular velocity is defined as follows:

ωInWith a=ΔΘkθTC+ΔεkεTC, (31)

where kε, kθ- weighting factors that take into account the method of forming estimates of the angles of inclination of the line of sight of the ground object (ε) and the velocity vector LA (Θ) when implementing a SAR radar and including, the time delay their formation during the implementation of ATS in the process of bringing LA to ground object, as well as the dynamics of change in values of the angles (ε, Θ) under the action of control signals LA in the vertical plane, including the antiphase changes in Θ and ε (with increasing Θ the value of ε decreases and Vice versa).

When forming the control signals (ΔG, ΔIn) LA according to the method of direct guidance

ΔG=KGΔφG,ΔIn=KΘΔΘ+KεΔε,(32)

where KGToεToθthe gain of the residuals (ΔφG, Δε, ΔΘ).

Considering the above, the achievement of the technical result of the proposed method of bringing the aircraft to a ground object using radar with SAR provided by the fact that at a given constant value of the slope of the line of sight of the ground object in the process of bringing LA to this object using the onboard navigation system LA osushestvlyaetsya current speed of the aircraft flight, the current angle of the velocity vector of an aircraft using radar with SAR shall measure the current distance to the ground object, the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector LA, the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object, according to relation (8) calculate the value of the current angle of the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector direction LA on the same plane, using the obtained results manage aircraft flight in the horizontal and vertical planes so as to ensure stabilization of linear azimuthal resolution of the radar image of the ground object formed with radar RAA, stabilization permissions specified radar image on the horizontal distance, and the direction of the velocity vector LA in a vertical plane at each point in time coincides with the direction of the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object passing through the object and belonging to a horizontal plane, vertical plane, which belongs to the velocity vector of the aircraft, which are calculated using ratios(21), (22), (23) Tr is the required value of the angle between the direction of the line of sight of the object and the direction of the velocity vector LA in an inclined plane, formed by the velocity vector of the aircraft and the line of sight targets, the desired value of the deflection angle of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object from the horizontal projection of the velocity vector LA, the desired value of the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar, assess the magnitude of the deviations (residuals) of the measured values of these angles, and the angle of the line of sight of the ground object from the desired values and form the signal trajectory of the aircraft control in horizontal and vertical planes, ensuring elimination of these deviations.

The proposed method of bringing the aircraft to a ground object using radar with SAR is implemented as follows.

1. At the conclusion of LA in the set point start working radar with SAR and radar detection of the desired ground object that must be cast LA, is set to the desired angle (εT) the slope of the line of sight of this object in the vertical plane.

2. In the process of bringing the aircraft to a ground object using radar with SAR based on the measurement results evaluation form:

DH- current slant range from LA to ground object;

V is the current speed of the aircraft flight;

ε - current slope of the line vizirov the Oia ground object (for example, according to the results of measurements using monopulse direction finding, implemented radar with SAR, or the results of the assessments of the current slant range to ground object and the current altitude of the aircraft using on-Board navigation system);

Θ is the current angle of the velocity vector LA (using on-Board navigation system);

φG- the current angle of the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector direction LA on the same plane (on the results of measurements using Doppler filtering, implemented radar with SAR, the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft and calculating φGaccording to equation (8)).

3. In the process of bringing the aircraft to a ground object using radar with SAR based on:

the desired value (ΔlTlinear azimuthal resolution of the radar data, being formed radar with SAR;

the wavelength (λ) of the probing radar signals;

time (TC) synthesizing antenna aperture;

current slant range (DH) to ground object;

current speed (V) aircraft flight

in accordance with (21) is determined by the desired lateral deviation (φHTline of sight nazemnov the object from the direction of the velocity vector LA in plane sight terrestrial object.

4. Using the known values (ΦHT, εT) the ratio of (22) is determined by the value of the desired angle (φGT) the variance of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object from the horizontal projection of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

5. Using the known values (ΦGT, εT) the ratio of (23) is determined by the value of the desired angle (ΘT) tilt velocity (trajectory) of LA in the process of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar.

