Railway line diagnosis method
SUBSTANCE: method comprises inspecting a portion of a railway line using a magnetic flaw detector mounted on a flaw detector car; identifying defects and structural components (bolt and welded joints of rails, metal rail plates etc), signals from which and positions of which are stored in a test card; using data on the structural components of the railway line for navigation during ultrasonic flaw detection of the same portion of the railway line; detailed analysis of objects identified by the magnetic flaw detector using an ultrasonic flaw detector; correcting the test card based on the flaw detection results.
EFFECT: high accuracy, quality and rate of detecting defects on rails.
2 cl, 5 dwg
The way to diagnose the track relates to methods and means of nondestructive testing of materials and can be used for the diagnosis of rails and other extended objects. The inventive method of diagnostics of railway track in the part coordinate reference diagnostic and material means to constructive elements of the track can be applied to determine the exact coordinates of any problem areas of the railway infrastructure, found the relevant diagnostic tools.
Monitoring the condition of rail infrastructure is to detect deviations from the normative status of the relevant subsystems, as well as in the determination of the coordinates of anomalous objects. The first problem is solved by providing an appropriate measuring device and the second solution of the navigation problem, i.e. the binding detected anomalous objects to the coordinates of the track.
The main methods of condition monitoring of railway track are magnetodynamics (MD) and ultrasound (us), each of which is inherent in the respective advantages and disadvantages.
Magnetodynamics method of flaw detection is the excitation magnetic field in the rail system of the magnetization and the reception of signals from anomalies in the rails sensors magnet the CSO field. Magnetodynamics detector (DMD) is installed on the vehicle that moves when the measurements along the track.
The advantages magnetodynamics methods include the following.
1. The ability to work in all climatic zones in all weather conditions.
2. High reliability of measurements with good repeatability and the possibility of monitoring the development of individual defects in rails.
3. The ability to detect structural elements of the track, including bolted and welded joints of rails, turnouts, butt pads, track pads, etc.
4. The opportunity to work on a large (up to 80 km/h) speeds of the vehicle.
The disadvantages magnetodynamics methods include the following :
1. Limited ability to detect defects at a depth of 6-8 mm from the surface of the rail - mainly developed transverse cracks inside the head rail, subsurface defects and fractures rails.
2. Significant weight and size characteristics and high power consumption.
Thus, magnetodynamics methods are useful in high-speed train detectors and defectoscopy the railcars. The detection of structural elements can be used which provide opportunities for relative navigation, i.e. to bind the detected defects to the track.
Ultrasonic inspection is the radiation of ULTRASONIC oscillations inside rail and receiving a return echo signals from the transducers (there's) on various testing schemes and methods of defect detection.
Advantages of ULTRASONIC methods are in the possibility to detect any defects in any parts of the rail, assessing their notional size, orientation, and so on, limited only by the availability of the surfaces of the rail to the input of ULTRASONIC oscillations in the current track.
Disadvantages of ULTRASONIC methods are associated with the difficulty of ensuring a stable and reliable acoustic contact there with the surface of the rail, especially at high speeds of the moving means testing, which leads to
1) according to measurements from weather conditions,
2) low repeatability of measurement results,
3) low detection ability of fixing structural elements of the track: bolted and welded joints of rails.
Thus, the most preferred is the use of ULTRASONIC methods in the composition of the manual inspection of trucks, where the low velocity, the part of the operator allow for detailed investigation of suspicious areas rails and to make an informed decision about [daln] isih action to ensure the safe movement of trains on the railroad.
When diagnosing the track there is a necessity gridding of the measurement results. This binding can be done using
1) systems global navigation GPS, GLONASS, etc. that give a good, but rough (the precision of a few meters at a reasonable cost) the positioning accuracy of flaw detection means,
2) speed sensor and odometer in a flaw detecting means, the error which is due to the wheels smoothly, wear, etc. can be up to 10-20%,
3) kilometer and picket pillars carried out, as a rule, operators manually and giving an error of from 0.5 to 3.0 m,
4) special labels, such as magnetic, marked on track and automatically read material means.
These methods are distinguished by a high precision positioning, but only in the vicinity of labels, as well as the high cost of preparatory work.
According to the authors of the present invention, the most convenient way binding railway facilities to the track is to use the structural elements of the track: bolted and welded joints of rails, turnouts, rail pads and so on. Such items are well detected by the MD method in the automatic mode and the operator visually. Accuracy positionyou the Oia is from units to tens of centimeters.
A full and accurate diagnosis of the track cannot be accomplished by using any one of the detector. High-speed cars detectors have a wide range of diagnostic capabilities, does not require the occupation of railway track over large time intervals, but high speed and instability of the acoustic coupling of the ULTRASONIC flaw detector during the movement does not allow you to diagnose with high quality.
The final analysis of the results of measurements in stationary conditions involve significant effort, and the coordinates of the detected defects are issued with an accuracy determined by the accuracy of measuring the speed of the flaw detector car.
Quality measurement and diagnostic ULTRASOUND defektoskopie trucks is higher compared to the speed control means, however, they are not able to provide a wide range of diagnostic equipment, such as DMD because of its great weight and power.
