Nonplanar wing tip for airplane wing and wing containing such tip

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: tip (W; W1, W2) of wing (T; 10a, 10b) contains base (E1) and vertex (E2). Local dihedral angle of wing tip (W; W1, W2) is continuously increasing or decreasing from base (E1) to vertex (E2). Local sweep along rear edge (50) is continuously increasing in its propagation from wing tip (W; W1, W2) base (E1) to vertex (E2). Local sweep along front edge (60) is continuously increasing in propagation of front edge (60) from the base (E1) to the first intermediate point (61a), is continuously decreasing from the first intermediate point (61a) to the second intermediate point (62a) and continuously increasing from the second intermediate point (62a) to the area forward of vertex (E2) of wing tip (W; W1, W2). Wing contains tip.

EFFECT: improved aerodynamic characteristics.

10 cl, 6 dwg

 

The invention relates to the non-planar wing tip to the wing and the wing containing the same wing tip.

The prior art non-planar wingtips, which differ not only in their geometric form, but at your current size.

From DE 10117721 A1 it is known extension on the end of the wing to wing, containing the top surface and the bottom surface and the front edge and rear edge, the geometry of these movements at the end of the wing is such that between the area of attachment to the wing and the end of the extension on the end of the wing is obtained a continuous increase of the local dihedral angle, a continuous increase in sweep both the front edge and the rear edge, and a continuous decrease in the length of the chord elongation at the end of the wing, and such that the elongation at the end of the wing connects to the wing in the connections pane essentially continuous manner.

The literature offers many different wing tips or winglets, which are mainly intended to reduce the aerodynamic drag, and thereby to improve the aerodynamic characteristics. Definition of wing tips can be given either in the framework of a completely new aircraft, either as part of an installation such wingtips on existing aircraft. In n the latter case, the existing geometry of the wing is replaced with another geometry wing. In both cases, when designing the wing tips of the resulting win for aerodynamic performance must be usually associated with increased structural load that often simplified manner, is estimated by the integral of the bending moment of the root portion (base) of the wing, and all the consequences associated with the weight of the aircraft. Evaluation of different tips can give different results based on the estimated scenario and boundary conditions.

From the General level of technology is also known a so-called flap on the end of the wing, which contains the two parts of similar size, and which extends up and down almost perpendicular to the wing. To optimize the quality of the flow on the wing, implemented wingtips with a continuous smooth sweep and dihedral angle between the outer part of the wing where the wing tip and wing tip.

The objective of the invention is to provide wing tip and the wing containing the same wing tip, whereby, in comparison with the known wing tips, can be achieved by improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing where the wing tip, and thereby the improvement in the aircraft in pain who eat the number of aircraft which differ in size and range of flight characteristics. The objective of the invention is to provide a wing tip and the wing containing the same wing tip, whereby the modernization of aircraft, the size and/or range of flight characteristics which are different, is possible with the proposed wing tip to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of a wing and the plane, which does not require modifications or requires only minor modifications to the wing.

This problem is solved by the features of independent claims. Other variants of implementation are specified in dependent claims relating to these independent claims.

Wing tip according to the invention may be made as a separate piece that is attached to the outer part of the main wing, and thus, without the necessary changes or with relatively small changes, and therefore relatively economical changes in the design of the wing, optimum aerodynamic efficiency, for example, during cruising flight.

With the characteristics of the wing tip according to the invention achieves the improvement of the characteristics of the wing, attached to the wing tip, as well as improving performance of the entire wing aircraft the whole. The design of the wing tip according to the invention allows to integrate the navigation fire with glazing to cover the navigation of the fire.

In addition, constructive ways wingtips according to the invention, when the specified wing tip attached as part of the upgrade, enable it to maintain low additional structural load that acts on the wing, and with appropriate selection of the shape according to the invention to the situation of the respective individual case to reduce the specified structural load so that it is immaterial. Therefore, the wing tip according to the invention is particularly suitable for upgrading existing wing aircraft either in full or with only minor modifications of the wing.

In the wing tips, known from the prior art, the above is not possible or possible only to a very limited extent, because these ends, except for the flap on the wing, mainly aimed at achieving a significantly larger reduction in aerodynamic drag, which tends to increase the bending moment of the root part (base) of the wing corresponding value. If provided that it can be known from the prior art wingtips were made is accordance with these measures, for example, if the load is neutral, or increase the current on the wing structural loads were calculated at a lower value, it is known in the wing tips the result would be the design, for example, related to geometric height, which give insufficient improvement of the characteristics of the wing, so they would be uneconomic.

In contrast with the wing tip according to the invention, the effects of improving the aerodynamic characteristics of the wing according to the invention is also achieved in connection with the accession of the specified wing tips to the wing as part of modernization with a relatively compact design or short effective span of the wing tip and/or a low aerodynamic load of the wing tip.