6. On the ratios(24), (25), (26) determine the amount of current deviations (residuals) (ΔφG, Δε, ΔΘ), obtained according to the measurement results of ongoing assessments of the angle between the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on the horizontal plane and the projection of the velocity vector direction LA on the same plane, the angle of the line of sight of the ground object, the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA from their desired values and taking into account the relations (27) form the signal side and the normal control of the aircraft.

Figure 3 presents a simplified block diagram of a possible variant of the system that implements the proposed method of bringing the aircraft to a ground-based radar-contrast object using radar with SAR, where

1 - antenna radar system;

2 receiver-transmitter radar;

3 - meter range and speed of convergence BR is C;

4 - goniometer inclined channel radar;

5 - device storing a value of the desired angle of the line of sight;

6 - measuring the angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector LA;

7 - the transmitter of the desired deflection angle of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of ground speed LA;

8 - computer the desired angle trajectory LA;

9 - the transmitter control signals;

10 - system management;

11 is a block accelerometers;

12 - a flying machine.

Presented on Fig.3 option monopulse radar with SAR that implements the proposed method of bringing the aircraft to a ground object, operates as follows.

Monopulse antenna system 1 radar performs the spatial selection of the radar signal reflected from the surface of the object. Output antenna system, the signal is fed to the input of the radar receiver 2, in which due to the narrowband Doppler filtering, carried out with the implementation of ATS, there is a selection of the signal reflected from the surface of the object on the background noise and interfering reflections from the earth's surface. From the output of the receiver 2, the signal at the input 3 meter slant range from LA to ground object and the speed sblizhenie the LA with this object at the entrance of the goniometer 4 inclined monopulse channel radar, and also to the input of the meter 6 angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft.

The measuring device 6 generates and outputs to the transmitter 9 current estimates of the angular position of the line of sight of the object relative to the direction of the velocity vector of the aircraft. These estimates are generated according to the data of the Doppler frequency signals reflected from the surface of the object, and data about the velocity of aircraft flight, arriving in the 6 meter from the transmitter control signals 9. The goniometer 4 using data supplied by an inclined channel monopulse radar, generates a score for the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object. This estimate is obtained in the initial moment of time the implementation of bring LA to ground object, enters the device 5, which is stored as the value of the desired angle of the line of sight of the ground object. The specified value of the desired angle of the line of sight of the ground object from the output device 5 enters the transmitter 7 of the current desired deflection angle of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of ground speed AIRCRAFT in the transmitter 8 to the desired angle trajectory of LA, as well as in the transmitter 9 of the control signals LAW the evaluator 7 current estimates of the required deflection angle of the horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of ground speed LA are formed on the ratios of (21), (22) and are issued in the transmitter 8 of the required current angle of the trajectory of an aircraft and the transmitter 9 of the control signals LA. From transmitter 8 evaluation of the required current angle flight path LA, generated by equation (23), also issued in the transmitter 9 of the control signals LA. The transmitter 9 of the control signals on the ratios of LA(24), (25), (26), (27) using the results of the evaluation of the deviations (residuals) of the current values of the angles φG, ε, Θ from their desired values, and the measured block accelerometers 11 values of accelerations LA 12 in the horizontal and vertical planes are formed signals to control the aircraft in the horizontal and vertical planes coming into the control system 10, which converts the generated control signals to the appropriate control actions, which are sent to the governing bodies directly to the aircraft 12.

To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method of bringing the aircraft to a ground-based radar-contrast object was carried out modelling. The purpose of the simulation was to study the possibilities of the proposed method of bringing LA to ground object in part simultaneously provide the desired linear resolution radar images generated blrr the ATS in range and azimuth in the horizontal plane and the required accuracy of bringing LA.

In the modeling process to determine the quality of the proposed method of bringing LA to ground object was assessed by the following indicators.

The deviation of the actual value of the angle between the projection direction of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on the same plane from the required value

ΔφG=φG*-φGT(32)

whereφG* - the actual value of the angle between the projection direction of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on the same plane.

The magnitude of the deviation of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane from the desired

Δε=ε*-εT(33)

where ε*- the actual value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object is in a vertical plane.

The magnitude of the deviation of the angle of inclination of the flight path from LA required

ΔΘ=Θ*-ΘT(34)

where Θ*- the actual value of the angle of inclination of the flight path of the aircraft.