The processing of the measurement results is also unable to solve any single procedure. Prompt recognition of the problems detected rails in the car-the detector is unable to carry out in full at high speed, so that the share of operational methods is given only detect critical defects.
Still the way reliable of the diagnostic track could be achieved through a judicious mix mobile (speed) and removable material means, various diagnostic tools, surgical and laboratory analysis.
A known method for the diagnosis of the track , consisting in the installation on the vehicle MD and ULTRASONIC flaw detectors and sensing their track. These funds are used independently. Moreover, the MD method is used for nondestructive inspection of rail head, and ULTRASOUND to control other elements of the rail. The speed of movement of such funds are planned from 5 to 40 miles per hour.
The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the testing associated with incomplete use of available information.
A known method for the diagnosis of the track , involving the use of ULTRASONIC and (or) MD flaw detection and the various options binding measurements to train the way: the image of the surrounding railway track objects on a special radio, and magnetic coded labels, kilometer and picket poles, GPS and other methods.
The first disadvantage of this method is the low information content of the examination, as the capacity of the MD and ULTRASONIC flaw detection are not fully and separately. The second drawback also decided the flax complexity and inaccuracy binding measurements to track since most of the proposed options involves the creation of fairly complex and expensive systems.
A known method for the diagnosis of the track , according to which the MD detector is used in addition to the main purpose and for solving the problem of relative navigation - measuring the speed of movement of the vehicle.
The disadvantage of this method is the low of the flaw detection capabilities associated with limited MD diagnostic methods of rails.
The known method of magnetic-ultrasonic diagnostic track , which involves the binding data MD and multi-channel ULTRASONIC flaw detector series numbered clock pulses generated from the wheel. The received data are stored and processed.
The disadvantage of this method is associated with inaccurate anchor dimension to the track.
A known method for the diagnosis of the track , consisting in the use of ULTRASONIC flaw detectors, installed in two vehicles equipped with the communication system. The first vehicle moves continuously along the track, detecting suspicious areas and fixing their position on the track "wheels". The measurement results are stored in the form of analog signals, the processed digital signal detection and abliz. Processing the received information is made promptly and in the laboratory. The second vehicle in operational defects stops for evaluation of a suspicious area.
Closest to the claimed is a method for diagnosing the track , suggesting the presence in the car-the flaw various controls and diagnostics of railway track, including tools for rail flaw detection. Absolute coordinates of the car are determined using equipment global navigation GPS, etc. Relative coordinates are determined using sensors path and speed, and route sections, equipped with a system for contactless binding, such as RFID tags, additionally adjusted using these labels. Information received from tools for rail flaw detection, binds to the coordinates of the track, stored and analyzed automatically using the operator promptly and in laboratory conditions. The speed of movement of such a diagnostic system can be up to 140 km/h and above. The main idea of this method lies in the synchronization of the measurements of all the diagnostic tools on a single coordinate of path increments from 1 to 100 mm
The disadvantage of this method is the low quality of the diagnostic track, include the Noah with the following circumstances. In  is not considered a specific variant of funds for rail flaw detection, however, based on the estimated speed, is suitable only MD method, which, as shown above, it is not possible to detect many defects in the rail. Gridded measurements using selected resources from the global and relative navigation does not provide the required accuracy of positioning.
The problem solved by the claimed method of diagnostics of railway track, is to provide high quality and speed of detection of defects in rails due to the combination of MD and ULTRASONIC diagnostic methods with the exact binding results to the track.
To solve this problem in the way of diagnostics of railway track according to claim 1 of the formula of the invention that the rail vehicle install tools for rail flaw detection, as well as global satellite navigation system and relative navigation using the wheels of the rail vehicle, move the rail vehicle on the section of rail track, constantly probing the rails by means of radiography, take from them the response signals, which keep together with the data systems global and relative navigation in the form of a diagnostic map of the section of rail track, the operative is on and in the laboratory analyze the signals of means testing decide the degree of risk of defects is determined based on the diagnostic map their coordinates and choose the appropriate action, as a means of rail flaw detection vehicle uses a magnetic flaw detector, the analysis of received signals to recognize and celebrate the signals from defects and structural elements of the track, the coordinates of the last store in the diagnostic road map as an additional relative coordinates of the track, mounted on a rail vehicle ultrasonic flaw move and constantly synchronize the position of the ultrasonic flaw detector with diagnostic card section of rail track, using a system of global and relative navigation, and visual observation of rail track operator, increase the level of detail measurements of ultrasonic flaw detector in the vicinity of defects and structural elements of the track stored in the diagnostic map of the track, the signal analysis of magnetic and ultrasonic flaw detectors spend together.
According to claim 2 in method of diagnostics of railway track according to claim 1 correct diagnostic map according to the results of each pass of the section of rail track means testing.
There is i.i.d. differences of the proposed method for the diagnosis of the track compared to the prototype are as follows.