According to the invention is provided by the wing tip to attach the wing, which contains the base and the top and has the following defining characteristics:

local dihedral angle of the wing tips continuously increases or decreases from the bottom to the top,

local sweep on the trailing edge continuously increases as it passes from the base to the top of the wing tip

- the local sweep of the leading edge continuously increases with the passage of the front CR is MKI from the base toward the first intermediate point, continuously decreases from the first intermediate point to a second intermediate point, and continuously increases from the second intermediate point, at least to the area in front (inside) top of the wing tips, if the passage of the leading edge from the bottom to the top.

It may be provided that the local sweep of the leading edge continuously increases from the second intermediate point to the top of the wing tips. Alternatively it can be provided that the sweep of the leading edge continuously increases from the second intermediate point to the partial region of the wing tip, which extends in front (inside) the top and along the extreme maximum of 8% of the length of the wing tip, which extends in the longitudinal direction between the base and the top.

In one example of the invention provides that the increase or decrease of the local dihedral angle of the wing tips are designed so that the angular difference between the local direction of the scale on the base and the local direction of the scale at the top is from 30 degrees to 90 degrees.

In another example, the invention provides that the distance between the base and the extreme ends of the top, when considered in the longitudinal direction, which extends from the base to the top of the wing tips, is 20% and 80% of the local chord length of the profile based, while the distance between the base and the extreme ends of the top (E2) is defined in the local direction of the thickness of the wing tips to the local coordinate system wingtips.

Alternatively or in addition, one exemplary embodiment of the invention may provide that length, which extends along the longitudinal direction of the wing tip of the first section, which is located between the substrate and the first turning point, from 15% to 50% of the length of the wing tip, which extends along the longitudinal direction.

Alternatively or additionally, the example embodiment of the invention may provide that length, which extends along the longitudinal direction of the second area, which is located between the first pivot and the second pivot point is from 5% to 30% of the length of the wing tip.

Alternatively or additionally, the example embodiment of the invention may provide that length, which extends along the longitudinal direction of the wing tip of the third portion which is located between the second pivot point and the top is from 15% to 70% of the length of the wing tip.

An example implementation of the invention may provide that the front Kronk the third plot converges with the back edge on the top.

According to another aspect of the invention provides a wing with a wing tip according to the invention. The following examples of carrying out the invention is described with reference to the accompanying drawings showing the following:

Figure 1: schematic view in perspective of a plane with an approximate constructive option wingtips according to the invention,

Figure 2: schematic side view of the aircraft with another structural example of the wing tip according to the invention,

Figure 3: schematic rear view of one structural example of the wing tip according to the invention,

Figure 4: schematic top view of the first structural example of the wing tip according to the invention,

Figure 5: schematic top view of the second structural example of the wing tip according to the invention with an outer region of the specified wingtips made in an alternative way compared to the wing tip, shown in figure 4,

Fig.6: schematic side view of the geometry of the wing tips.

In figures 1 and 2 show an example of a constructive variant of the F with two wings 10A, 10b, each of which may be located ending W1, W2 wing according to the invention. In figures 1 and 2 also shows a system KS-F coordinate plane. Each wing 10A, 10b comprises at least one Aileron 11a or 11b. FAK is Tatiana, each wing 10A, 10b may contain many spoilers 12A or 12b, slats 13A, 13b and/or flaps 14a, 14b. In figure 1 reference designation are only some of the spoilers 12A or 12b, slats 13A, 13b and/or flaps 14a, 14b. Figure 1 also shows the coordinate system related to plane F with the longitudinal axis X of the aircraft, the transverse axis Y of the aircraft and the vertical axis Z of the aircraft. Moreover, F contains vertical tail 20 of at least one wheel of the 21 areas. Optional, F may also include a horizontal stabilizer 24, which contains at least one wheel 25 height. The horizontal stabilizer 24 may be made in the form of T-shaped or cruciform tail of the tail.

F according to the invention may also have a shape that differs from F, shown in figures 1 and 2. For example, the aircraft according to the invention can also be a monoplane with high-level wing or plane of the "flying wing". In addition, the aircraft may also be a plane that instead of the horizontal tail contains a "duck".

In figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 shows one structural example of ending W wing according to the invention for the right wing when considering in the direction of flight or against the longitudinal axis X of the aircraft. In figures 1 and 2, the right ending to the conference had been designated as W1, while in figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, it is indicated as W. On the figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 also shows a system KS-F coordinates of the aircraft and system KS-T coordinates of the wing T, which is the ending W wing.