In the modeling process as indicators of the effectiveness of the proposed method was examined to assess the current linear vertical and horizontal misses (hBhG). These oversights were determined, respectively, by the relations

hB=DH2ωB(-DH);hG=DG2ωG(-DG);(35)

whereDNthe rate of convergence LA land object;DG- the speed of convergence of an aircraft with a ground object in the horizontal plane.

The research was conducted by means of simulation time the process is and change the spatial position of LA in a stationary normal earth coordinate system, the beginning of which is combined with the ground object, as shown in figure 4, and forming control signals (ΔG, ΔIn) LA by the method of proportional navigation with offset.

Including simulated: the velocity V and the direction of flight LA; DH- slant range to ground object;φN*the actual value of the angle of deviation of the direction of the line of sight of the ground object from the velocity vector LA;φG*- the actual value of the angle of deviation of the direction of projection of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on this plane; φGT- the angle of deviation of the direction of projection of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on this plane; ε*- the actual value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane; εT- the desired value of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane, Θ*- the actual value of the angle of trajectory LA; ΘT- the desired value of the angle of trajectory LA; DH- the rate of convergence with LA BUT its projectionDGon the horizontal plane; ωN-the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane; ωG- the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane; ΔG, ΔInthe control signals LA in horizontal and vertical planes; jGI , jIn- lateral, and normal acceleration LA; hBhGcurrent line misses in the vertical and horizontal planes.

The value of φGTthe desired angle of deviation of the direction of projection of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on that plane were calculated by the expressions (21) and (22), the value of ΘGthe desired angle trajectory of the aircraft from the relation (23), the offset of the angular velocity ωGSthe horizontal projection of the line of sight of the ground object (29), the offset of the angular velocity ωSunline-of-sight terrestrial object in the vertical plane (31), the control signals (ΔG, ΔInin horizontal and vertical planes, respectively (28) and(30), indicators of performance (ΔφG, Δε, ΔΘ, hDhG) the proposed method for(32), (33), (34), (35). Current location LA was determined by the number of coordinates.

The simulation results shown in figure 5-10, obtained under the assumption that the initial value of the slant range from LA to ground object DH0=10000 m, the initial velocity of movement LA V=300 m/s, acceleration, braking LA is -3 m/s2and is constant throughout the trajectory of LA before the end of the process of bringing LA to the ground object, the completion of bring LA to ground the object is decreasing altitude LA to 250 m, the initial slope of the line of sight of the ground object ε=-35°, the required permission form RI horizontal distance ∆ DT=10 m, the required linear resolution of the generated RI azimuth ΔlT=10 m, the wavelength of the radar LA λ=4.0 cm, the time of synthesizing the antenna aperture TC=128 MS.

Figure 5 shows the projection obtained from the results of modeling the trajectory of LA on the horizontal plane NTSC corresponding to figure 4.

Figure 6 shows the resulting simulation graphs of values of the angles ε*Θ*accordingly, the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane and angle of the tra is ctoria LA in the process of its reduction to a ground object.

The abscissa of the graph represents a change of coordinates of the aircraft from the x-axis.

Figure 7 shows the resulting graph modeling, characterizing, in accordance with (32) the value of ΔφGthe actual variance projection direction of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on the same plane from the desired value.

The constant (systematic) errors ΔφGdue to the fact that the procedure for calculating the angular velocity offset ωGS(29) corresponds to the static link in the simulated control loop LA. On Fig is a graph characterizing the value of ΔφGthe deviation of the projection direction of the line of sight of the ground object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector LA on the same plane from the desired value when calculating the angular velocity offset ωGSusing a model of a static link of the first order.

Figure 9 shows the resulting graph modeling, characterizing, in accordance with (33) the value of Δε of the deviation of the angle of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane from the desired in the process of bringing LA to ground object.

Figure 10 shows the resulting simulation graph harakterizuyu accordance with (34) the magnitude of the deviation ΔΘ of the angle of inclination of the flight path from LA required.

Figure 11 shows the resulting simulation graphs of the values of the linear misses (hBhGin vertical and horizontal planes in the process of bringing LA to the ground object. Final values misses the simulation results of the process of bringing LA to ground object was: hB=0.15 m, hG=1,3 m

The study results confirmed the efficiency of the proposed method of bringing LA to ground object using radar with SAR.