As a means of rail flaw detection vehicle at the first stage uses a magnetic flaw detector, which can detect anomalies in the magnetic field, which is due to the structural elements of the track, defects in the railhead and the kinks. The number of structural elements rails - bolted and welded joints of rails, turnouts are often the places of concentration of defects, so these elements should be checked with special care.
In the prototype are not considered specific diagnostic tools track and how to use them. When analyzing signals received DMD recognize and celebrate the signals from defects and structural elements of the track, the coordinates of the last store in the diagnostic road map as an additional relative coordinates of the track. Thus, all measurements are tied to a regular grid labels welded joints of rails (standard length of rails to be welded on the Russian railway is 12.5 and 25.0 m) and rail pads (0,42-0,56 m).
In the prototype binding of measurements made "mnogochislennym synchronizer on a single coordinate path and geographical coordinate", and the bindings are GPS data and the sensor path and speed". is the aka method does not provide the required accuracy of binding due to the inaccuracies of the original data. Proposed prototype correction using RFID applicable, but only where they are and are not capable of providing the declared accuracy of 1 mm.
Mounted on a rail vehicle ultrasonic flaw. The inventive method of diagnosis involves the joint use of MD and ULTRASONIC flaw detection both on the same and on different vehicles. The latter option is preferred as fast means of transport for DMD and slower for the ULTRASONIC flaw detector allows better use of the advantages and compensate for the disadvantages of the methods.
In the prototype, all diagnostics rails mounted on the rail inspection car, however, if the advertised speeds radiography (140 km/h) capacity ULTRASONIC flaw detection is severely limited due to the above reasons.
Move and constantly synchronize the position of the ultrasonic flaw detector with diagnostic card section of rail track, using a system of global and relative navigation, and visual observation of rail track operator. This synchronization cannot be performed accurately because the diagnostic map, there are marks of structural elements of rails, in particular bolted, and welded joints of rails and rail pads (on each of the Palais), which can easily be detected visually.
In the prototype essentially uses a temporary binding measurements, which is not accurate due to the inaccuracy of information about the current position and the variable speed of movement of the vehicle.
Increase the granularity of the measurements with the ultrasonic flaw detector in the vicinity of defects and structural elements of the track, keeping in diagnostic map of the track that allows you to search for defects in the locations most likely to be incurred. This is done by increasing the sensitivity of the individual channels of the detector, adjust the time zone selection, etc. In particular, when the control zone of welded joints of rails, due to the significant attenuation of ULTRASONIC oscillations in the metal rail in the heat-affected zone of the weld, short-term increase in the sensitivity of the detector channels at the moment of passage of the welded joint increases the probability of detecting defects in it.
In the prototype is a continuous search for defects, the details of which will not be considered.
Adjustments diagnostic card according to the results of each pass of the section of rail track means testing, which allows to continuously update information on the status of the section of rail track.
In the prototype refers to the analysis andeven the prediction of the development of defects, however, the specific way of solving these problems is not available.
The inventive method are illustrated in the following graphics.
Figure 1 - rail inspection car, where:
1 - rail inspection Car.
2 - Sensor magnetic flaw detector.
3 - Sensor path (from the wheels).
4 - GPS Equipment.
5 - handling Block.
6 - Media diagnostic card.
7 - Rail.
8 - Coil magnetization.
Figure 2 - scheme of the magnetic flaw detector, where:
9 - Magnetic flux.
10 - bolt joint of rails.
11 - Butt plate with bolted connections.
12 - Rail (tie) lining.
13 - Surface defect in the rail head.
14 is an Internal defect in the rail.
15 - Welded butt joint of rails.
Figure 3 - material cart, where:
16 - Inspection of the truck.
17 - Electroacoustic transducers on a pleading look "ski".
Figure 4, where:
4A) Signals from the magnetic flaw detector, where:
18 Signals from rail (tie) linings.
19 Signal from the internal defect of the rail.
20 Signals from welded joints of rails.
21 is a signal from a surface defect in the rail head.
22 - Signals in the area of the bolted joint (joint gap and butt pads).
4b) Labels from rail (tie) linings.
4C) Unselected label from the internal defect of the rail.
4d) Marks from the welded joints of rails.4E) Label from the surface of the defect.
4f) Marks from the butt gap and from start and end splices.
5 is a diagnostic card, where:
23 - Token;
a) GPS Data;
b) the milepost Markers;
c) Markers picket pillars;
d) Markers of welded joints;
e) Markers sleepers;
g) Coordinate from encoder detector.
h) Signals DMD;
i) the Signals of the ULTRASONIC flaw detector;
k) Diagnostic card on the screen defectoscopes truck;
1) Enlarged fragment diagnostic of the map on the screen with the location of the defect in the rail.
Consider the implementation of the proposed method according to claim 1 of the claims.
As the main means of flaw detection is proposed to use MD and ULTRASONIC flaw detectors. In addition, to improve the reliability can be applied and additional tools such as video cameras, to allow analysis of the results of testing in laboratory conditions with visual observation of suspicious areas.