System KS-T coordinates of the wing T is a local coordinate system, which includes the direction of the SW scale, direction FT chord of the wing and the direction FD thickness of the wing. According to the proposed definition of local system KS-T coordinates for wing T are oriented so that the local direction FT chord of the wing is parallel to the X axis of the system KS-F coordinate plane. The orientation of the axes and the location of the beginning of the local system KS-T coordinates of the wing T, first of all, in addition, can be determined on the basis of the respectively resulting smallest cross-sectional area, which is obtained at each point of the wing T, with the beginning of the local system KS-T coordinate is the center of gravity of the surface, which is obtained relative to the corresponding cross-sectional area, and which is located on the specified cross-sectional area, and the local direction FD thickness of the wing and the local direction FT wing chord are respectively the smallest cross-sectional area.

According to the alternative proposed definition of local system KS-T coordinate to cu is La T are oriented so that what direction FT wing chord system KS-T coordinates of the wing T extends in the X direction or the longitudinal direction system KS-F coordinate plane, and the direction FD thickness of the wing system KS-T coordinates of the wing T extends in the Z-direction system KS-F coordinate plane or the direction of the vertical axis Z of the aircraft F.

Relative to the direction SW wing span of T, which is the wing tip, the tip wing W contains a basis E1 for the formation of compounds of the wing tip and the top of E2, which forms the end of the wing and extend the wing T in the direction of the SW its scope, ranging from the extreme wing T that is attached to the tip W wing. Ending W wing contains the rear edge 50, the front edge 60, the upper surface 70 and a bottom surface 80, which in each case extend between the base E1 and peak E2.

Ending W wing can be attached directly to the wing So When this scheme, a related field or line of the wing T and ending W wing can contain an edge or kink.

In addition, the ending W wing can be attached to the wing T by region And mates or transition. With this scheme, the upper surface A1 of the transition area And on one side adjacent to the top surface T1 of the wing T, and on the other side adjacent to the top surface 70 of the ending W to the conference had been, while the bottom surface A2 of the transition area And on one side is adjacent to the lower surface T2 of the wing T, and on the other side adjacent to the bottom surface 80 of the ending W wing. In this case, a related field or line, pairing And connecting the wing T and the ending W wing or within the pair And can form an edge or kink.

Shown in figures 3, 4, 5 and 6 constructive examples of the wing T with the ending W wing according to the invention between the wing T and ending W provided by the wing area And mates or transition. This constructive examples of the region And a transition or a transition between the wing T and ending W wing and the rear edge 50, the leading edge 60, the upper surface 70 and/or the bottom surface 80 is made by performing tangential continuity, that is, without fracture. In other words, the wing has a passage with mathematically differentiable curve in which, as indicated above, the tangents that the transition point is obtained from the opposite directions of the surfaces of the wing T or ending W wing, converge without angular discontinuity.

First of all, the transition from the wing surface T to the transition region and/or from the surface of the transition region And the ending W wing may have a shape with curvature continuity, that is to be twice mathematically differentiable./p>

According to one constructive example of the pairing or the transition region and/or the transition between the wing T and ending W wing and, above all, the rear edge 50, the leading edge 60, the upper surface 70 and/or the bottom surface 80 includes an edge or corner, so that these positions are not part free from fracture and a curved section, because in these transition points corresponding tangents of the wing T and ending W wing meet each other with an angular discontinuity relative to the tangent, which arise from areas that extend oppositely to each other.

In General, to describe the transition region And, if the latter is provided in the embodiment of the wing according to the invention, should also be applied to the determination according to the invention the local system KS-T coordinates of the wing.

According to another example embodiment of the invention can be provided that the wing T does not contain the transition region And with the transition from the surface of the wing to the tip W wing, performing tangential continuity (in other words, differentiable at least once) or with curvature continuity.

In the ending W, W1, W2 wing according to the invention provides that the local dihedral angle ending W, W1, W2 wing continuously increases or decreases from the basics of the of E1 to the top of the E2, in other words, in the longitudinal direction L ending W wing. In case of increase of the dihedral angle in the longitudinal direction L ending W wing tip W, W1, W2 wing or the top of the E2 directed upwards, whereas in the case of reducing the dihedral angle in the longitudinal direction L ending W wing tip W, W1, W2 wing or the top of the E2 down-directed.

In this context, the concept of "up", starting from the wing T, refers to the direction that points away from the top surface T1 of the wing T, in other words, the positive Z-direction system KS-F coordinate plane or the positive direction of the thickness of the wing system KS-T coordinates of the wing.

According to one constructive example ending W wing upper surface and/or the lower surface of the ending W wing in all directions along the respective sides can be made to ensure tangential continuity or continuity of curvature. In one design example, the upper surface and/or the lower surface of the ending W wing can also contain a break in one or more positions so that the upper surface and/or bottom surface are/is at least continuous/continuous form.