The proposed method of bringing LA to ground allows an object to provide:

high precision cast aircraft to ground objects;

stabilization of linear resolution generated radar with SAR radar images of ground objects as in azimuth and horizontal distance;

minimum distortion RI terrestrial object generated by the radar with SAR in the process of bringing LA to this object.

Using the proposed method does not impose any additional restrictions on the element base and it is quite possible under the existing characteristics of the evaluators radar with SAR on their performance and memory.

Sources of information

1. Alexandrov VK, Eschenko S.D., Kalygin I.S., Shestun A.N. Ways to improve the safety and regularity of flight in the complex who's meteorological conditions. Security issues, 2008, No. 12, p.35-43.

2. Kurikin V.V., V.I. Merkulov, Vladimir Vikulov O.V., Kuklin A.I. Method of proportional guidance of aircraft on ground objects. Patent for invention No. 2148235.

3. RF patent for the invention №2164654, publ. 27.03.2001 - prototype.

4. Korn G., Korn T. Handbook of mathematics. For scientists and engineers. - M.: Nauka, 1974, S. 146.

5. The reference radar. Edited Mcconica. TRANS. from English. (in four volumes). Volume 1. - M.: Soviet radio, 1976, s, 281.

6. Kondratenko G.S., Frolov, A. Theoretical basis for the development of radar systems for remote sensing. M.: Izd. Vvia. Professor N.E. Zhukovsky, 2009, p.143-152.

7. M.V. Maximov, Gerganov GI Electronic guidance system. - M.: Radio and communication. 1982. - 304 S.

8. Merkulov, V.I., Dragalin CENTURIES, Konashenkov A.I., etc. Aircraft systems control. Vol.2. Electronic guidance system / edited Ayinamandla, Viertola. M: radio engineering, 2003. - 390 S.

Way to bring the aircraft to a ground object, which consists in the fact that the measured values of the angle of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane relative to the direction of ground speed AIRCRAFT, the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the horizontal plane, the values of the distance from LA to ground the object is and, the flight speed of the aircraft and its acceleration in the horizontal plane, characterized in that in the process of bringing LA to ground object measured current value of the deflection angle of the line of sight of the ground object on the direction of the velocity vector LA, the current value of the angle of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane, the current value of the tilt angle of the velocity vector LA in the vertical plane, the current value of the angular velocity of the line of sight of the ground object in the vertical plane, the current acceleration value LA in the vertical plane, calculate the value of the current angle of the projection of the line of sight of the observed object on a horizontal plane from the projection of the velocity vector direction LA on the same plane using the obtained results manage aircraft flight in the horizontal and vertical planes so as to ensure stabilization of linear azimuthal resolution of the radar image of the ground object, the generated radar with SAR, stabilization permissions specified radar image on the horizontal distance, and the direction of the velocity vector LA in a vertical plane at each point in time coincides with the direction of the point of intersection of the perpendicular to the horizontal projection of the line the sight of the ground object, passing through the object and belonging to a horizontal plane, vertical plane, which belongs to the velocity vector of the aircraft, for what I expect:
ratio
φHT=arcsin(λDH2VTCΔlT)
- the angle of deviation of the line of sight of the observed object on the direction of the velocity vector LA,
where λ is the wavelength of the probing radar signals;
DH- slant distance from LA to ground object;
V - speed aircraft flight;
TCthe time of synthesizing the antenna aperture radar;
ΔlTrequired linear azimuthal resolution;
ratio
φGT=arctg(1cos(εT)tg(φNT))
- required deflection angle of horizontal the orbital projection of the line of sight of the ground object from the horizontal projection of the velocity vector LA,
where εT- the angle of inclination of the line of sight of the ground object;
ratio
ΘT=arctan(cos(φGT)tg(εT)),
- the angle of inclination of the velocity vector LA,
assess the magnitude of the deviations (residuals) of the current measured values of these angles, as well as the current angle of the line of sight of the ground object from the desired values and form the signal trajectory of the aircraft control in horizontal and vertical planes, ensuring elimination of these deviations.



 

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