Rail inspection car 1, figure 1, mounted on a rail 7 and the supply means, DMD, which include magnetization coil 8, the magnetic sensor of the detector 2 and the processing unit 5. In addition, the carriage 1 is installed navigation means, connected to the processing unit 5: equipment GPS 4 (sensor absolute coordinates) and datchikami 3. The results of DMD and the corresponding coordinates are stored in the diagnostic map 6.
During the movement of the flaw detector car of magnetization coil 8 excite the main static magnetic field 9, which is closed by the metallic structures: the axis of the wheel, the wheel itself, rail, wheel, axle, wheel, etc. Field does not penetrate deeply into the rail, in the DMD mainly detects heterogeneity, figure 2 (joints 10, subsurface defects of the head 13, welded joints 15), in the rail head. The scattering field covers the surrounding area, including structural elements: joint plates 11 and tie lining 12. When the movement of the flaw detector car inhomogeneity of the magnetic field takes an inductive sensor 2. The received signals are digitized, stored in a diagnostic map 6 and subjected to the analysis processing unit 5 with the aim of extracting signals from the constructive elements of the track and defects. Figure 4 (a) shows a real-world signals from DMD, where the selected standard signals: 18 signal from sleeper pads 12, 19 signal from the internal defect of the rail 7, which does not detect DMD, 20 signal from welded joints of rails 7, 21 signal from a surface defect in the rail head 13, 22 signals from the joint gap 10 and splices 11. Structural elements of the track 7 well p is Dauda identification signals DMD and stored in the diagnostic map in the form of coordinate labels the track: a label from sleeper pads 12 - fig.4b possible label from the internal defect 14 rail 7, which is not found - figs, marks from the welded joints of rails 15 7 - 4d, the label from the surface of the defect 13 of the rail head 7 - Five, marks from the butt gap and splices - Fig.4f.
System absolute navigation 4 GPS etc. continuously or on request from the DMD generates data about the coordinates of the flaw detector car, figure 5 a) interest points of the track 7. These data, as data of other navigation subsystems, adjusted for differences in location of the flaw detection and navigation sensors and stored in the diagnostic map 6. These navigation data are inaccurate, but avoid gross errors bindings. System relative navigation "from the wheel 3 has recursive properties, is able to accumulate errors, however, short sections of its data are highly accurate and allow you to determine the distance from the selected marker to an interesting point. These data are also stored in the diagnostic map 6, Figg. The navigation system of the flaw detector car may contain other subsystems forming the markers, for example, associated with kilometer (fig.5b) and picket pillars (figs)detected automatically or celebrate manually.
Thus, from the point of view of Navi the purpose of the diagnostic map in the storage unit 6 contains the following grid coordinate labels (figure 5):
a) GPS, etc. with accuracy to a few meters.
b) Kilometer posts with precision to units of meters (if you have the appropriate hardware or manual detection and fixation).
c) Picket pillars with a precision of several meters (with appropriate hardware or manual detection and fixation).
d) Welded joints with a frequency of 12.5 or 25 m and a precision of a few millimeters at the point of intersection.
e) Treating the lining with the periodicity 42-56 cm and up to ten centimeters.
f) Sleepers accurate to centimeters.
g) Sensor path "between the wheels" with an accuracy of±10%.
In addition, the diagnostic map saved all signals DMD (Fig. 4A). The analysis of this information can be made operative during the movement of the flaw detector car or in the laboratory, including using previous diagnostic cards.
Rail vehicle set ULTRASONIC flaw detector (Figure 3). As the vehicle may be the same car inspection 1, the machine or removable defectoscopy truck. We will consider the option of defectoscopes carriage 16, which shall also determine the absolute system (GPS etc) 4 and relative ("wheel") navigation 3. ULTRASONIC flaw detector is equipped with a set of 17 there. These are there for different schemes of prospecive the t rail to detect them internal defects and (or) their identification. Signals there 17 are received at the processing unit 5. Thus, the operator, by moving the cart continuously probes the rails of the ULTRASONIC signals, receives the response signals, which are stored and displayed, for example, in the form of a scan type on the screen (Fig)for which the operator attempts to detect defects. Synchronization diagnostic map and the current position of the welding cart 16 is made by comparison of its navigation systems 3 and 4 and label the diagnostic card. The items displayed diagnostic cards have a logarithmic scale on the horizontal axis distances so that the operator can simultaneously see all the necessary guidelines.
Label diagnostic card Figa-g) can be represented in a compact form FIGC), 1). So, 5k on the image) on the monitor screen can be seen that an object of interest is 18 km fig.5b), after the 2nd picket post Pigs) and after the third weld fig.5d). On a more detailed image Fig) shows that the alleged defect is in the area of the 5th sleepers file), and is located in the middle of her fig.5f).
The operator visually detects structural elements of the track: joints, sleepers, turnouts, etc. Some of these elements detects and ULTRASONIC flaw detector. Watching diagnostic map, the ULTRASONIC signals defec is oscope and the real path, the operator visually easy to find a conformity between them. The operator can set the on screen marker 23 on which he found the item of railway track, for example welded joint (fig.5d), and the processing unit 5 will indicate the distance to the places of interest of the rail from the diagnostic card, which should be examined in more detail, for example, where the detected surface defect. In addition, in accordance with figure 5, the operator can see that before the defect is detected by the MD on the first line - that according to the GPS was left to 3.8 meters, and the third weld remained 2.5 meters. The last distance with sufficient accuracy may be determined by the detector 3 detector.