Local dihedral angle can refer to the baseline ending W wing, which prostreets is along the longitudinal direction L. With this scheme, the local dihedral angle is the angle between the tangent extending along the baseline of the corresponding pixel, which is determined by the local dihedral angle, and fixed line. The baseline may be primarily determined by the connecting line of the centers of gravity of the squares of the cross-section ending W wing, which are located in the X-Z plane system KS-F coordinate plane. Fixed-line can be a line, which runs parallel to the Y-axis system KS-F coordinate plane.

According to the invention the longitudinal direction L can be identical to the above baseline. In the description of the forms ending W wing according to the invention reference is made to the local system KS-W coordinates related to the ending W wing, which is locally formed at the points of passage of the longitudinal direction L ending W wing.

Axes related to the ending W wing of the local system KS-W coordinates are: local direction SW-W scale, local direction WD of the thickness of the wing tip and the local direction of the WT of the chord of the wing tips, which runs parallel to the longitudinal axis X of the system KS-F coordinate plane. The orientation of these axes and the beginning of the local system KS-W coordinate of the ending W wing can be primarily defined further on is again the smallest cross-sectional area ending W wing which is obtained in each case at each point ending W wing, at the beginning of this local system KS-W coordinate is provided by the center of gravity of the surface relative to the corresponding cross-sectional area and is located on the specified cross-sectional area, and the local direction WD of the thickness of the wing tips and the local direction of the WT of the chord of the wing tips are located on the corresponding smallest cross-sectional area.

In this scheme, the longitudinal direction L can be the connecting line of the centers of gravity of the surfaces with the least squares cross-section, on which in each case are local direction WD of the thickness of the wing tips, as well as the local direction of the WT of the chord of the wing tip or the local direction FD thickness of the wing and the local direction FT chord of the wing.

According to one aspect of the invention can be, above all, provided that the chord of the wing tips, which takes place in the local direction of the WT of the chord of the wing tip and the thickness of the wing tips, which takes place in the local direction WD wingtips, continuously decreases along the longitudinal direction L of the wing tips.

According to the invention, the term "continuous" reducing or continuous increase determinant refers to determinants, to others the words, in the example above to the thickness of the wing tip monotonically decreasing or increasing along the appropriate relevant baseline. In this scheme, the process of increasing or decreasing the determinant can also contain a break.

According to another defining characteristic ending W according to the invention the local sweep on the trailing edge 50, also called a sweep on the trailing edge, continuously increases along from the base of E1 to the top of E2, or at least until the space or area in front (inside) top of E2. Therefore, in top view F against the direction Z, by increasing the sweep along the longitudinal direction L of the wing tip trailing edge 50 is bent to such an extent that the angle between the direction of the rear edge 50 and the longitudinal direction X of the aircraft continuously and monotonically decreases. In this scheme, the passage of the rear edge 50 is primarily differentiated from a mathematical point of view, so that the rear edge 50 more bends backward when considered in the longitudinal direction L of the wing tips. According to one constructive example ending W wing passage of the rear edge 50 may take the form of providing tangential continuity or continuity of curvature. In one constructive example, the rear is I, the edge of the 50-ends W of the wing may also contain a break in one or more positions, so the back edge 50 is at least continuous.

With regard to the design of ending W wing, the invention also provides that the sweep of the leading edge 60 is continuously increasing in the passage of the leading edge 61 from the base of E1 to the first intermediate point 61A, decreases in the passage of the leading edge 62 from the first intermediate point 61A to the second intermediate point a and continuously increases in the passage of the leading edge 63 of the second intermediate point a at least up front (inside) top of the E2 tail W, W1, W2 wing, so that the first intermediate point 61A and the second intermediate point a are the points of rotation passing through the front edge 60.

According to one constructive example ending W wing passage of the leading edge 60 may have a shape with tangential continuity or continuity of curvature. In yet another constructive example, the front edge 60 of the ending W wing can also contain a break in one or several positions, so that the leading edge 60 is at least continuous in form.

In one constructive example ending W wing according to the invention, which is shown in figure 4, the front edge 63 on the outer partial section B4 of the third section of the EOI has such a shape that the front edge 60 of the rear edge 50 in the outer end point converge at the vertex of E2. For this purpose, it may be, above all, provided that the local sweep of the leading edge 60 in the passage of the leading edge 64 along the longitudinal direction L from the starting point 63A partial section 64 to the top of E2 relative to the local angles of sweep in the segment B3 before partial area or a partial area B4 increases much more pronounced way, which leads to a greater reduction in the length of the chord of the profile. Such partial section B4 may, first of all, to extend along the longitudinal section that, when viewed in the longitudinal direction L comprises a length of from 3% to 8% of the total length of the edges W of the wing.