Approaching a suspicious section of the rail (10, 11, 13 or 15), the operator of the truck increases the sensitivity of the ULTRASONIC flaw detector and performs a more detailed investigation of the suspicious area. He can go from the overview In-scan for a more detailed And-scan. Naturally, these operations in the detector can be automated. For a more confident decision about the severity of the defect, the operator can connect to a single channel detector manual there and additionally scan the defective section with other surfaces of the rail, with the lateral parts of the head, neck or feathers soles rail).
According to claim 2 of the formula and is gaining diagnostic card is adjusted in each iteration of the flaw detector car 1 and the trolley 16, that allows you to have timely information about the condition of the track and promptly take the necessary actions. In particular, verification of ULTRASONIC flaw detector can show that the dangerous defect detected MD flaw detector, no. The analysis of visual images of rail can show that the reason for the occurrence of a signal MD flaw detector is a foreign object located near the rail.
Thus, the inventive diagnostic method allows high accuracy to diagnose the track through the rational combination of magnetic and ultrasonic methods of testing. The proposed system navigation bind to the constructive elements of the track allows the operator of the ULTRASONIC flaw detector quickly and accurately detect the location of the defect. Navigation bind to the rail and its design features is regular and the most accurate in comparison with any artificially created magnetic, radio and other markers and can be used to solve various problems of the study of the railway infrastructure.
Sources of information
1. Patent RU 2228870.
2. Patent GB 2426340.
3. Patent US 5825177.
4. Patent US 2002099507.
5. Patent US 5970438.
6. Patent RU 2438903.
1. Method for the diagnosis of the track, namely, that the re is isovue vehicle install tools for rail flaw detection, as well as global satellite navigation system and relative navigation using the wheels of the rail vehicle, move the rail vehicle on the section of rail track, constantly probing the rails by means of radiography, take from them the response signals, which keep together with the data systems global and relative navigation in the form of a diagnostic map of the section of rail track, promptly and in the laboratory analyze the signals of means testing, decide on the degree of severity of detected defects is determined by the diagnostic map their coordinates and choose the appropriate action, characterized in that as a means of rail flaw detection vehicle uses a magnetic flaw detector, the analysis of received signals to recognize and celebrate the signals from defects and structural elements of the track, the coordinates of the last store in the diagnostic road map as an additional relative coordinates of the track, mounted on a rail vehicle ultrasonic flaw move and constantly synchronize the position of the ultrasonic flaw detector with diagnostic card section of rail track, using a system of global and relative navigation is tion, as well as visual observation of rail track operator, increase the granularity of the measurements with the ultrasonic flaw detector in the vicinity of defects and structural elements of the track stored in the diagnostic map of the track, the signal analysis of magnetic and ultrasonic flaw detectors spend together.
2. The diagnostic method according to claim 1, characterized in that the correct diagnostic map according to the results of each pass of the section of rail track by means of radiography.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: complex of flaw detection of process pipelines comprises: a mobile module, on-board electronic equipment, an on-board computer; defect sensors; odometers; a rope; a ground hoist with a drum for the rope; an on-board source of power supply; a ground computer; at the same time it includes: the first and second guide cones, several support-travel collars, several groups of travel spring units (TSU), several groups of pressing spring units (PSU), several groups of ultrasonic sensors of nondestructive check system (USNCS), several groups of pushers, several ultrasonic ultrasound scanners, several controllers for control of pressing spring units, several controllers of control of travel spring units, the first radio modem, the second radio modem, several controllers of control of ultrasonic sensors of the nondestructive check system (CCUSNCS).
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to create a simple complex from mechanics point of view for intratubal control of condition of process pipelines of arbitrary orientation, open at one end, control of pipes-bends of arbitrary spatial orientation with remote arrangement of the bend from the open end of the main pipe.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: complex for ultrasonic control of products includes a scanning X-shaped system of electromagnetic-acoustic antenna arrays, comprising four linear receiving-emitting antenna arrays arranged in plan so that centres of elements of antenna arrays lie on two crossing straight lines, besides, each antenna array is located at one side from the point of their crossing and is equipped with an appropriate block of pulse magnetisation connected by its inlet with one of four outlets of the synchroniser, the fifth outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the generator of excitation pulses, each of four outlets of which is connected to the inlet of the appropriate antenna array, the outlets of the antenna arrays are connected to the inlets of the multi-channel receiving tract, an optical measurement device, with the outlet connected to the first inlet of the calculating block, which also has a connection via the appropriate buses of exchange of data with the synchroniser, the multi-channel receiving tract and the block of display of the control results, at least all antenna arrays, blocks of pulse magnetisation and the optical measurement device are installed on a mobile platform, equipped with a track sensor and a block of platform motion control, at the same time the outlet of the track sensor is connected to the second inlet of the calculating block, the outlet of which is connected to the inlet of the platform motion control block.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of a nondestructive check system with simultaneous improvement of its flaw detection and operating characteristics.
7 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: usage: to control connections of metal parts with plastics for availability of cavities with the help of ultrasound. The substance of the invention consists in the fact that with the help of an ultrasonic detector of a defectoscope, ultrasonic signals of certain frequency and length of the pulse are sent into plastic at the metal side of the part, and in which ultrasonic signals reflected from defects available in plastic are recorded by the same or different ultrasonic detector of the defectoscope, and are converted into processed electric signals and analysed in the plan of threshold values. At the same time the frequency of control of ultrasonic signals is set in the range between 1 and 10 MHz so that sound suppression after passage of the plastic film is minimum.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to reliably detect cavities in a layer of an adhesive substance or in a coating material.
5 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to equipment of tests and measurements, namely, to the method for determination of stiffness of easily deformed composite, preferably tanning and textile, materials and other fibre systems, and may be used in light industry. Substance: as the informative parameter, they use the value of the resonant second frequency of the measured sample, which is determined by excitation of forced transverse oscillations in the sample with the frequency of 0.1-20 Hz. The quasi-resonant spectrum of internal frequencies is recorded for the sample with its transfer to the memory of the processor. The parameter of material stiffness with the help of the processor is calculated using the formula, and the produced results are stored as a data base on the electronic medium.
EFFECT: expansion of technological capabilities of the method, increased accuracy and provision of the possibility to form an electronic data base containing parameters of stiffness for different materials, simultaneously with determination of stiffness.
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: use: for an acoustic flaw detection of malfunctions of a rail track. Substance: consists in the fact that an acoustic signal is transmitted into rails, the reflected signal is accepted, and by time of distribution of acoustic signals to a place of malfunction and back they determine its coordinate, the reflected signal is accepted by piezoelectric converters installed on sliding bearings, located on a shaft of a wheel set, transfer and reception of acoustic signals is carried out alternately, thus as a power source of acoustic signals they use strikes of wheel sets on joints of the rail way, they stabilise impulses by the constant weight of the locomotive a working range of its speeds at a rolling angle α=0.001÷0.002°, they register at the same time frequency of following of the created shock impulses, background intensity and a frequency range of acoustic noise in an interval between the first and the second shock impulses and the reflected signals from at least 2 wheel sets, transforming the created shock impulses to squared impulses, define their duration between time periods of the back front and the forward front, decomposing rectangular impulses from the right and left track in a Fourier row and allocate the main harmonic of the right and left track, then they carry out further processing of the received data, defining malfunctions of a rail track.
EFFECT: possibility of detection of difficult defects in a rail track.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: assessment of material damage (at the stage of accumulation of scattered microdamages) of operated elements is based on determination of a criterion of extent of metal damage in elements and determination of time dependence on the moment of control to probable damage of equipment element. At the same time they measure delay of surface, shift and longitudinal waves of ultrasonic oscillations on the surface of the metal of the new element, in the zone of emergency damage of element metal and on the surface of the metal in the controlled zone of the element, which is in the process of operation.
EFFECT: higher validity of control of structural material.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: use: for quality control of an acoustic contact with ultrasonic flaw detection. Substance: consists in the fact that a beam of ultrasonic vibrations is emitted into a prism of a piezoconverter, and the amplitude of transformed transverse vibrations is measured, and its value is used to decide on the presence or absence of acoustic contact with the transformed wave reflected from the working surface of the prism and received by a special piezoplate for receiving of transverse vibrations or said transformed wave reflected from the working surface of the prism further transformed using additional prismatic plane of the piezoelectric transducer transverse to the longitudinal one, and they monitor the movement of conventional piezoceramic plates, and the angle of incidence of transverse waves on the additional plane is selected based on the maximum conversion ratio in the longitudinal vibrations.
EFFECT: increased reliability of quality control of an acoustic contact by ultrasonic testing of various products.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: usage: to control average parameters of fibres in a fibre mass. Substance: consists in the fact that the fibre mass taken as reference is combed with discharge to a drum with an acoustically transparent, for instance, meshed surface, under the surface and above the surface of the meshed wall of the drum coaxially and normally to the wall surface they install radiating and perceiving sensors of acoustic oscillations and air condenser liners, after each full rotation of the drum they fix the value of the acoustic signal and the value of the air condenser capacity, taking samples from the beam, using standard methods, they determine the surface density of the beam and the quantity of fibres in direction of scanning, they build dependences of the surface density of the beam on the air condenser capacity and the value of the acoustic signal on the number of fibres in direction of scanning, using the dependences, they set the reference value of the required quantity of fibres, the controlled fibre is combed with discharge to the drum, continuously recording during each rotation of the drum the number of fibres in direction of scanning to the established reference value, and when it is achieved, the beam is stopped, and the average parameter of fibres is based on the value of surface density of the produced beam.