According to another embodiment, an area in which, when considered in the longitudinal direction L, the sweep of the leading edge 60 increases, extends only to a partial area B4, which extends a maximum of 8% of the length, which runs in the longitudinal direction L, ending W; W1, W2 wing. For example, in the partial region B4 front edge can be carried out in a manner different from the provided according to the invention, in General, to a partial region B4 in the third section of the OT. For example, in the partial region B4 sweep of the leading edge 60 may increase again. In another constructive example sweep ostaa the Xia constant in the partial region B4. However, in any case, when considered in the longitudinal direction L, the sweep of the leading edge 60 is increased at least to a partial region B4 before the top of the E2 tail W; W, W2 wing, while the area before the peak E2 extends the maximum along at 8% of the length of the ending W; W1, W2 wing, which (length) extends in the longitudinal direction L. However, according to another example embodiment of the invention can also be provided that the area B4 does not even exist, as shown, for example, in figure 5.

Via intermediate points 61A, a ending W wing can be divided according to the scale on three areas B1, B2, B3, while the boundary area of each region can be defined in such a way that they extend along the X-Z plane system KS-F coordinate plane (figure 4) or along the local direction WD of the thickness of the wing tip and along the local direction of WT chord of the wing tips. The first area B1 is located between the base E1 and the first point 61A of rotation, the second region B2 is located between the first point 61A of rotation and the second point a rotation, and a third region of the EOI is located between the second point a rotation and peak E2.

Length, which extends in the longitudinal direction L ending W; W1, W2 wing, the first section, which is located between the base E1 Oberoi point 61A of rotation, from 15% to 50% of the length, which extends in the longitudinal direction L ending W; W1, W2 wing. In addition, the length of which extends in the longitudinal direction L, the second area B2, which is located between the first point 61A of rotation and the second point a rotation, ranges from 5% to 30% of the length of the ending W; W1, W2 wing. Length, which extends in the longitudinal direction L ending W; W1, W2 wing, the third area B3, which is located between the second point a rotation and peak E2, ranges from 15% to 70% of the length of the ending W; W1, W2 wing.

On the first segment B1 sweep of the leading edge 60 is increased very considerably up to a certain point of return. In combination with a much less pronounced increase in the sweep on the trailing edge, in this area wingtips thus makes a strong decrease in the length of the chord of the profile. Subsequent passage of the second area B2 the angle of the leading edge again slightly decreases until, until, finally, from the next point return he again begins to increase to the outer section of the wing tips.

First of all, provided according to the invention the signs of the passage of the leading edge 60 and in this scheme, first of all, change the sweep in the third region B3 provide design changes ending W wing as a whole, the result may be affected by aerodynamic effects, which in this context can be achieved in relation to the wing T and the plane F. By modifying or adapting the sweep of the leading edge 60, first of all, can be taken to adapt the passage of the chord length of the profile along the longitudinal direction L for enabling calculation of boundary conditions and aerodynamic requirements. Due to the sweep of the leading edge according to the proposed solution the chord length of the profile ends W of the wing can be modified in scope or along its longitudinal direction L and can be set based on the calculated boundary conditions and requirements. In addition, due to the change or adaptation of the sweep of the leading edge 60, first of all, can be achieved by adaptation of the scale ending W wing, and in conjunction with the passage of the chord length of the profile along the longitudinal direction L can be also achieved adaptation of the resulting surface ending W wing. By performing two points 61A and a a turn in the passage of the leading edge 60, it becomes possible to install the components of the flow at the tip W wing in the local direction SW-W peak-to-peak wingtips and the local direction of the WT of the chord of the wing tips for various is ostani flow with account of the boundary conditions. Settlement boundary conditions can, first of all, to include the full area of the tail wing W, the total weight of the edges W of the wing, the lift coefficient of the tail wing W, and/or local stress on the surface in the areas of ending W wing.

In this scheme may be, for example, provided that the increase in the sweep of the leading edge 60 in the third region of the EOI will be less compared to the increase in the sweep of the leading edge 60 in the first area B1. In this example, can be achieved by increasing the scale ends W of the wing and reducing the aerodynamic drag of the wing So

One exemplary embodiment of the invention, which, for example, shown in figure 5, provides that the decrease in the length of the chord of the wing tip comes from the largest value or 100%value on the basis of E1 to the top area B3 to 5%-25% of this value. In this scheme, the top of the E2 can form an edge, which can extend so as to have either a straight or a curved shape. Can also be provided that the edge 67 is adjacent to the front edge 60 of the third area B3 due to the bend 68. First of all, the edge 67 may extend parallel to the longitudinal axis X of the aircraft. Furthermore, the design according to the invention ending W wing leads to a significant narrowing of the cross-sectional area, DEVAW the result locally along the longitudinal direction L of the inner part of the wing tip which scale is located in the first area B1. As a result, the surface geometry of the ending W wing according to the invention, in comparison with other known structures of the wing tips, much less with the same effective span (figures 4 and 5).