EFFECT: higher accuracy, objectivity and efficiency of control.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device for ultrasonic wave reception and emission comprises a voltage source to which the following units are connected in series according to the following sequence: a first resistor, a capacitor and a second resistor, a piezoelectric transducer with one of its outputs being connected to the voltage source ground, an electronic switch with one of its outputs being connected to the junction point of the first resistor and the capacitor and the other output - to the first output of the third resistor while the second output of the latter is connected to the voltage source ground, a control circuit with its output being connected to the control input of the electronic switch, two back-to-back diodes connected in parallel to the third resistor, and a receiver-amplifier path with its input being connected to the first output of the third resistor. The device provides for the creation of a voltage drop at the piezoelectric transducer and the said drop exceeds the voltage of the voltage source. It is made to generate an ultrasonic wave due to closing in of the inductance with one of its outputs being connected to the junction point of the capacitor and the second resistor and the second output - to the available output of the piezolelectric transducer.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of using the power source voltage.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: ultrasonic vibrations are send to an item, through transmission of the item by ultrasonic vibration pulses is performed and a receiving transducer receives the ultrasonic vibrations in the air passed through the item crown; the difference is that the ultrasonic inspection of the item is carried out by two (instead of one) ultrasonic devices or two units of one device with one of them being used to generate and send the ultrasonic vibrations to the item and the other - to receive the ultrasonic vibrations passed through the item crown and to show them on the device monitor. Performance of the units of each device is not synchronised with each other, in particular, pulse repetition frequency of ultrasonic vibrations at the device generation unit is set as not equal but exceeding the pulse repetition frequency synchronising the performance of the receiving device units, including the time base unit providing for displaying the received ultrasonic vibrations on the device monitor, and the latter frequency shall not be multiple of the syncpulse repetition frequency. Quality of the item is assessed by the availability and amplitude of the pulses moving on the pulse device monitor according to the specified ratio.
EFFECT: quality and reliability of ultrasonic inspection for different items.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device consists in measurement of gradients of permanent magnetic field components actual in time at several levels with the help of at least three strips of magnetic resistors displaced by operator along pipeline axis. Two strips of magnetic resistors are arranged vertically and one strip is fitted horizontally. Every strip is composed of three three-component transducers. Gradients (∂Xi/∂y, ∂Yi/∂y, ∂Zi/∂y) are computed proceeding from recorded data for every component of the transducer for time interval defined by hardware performances, that is, at the rate of 6256 measurements a second. Said gradients are defined as the difference (Xi+1-Xi)/Δy, (Yi+1-Yi)/ Δy, (Zi+1-Zi)/ Δy at Δy→0. Application of gradients obtained in small time interval allows getting rid of errors related with unstable operation of transducers, change in their sensitivity, increase in scatter of transducer parameters and their dependence upon temperature.
EFFECT: fast response, accurate detection of buried pipeline defects, better operating performances.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in an industrial detector for conveyor lines the area of receiving coils is many times less than the area of a metal detector "window". Signals from receiving coils arrive to inlet amplifiers (separate for each coil), from the outlet of the amplifier the signal is sent to a summator, where it is summed with the "compensation" signal, arriving from a digital to analog converter (DAC), which makes it possible to compensate the signal x.x., then the signal arrives to an analog to digital converter (ADC). Data from all ADC, a speed sensor and another receiving coil connected in parallel to the transmitting one, and also data from the scales (optionally) is sent to a unit of a central processor, in which metal presence is detected. Also in parallel to the transmitting coil there is a calibration loop connected, which is periodically closed, making it possible for an instrument to independently perform automatic inspection and automatic calibration. In the considered metal detector the excitation coil connected to an AC generator creates unresolved magnetic field of excitation acting as the investigated object, moving through the control zone.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity of a metal detector and reduced impact of external electromagnetic environment, which causes reduction of quantity of false actuations.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-contact diagnostics of metal tubes during operation. The inventive method comprises determining the location and depth of the pipeline at the test site, installation along the pipeline of at least two identical sensors for measuring tension (tangential component) of the magnetic field, synchronous recording of changes in the magnetic field caused by stray currents, comparative information processing from all sensors and diagnostic conclusion. The apparatus comprises at least two identical sensors for installation along a pipeline axis, determining the magnetic field, means for linkage at the location, means for determining the depth of the pipeline, a facility of synchronisation of switching and sensor means for recording the magnetic field change caused by stray currents and data processing.
EFFECT: simplification of searching for locations of pipeline corrosion, improving accuracy of fault location.
13 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed instrument comprises interconnected power supply 1, locating and control unit 2 and set of magnetic pickups 3. Said set of magnetic pickups is composed of permanent magnets arranged radially in their crown to interact by their magnetic field with Hall transducer 302. Said instrument is displaced inside the pipeline, over its entire length, to control pipeline thickness and to detect whatever holes so that distance whereat detected holes are located starting from initial point is determined as well as their position in pipeline circumference. All measurements are a part of online process executed in instrument displacement inside said pipeline.
EFFECT: info can be loaded in computer to be available for use and decision making relative to pipeline integrity.