Because of this defining characteristic occurs a situation in which by ending W wing according to the invention, in comparison with other known structures of the wing tips, achieved a lower maximum height. The invention may provide that the distance between the base and the extreme ends of the top, when considered in the longitudinal direction L, which extends from the base of E1 to the top of the E2 tail W; W1, W2 wing, is from 20% to 80% of the local length WT chord profile on the basis of E1, the distance between the base E1 and extreme vertex point E2 is defined in the local direction WD of the thickness of the wing tips on the local system KS-W coordinate of the ending W wing.

Provided according to the invention the geometric shape ending W wing results in the ending, which is only slightly aerodynamically loaded. In addition to the usual design parameters geometric twist and bend of the wing, this is achieved largely as a result of very significant decrease the value of the local length of the chord of the profile in the inner scale wing area B1. In the following two changes in the passage of the local sweep of the leading edge 60 length scale ending W wing according to the invention is significantly increased compared with the known wing tip with continuously increasing sweep along the front edge. Thus, it is possible to extract the aerodynamic benefits associated with induced aerodynamic profile and resistance, both from economies of scale and reduce the washed area. At the same time, in comparison with the known solutions provided according to the invention the geometric shape ending W wing, providing the same aerodynamic efficiency, causes reduced structural load on the wing F.

If, on the other hand, constructive advantage equalized additional geometric height and/or length scale ending W wing according to the invention, due to the resulting distribution of aerodynamic loads and washed the area, formed a winning total aerodynamic resistance as compared with the known wing tip.

First of all, the ending W wing according to the invention can be used for upgrading or retrofitting existing JG is tov, in this connection may be achieved by improving the aerodynamic characteristics without structural changes or only minor structural changes to the wing So

1. Ending (W; W1, W2) wing to wing (T; 10A, 10b), which contains a basis (E1) and top (E2), in which the local dihedral angle ending (W; W1, W2) wing continuously increases or decreases from the base (E1) to the top (E2),
characterized in that
local sweep on the trailing edge (50) continuously increases in its passage from the basis (E1) to the top (E2) tail (W; W1, W2) of the wing, and
- the local sweep of the leading edge (60) continuously increases in the passage of the leading edge (60) from the basis (E1) to the first intermediate point (61A), continuously decreases from the first intermediate point (61A) to the second intermediate point (a), and continuously increases from the second intermediate point (a) at least up to the area before the peak (E2) tail (W; W1, W2) of the wing.

2. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the local sweep of the leading edge (60) continuously increases from the second intermediate point (a) to the top (E2) tail (W; W1, W2) of the wing.

3. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the local sweep of the leading edge (60) continuously increases from the second Avenue is an interstitial point (a) to a partial region (B4) ending (W; W1, W2) of the wing, which extends in front of the apex (E2) and along most extreme 8% of the length of the edges (W; W1, W2) of the wing, which is (length) extends in the longitudinal direction (L) between the base (E1) and peak (E2).

4. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the increase or decrease of the local dihedral angle ending (W; W1, W2) of the wing is designed so that the angular difference between the local direction (SW-W) scale on the basis of (E1) and the local direction (SW-W) scale on the top (E2) is from 30 degrees to 90 degrees.

5. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the distance between the base (E1) and the extreme ends of the top (E2) when considered in the longitudinal direction (L), which extends from the base (E1) to the top (E2) tail (W; W1, W2) of the wing, is from 20% to 80% of the local length (WT) of the chord of the profile on the basis of (E1), the distance between the base (E1) and the extreme ends of the top (E2) is defined in the local direction (WD) the thickness of the wing tips on the local system (KS-W) coordinates of the ending (W) of the wing.

6. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the length, which extends along the longitudinal direction (L) ending (W; W1, W2) of the wing, the first section, which is located between the base (E1) and the first point (61A) rotation, ranges from 15% to 50% of the length of bakonzo the Ki (W; W1, W2) of the wing, which is (length) extends along the longitudinal direction (L).

7. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the length, which extends along the longitudinal direction (L), the second area (B2), which is located between the first point (61A) of rotation and the second point (a) rotation, ranges from 5% to 30% of the length of the edges (W; W1, W2) of the wing.

8. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the length, which extends along the longitudinal direction (L) ending (W; W1, W2) of the wing, the third plot (B3), which is located between the second point (a) and rotate the top (E2)is from 15% to 70% of the length of the edges (W; W1, W2) of the wing.

9. Ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1, characterized in that the front edge (63) of the third section (B3) converges with the trailing edge at the outer end (E2).

10. The wing containing the ending (W; W1, W2) of a wing according to claim 1.



 

Same patents:

Aircraft wing // 2506200

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, and elongated sharp-ends body and equipped with blades secured thereto radially. Said blades are arranged in helical line and feature variable height increasing in direction opposite oncoming airflow.

EFFECT: limited vortex flows nearby wing end.

3 dwg

Aircraft wing // 2494920

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, tail unit, engine and undercarriage, and elongated sharp-ends body with pressure nozzle with its side secured to wing end faces. Said elongated body is shaped to polygon with variable-height vanes attached vertically to faces. Said vanes at said faces are inclined relative to axial line of said elongated body. Pressure nozzle is located at the end of elongated body along its axial line.

EFFECT: constricted vortex flow nearby wing end face.

3 cl, 3 dwg

Aircraft // 2494919

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, tail unit, engine and undercarriage. Mesh plate arranged parallel with vertical plane extending along fuselage is attached to the end of every wing. Said mesh plate is shaped to trapezium and has openings increasing in size in direction from said top and bottom airfoils.

EFFECT: constricted vortex flow nearby wing end face.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to end airfoils including surfaces with recesses and to method of rag reduction. Aircraft system comprises wing and end airfoil (winglet, end plates, Whitcomb endplate) connected with wing end outer section. End airfoil has first surface facing fuselage side and second surface directed outward. First surface comprises area with recess. Note here that the wing includes airfoil sections located from wing inner area to outer area. End airfoil is used with the wing that features no changes on common shapes of airfoil sections located nearby wing outer area.

EFFECT: decreased influence of interferences caused by flows at wing-end airfoil transition, reduced drag.

13 cl, 13 dwg

Aircraft wing tip // 2481242

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Aerodynamic surface trailing edge is aligned with end plate rear edge. Tip is located at end plate front edge, below rear edge while sweep make 60-85 degrees. There is lower vertical aerodynamic surface of small elongation coupled with end plate so that its leading edge coincides with leading edge of end plate aerodynamic surface. Angle between end plate aerodynamic surface and lower vertical aerodynamic surface makes 125-30 degrees.

EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, decreased fuel consumption.

3 dwg

Aircraft wing tip // 2481241

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. invention relates to aircraft engineering. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Proposed wing tip has end plate with aerodynamic sweep of light elongation and sharp leading edge arranged at end plate end outer side. Tailing edge of extra aerofoil is aligned with rear edge of end plate while nose flap is located at leading edge of end plate under the level of tailing edge, sweep making 60-85 degrees. Angle between end plate and aerofoil makes 175-180 degrees. Wing tip is arranged at 2 to 3 degrees to wing tip chord.

EFFECT: higher aerodynamic efficiency, reduced fuel consumption.

4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Device for adaptive control over aerodynamic characteristics of wing element 1 whereto small wing is attached to turn thereabout. Small wing 2 or its sections can turn about element 1 so that angle between rotational axis 7 and main direction of wing element panel 6 is other than 90. Method and device is characterised by the use of above described device. Said device is proposed to be incorporated with aircraft.

EFFECT: reduced fuel consumption.

21 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: aircraft control and stability devices.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device is made in form of stall fences mounted on lower surface of wing or on tail section of aircraft symmetrically relative to longitudinal plane of symmetry of aircraft. Stall fences begin at distance not exceeding 2 B and end at distance of 0.3-1.0 B from respective leading edge; their maximum height reaches 0.3 B, where B is aerodynamic chord of wing at area of mounting the stall hence.

EFFECT: facilitated going out of spin.

3 cl, 10 dwg

Aircraft // 2283261

FIELD: aviation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft has fuselage, engines, landing gear and control cabin. Aircraft is provided with trough-shaped wing, vertical fins with rudders, stabilizer and elevons. Wing is mounted on fuselage which has no tail section. Vertical fins with rudders are mounted underneath the wing. Stabilizer and elevons are mounted on trailing edge of wing.

EFFECT: reduced mass; reduced drag; improved aerodynamic properties.

3 dwg

FIELD: power plants for auxiliary-purpose flying vehicles.

SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes panel of lifting surface of flying vehicle with device for localization of overflow of airflow; this device includes flow-through nacelle, power loop and air-jet engine with exit nozzle. Axis of nacelle lies in way of motion of lifting surface of flying vehicle; inlet part is made in form of side inlet window located on lower part of lifting surface panel. Power loop includes at least one wind wheel with at least one electric power generator which are arranged inside flow-through nacelle in parallel with inlet window. Engine is mounted in outlet part of flow-through nacelle.

EFFECT: extended field of application; enhanced safety of flight.