2 tbl, 37 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: in a diagnostics method at least 18 single-component sensors of a constant magnetic field are used as sensors of the field; compensation of action on measurement results of fluctuation of constant magnetic field of the Earth is performed. Mathematical processing of measurements is performed based on sum and difference of signals of coaxial components of the field. As mathematical processing, tensorial processing of a matrix of gradients is used; the above matrix is composed based on measurement results so that linear, quadratic and cubic invariants are obtained and components of magnetic moments of defect anomalies obtained on the basis of a solution of an equation system are calculated. At processing of measurements there excluded from processing are intervals of measurement recording, which exceed the load action time determined as to exceedance of amplitudes of threshold values of measured signals.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of determination of a pipeline run trajectory, detection, geometrisation and ranging of defects of metal and insulation.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: essence of the invention consists in use of a new navigation system including a sensor unit that consists of two groups. Each group includes three single-component sensors; besides, similar axes of sensors are parallel while axes of sensors of each of the groups are orthogonal; besides, axes of two sensors in each of the groups are parallel to each other and to direction of movement and located in horizontal plane. Measurement of components of a variable magnetic field is performed continuously; angles of rotation and inclination of the sensor unit, as well as a value of offset of the sensor unit from a projection of pipeline axis are calculated based on measured components. Commands to the operator are supplied in the form of voice instructions using the language with which the operator is familiar based on comparison of signals corresponding to angles of rotation and inclination, as well as values of offsets as per the pre-determined threshold values of those signals. Information on technical state of the pipeline is received based on ratios of orthogonal components measured along horizontal and vertical axes of each of the groups.
EFFECT: improving accuracy of a routing method; reducing power consumption of the device and increasing labour intensity of the operator at use of the proposed method and device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to railway transport and can be used for control over mounted axle conditions in motion. In compliance with this method, after wheel 9 runs on rail joint 4 circular wave stars propagating over wheel 9 to produce acoustic wave to be emitted therefrom and recorded by converter 1. Said converter converts acoustic wave into electric signal. In the absence of cracks signal duration and frequency will have a definite magnitude. In case there are cracks in said wheel said parameters, that is duration and frequency decrease to indicate inadmissibility of further use of said wheel. Then, wheel 9 rolls on section 5 its length in this case being equal to half the circumference of the wheel whereat acoustic pickups check the section surface for tread quality.
EFFECT: simplified design, better check quality, lower power consumption.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: controlled object is magnetised with permanent magnetic field, the eddy current is excited by the eddy-current converter on the controlled area, the voltage
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and informativity of the control.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: rope 2 moves in a channel 1. A magnetising unit 3 generates magnetic flux partially closed on a section of the rope 2. Local magnetic scattering fields from defects of the rope 2 are converted by a unit 6 of magnetically sensitive measuring elements to electric signals. The same magnetic scattering fields from defects as well as from structural and geometric irregularities of the rope are detected successively over time by magnetically sensitive elements 8 and 9 and are converted to electric signals that are identical on shape and value on outputs of said elements. Control pulses are simultaneously transmitted with given frequency from a pulse generator 14 to control inputs of units 7, 11 and 12. At the moment of arrival of said pulses, instantaneous values of signals from the unit of magnetically sensitive measuring elements 6 are recorded in the memory of a signal processing unit 7, and from the magnetically sensitive elements 8 and 9 in the memory of units 11 and 12 for recording magnetograms. A defectogram of the rope is formed in unit 7 as a result and magnetograms M1 and M2 are formed in units 11 and 12. Magnetrograms M1 and M2 are jointly processed in a magnetogram processing unit 13, enabling to mark the coordinate for the defectogram obtained during the inspection process in units of length.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining coordinates of defects.
SUBSTANCE: Invention relates to railway transport, particularly, to determination of track irregularities and other defects. Propose method consists in defining the level controlled track section of electromagnetic radiation by video control appliances in shifting electromagnetic radiation receiver along said section. Measured level of electromagnetic radiation is used to define track wear and defects. Track image is locked in visible spectrum of electromagnetic radiation in polarisation filter with rotary gating axis and processing of images by estimation of Stocks parameters.
EFFECT: determination of track whatever defects and irregularities by whatever processing means.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: device is used to monitor the deviation from straightness at the surface of the side active face of a rail head in horizontal plane and at the rail head running surface in vertical plane by contactless method. The device for automatic monitoring of rails' welded joint straightness comprises a casing, a mechanical portion, end face panels, contactless location sensors, sensors for contactless measurement of distance to the rail surface and an electronic unit. The mechanical portion consists of locating prisms closed by the end face panels on the outer side, the panels are fitted by cutouts corresponding to the surfaces mating the surfaces to be monitored with built-in magnets being installed between them. Each prism is equipped by backing-up tips contacting with the monitored surfaces. The contactless location sensors interfaced with the electronic unit are set near the tips. In the central casing part between the auxiliary prisms there installed are the sensors for contactless measurement of distance to the rail surface which are interfaced with the electronic unit providing for the display of the nonstraightness at analogue indicators and at a graphic display unit and for the storage of nonstraightness results in a memory block. The invention is also related to the method of using the device.
EFFECT: possibility of getting visualised and reliable information, reduction of time required for monitoring of rails' welded joint straightness.
2 cl, 10 dwg