3 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft represents a low-wing monoplane with engines mounted on wing (2) attached to lower surface of airframe (1). Tail unit consisting of fin (8) with rudder and tailplane (9) with elevation rudder is arranged at airframe rear. Aircraft landing gear consists of front leg (6) and main legs (7). Engine nacelles (10) feature bearing aerodynamic profile. Lower surface of engine nacelles make a continuous continuation of wing lower surface. Engine nacelles represent wing aerodynamic fence. Engine nacelle flat side surfaces (13) are arranged perpendicular to wing surface. V-like wing and flaps joint is arranged along lengthwise axis of airframe. Note the flap extension mechanism (19) is also mounted along aforesaid axis. Extending rod of aforesaid mechanism couples cranks (21, 22) of RH and LH outer wing flaps. Wing and flaps lower surface form continuous lower surfaces of the airframe that feature two-face shape with cross section equal to that of the wing and extending till aircraft tail unit.

EFFECT: higher aerodynamic properties.

10 dwg

The invention relates to aircraft and is about building an aircraft with plate wings

Aircraft wing // 2513344

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft wing has top and bottom airfoils and elements to deflect stream-down airflows composed of flaps and ailerons. Said elements to deflect stream-down airflows feature edge curves made in plates attached to said elements. Edge curve is shaped to sinusoid or asymptote.

EFFECT: simplified design.

5 dwg

Aircraft wing // 2506200

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, and elongated sharp-ends body and equipped with blades secured thereto radially. Said blades are arranged in helical line and feature variable height increasing in direction opposite oncoming airflow.

EFFECT: limited vortex flows nearby wing end.

3 dwg

Aircraft wing // 2494920

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, tail unit, engine and undercarriage, and elongated sharp-ends body with pressure nozzle with its side secured to wing end faces. Said elongated body is shaped to polygon with variable-height vanes attached vertically to faces. Said vanes at said faces are inclined relative to axial line of said elongated body. Pressure nozzle is located at the end of elongated body along its axial line.

EFFECT: constricted vortex flow nearby wing end face.

3 cl, 3 dwg

Aircraft // 2494919

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering. Aircraft comprises fuselage with wings secured thereto and furnished with deflectors of flow over top and bottom airfoils, tail unit, engine and undercarriage. Mesh plate arranged parallel with vertical plane extending along fuselage is attached to the end of every wing. Said mesh plate is shaped to trapezium and has openings increasing in size in direction from said top and bottom airfoils.

EFFECT: constricted vortex flow nearby wing end face.

2 cl, 3 dwg

Aircraft wing // 2494918

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to aircraft engineering, particularly, to civil and transport aviation craft. Aircraft wing comprises carcass, skin, and deflectors flow over top and bottom airfoils. This wing is provided with mesh plate arranged nearby end face along bottom airfoil. Said plate slides from slot-like opening at the wing end face. Said mesh plate is shaped to trapezium and has openings increasing in size in direction from said top and bottom airfoils.

EFFECT: constricted vortex flow nearby wing end face.

3 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to end airfoils including surfaces with recesses and to method of rag reduction. Aircraft system comprises wing and end airfoil (winglet, end plates, Whitcomb endplate) connected with wing end outer section. End airfoil has first surface facing fuselage side and second surface directed outward. First surface comprises area with recess. Note here that the wing includes airfoil sections located from wing inner area to outer area. End airfoil is used with the wing that features no changes on common shapes of airfoil sections located nearby wing outer area.

EFFECT: decreased influence of interferences caused by flows at wing-end airfoil transition, reduced drag.

13 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft leading edge flap coupled with main wing and including streamlined surface comprising tail lower edge. Part of said rail lower edge is shaped with even wavy line or wavy line with angular points along wing span. Proposed method consists in using proposed aircraft leading edge flap.

EFFECT: lower aerodynamic noise in takeoff and landing.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises wing 5 with positive dihedral angle, edge and wing edge device 7 secured in the area of edge. Wing edge device extends, generally, downward and has area 7d beveled at more than 180C. Area 7d serves to create lift in flight. Said area 7d beveled at more than 180C may be arranged at distal end 11 of wing edge device 7. Part of wing edge device located in proximal end has no area beveled at more than 180C. Wing edge may be swept and elastically strained in flight.

EFFECT: higher operating performances.

15 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: aircraft comprises fuselage, two wings arranged in symmetry on fuselage sides, and jet engine nacelle secured by means of pylon 18 to every wing. Every said pylon is provided with shaped bearing housing 20, 30 arranged to create resultant propulsion by oblique airflow. Housing 20, 20 extends from end 20a, 30a secured on jet engine pylon 18 toward elongation inclined for 30 with respect to wide wing top surface.

EFFECT: lower drag.

8 cl, 7 dwg

Up!