Automotive wheel or axle drive differential mechanism

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: differential mechanism comprises crankcase (1), main gear, simple differential gear, planetary gearbox and friction control clutch. Main gear consists of drive gear (2) and driven gear (3). Driven gear (3) is composed by planet carrier (4) wherein fitted is said simple differential including planet gears (6, 7). Every planet gear (6, 7) is engaged via shaft (15) with planet gear (9) engaged with epicycle (16) and sun gear (8). Every friction control clutch (10, 11) is composed by the set of clutches. Inner drive drum (13) of friction clutch (10) is rigidly engaged with epicycle (16). Inner drive drum (12) of friction clutch (11) is engaged via hollow shaft (17) with sun gear (8). Every outer drum (14) is composed of a unit shared by gears of every planetary gearbox and fitted on fight or left output shaft of differential mechanism.

EFFECT: redistribution of torques at output shafts ratio defined by vehicle running conditions.

4 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of mechanical transmissions of vehicles or wheeled tractors, in particular to mechanical differential with adjustable during movement redistribution of torque between the output shafts depending on the loads on the elements of the propulsion - wheel or bridges, as well as from their interaction with the supporting surface.

Known constructions of symmetric cylindrical differentials, representing the elements of the two planetary gear sets in the form of a spur sun gear and their satellites, related inside-walked between the rows in pairs with permanent engagement [1].

The main disadvantage of these differentials is that on the surface with different coefficients of coupling (e.g., ice - asphalt) due to the symmetry of the distributed torque is the slipping of the propulsion element, which has a excessive the power. To improve the efficiency of the propulsion elements, retaining good coupling quality transmissions with symmetric differentials commonly used system of exchange rate stabilization ESP, which is based on the reduction of tractive effort by partial inhibition of slipping of the wheels, however, it reduces the total tractive effort. Are also symmetrical cilindric the ski differentials with partial or full self-locking (ongoing, for example, due to friction ends of their helical satellites on housing-led), which does not allow to fully realize the torque applied from the power plant, leads to the deterioration of the drivability, and the circulation of power in the transmission, thereby reducing its efficiency.

The closest device to the claimed invention to the technical essence and the achieved result is adopted as the prototype of the differential mechanism of the type DPC (Dynamic Performance Control) BMW managed electronically forced redistribution of torque between the wheels having a different degree of traction.

The differential mechanism includes accommodated in the crankcase and the main transmission, made in the form of leading and driven toothed gears. This driven gear is made in the form of a housing-led placed in him by satellites attached to the spider of the differential and being in mesh with the gear output shaft. With body-planet carrier to the left and to the right is bonded sun gear belonging planetary gear boxes. Each of the sun gears interacts via its satellite to another satellite in the solar gear. The latter is fixed to the output left or right shaft mechanism. Each of the planetary transmission complemented the clutch control consisting of interacting discs fixed to the inner and outer drums.

Moreover, the inner drum is installed with the possibility of rotation around the output shaft and a sun gear together with their satellites, and the outer one is fixed, as combined with a fixed housing of the crankcase differential mechanism [2].

The main disadvantage of the prototype is that after turning on the external command device any friction coupling is the formation of additional kinematic relationship between the body-planet carrier and output shaft, therefore, the device enters the closed state of the differential mechanism, which instead of two there is only one degree of freedom. With this gear ratio between the output shaft of the differential is fixed regardless of the turning radius of the vehicle. As a result, the circulation of power between the output shafts of the differential, if any, other than settlement, the turning radius even when moving on a horizontal plane. For this reason, the onboard computer must submit a management team with a frequency of 80...100 MS not only friction clutches planetary gearbox, but also the brake mechanisms all other wheels. This causes increased wear of the friction surfaces due to the x almost continuous spinning and also increase the dynamic loads on the transmission and power controls, as compensation for losses caused by the operation of this system is due to the additional increase in engine power. Another disadvantage adopted as a prototype of the device is practically continuous microprocessor control parameters powertrain and brake system by supplying high-frequency pulses, due to the need to ensure that when turning the required average angular speed of each of wheels of the vehicle. And finally, friction couplings, installed in the prototype, not structurally feasible options as absolute differential lock, for example, because of the loss of any wheel in contact with the supporting surface, and a driven mode of operation of the propulsion element, for example, disable the drive axle.

The technical problem solved by the invention is the organization of redistributing torque to the output shafts of the differential mechanism in a ratio determined by the driving conditions of the vehicle without applying the mechanism of additional kinematic relations with its major modes of operation.

The solution of a technical problem is achieved by the fact that the differential mechanism for driving the wheels or axles t is ansporting means, containing housed in the crankcase and the main transmission with leading and driven gears, the latter of which is made in the form of a housing-led, mounted with double-sided pillar on the left and right output shafts of the differential mechanism and containing embedded in it a simple differential, including satellites, and planetary gearbox, with which the housing-led is associated with each output shaft of the mechanism, each of the planetary transmission comprises at least one sun gear mounted on the respective output shaft of the mechanism with satellite, and a friction clutch control, consisting of interacting disks fixed to the inner and outer drums, according to the invention each satellite differential fixed-supported housing-led on its shaft parallel to the shaft of the other satellites and output shafts of the differential mechanism, the shaft of a satellite differential rigidly fixed another satellite, belonging to the respective planetary gearbox and interacting with the sun gear, each planetary gear is further provided with epicycles interacting with its satellite, each of the friction clutch control is executed in the form of Abramoff, the internal drum of one of the friction clutches is rigidly connected to epicycles, and any other internal drum is connected with a gear element of the planetary range of its transmission through the hollow shaft, a coaxial output shaft of the differential mechanism, while each outer drum is made in the form of unit, common to all the gears of each planetary gearbox and fixed to the left or right output shafts of the differential mechanism.

On the solution of a technical problem directed that each planetary gearbox made two with more than two degrees.

On the solution of a technical problem also directed that each planetary gearbox made a multistage process.

On the solution of a technical problem directed that the satellites inside-carrier is made with a certain ratio of the diameters of the pitch circles on the basis of the design features of the vehicle.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the kinematic diagram of the differential mechanism, made in the block with a tapered main gear and identical two-stage planetary gearboxes, designed to redistribute torque between the output shaft and; figure 2 shows the kinematic diagram in the particular case inter-axle differential mechanism, made with a certain ratio of the diameters of the pitch circles of the satellites, in the block with a cylindrical main gear and multi-stage planetary gearbox.

In the drawings (see figures 1 and 2) line shows the kinematic communication satellites located inside the housing-led and designed to transfer torque left and right output shafts of the differential mechanism, similar to the dashes separate friction clutch control, the arrows indicate the main direction of rotation of the input and output shafts, and bearings shown, without specifying the type and seals.

The differential mechanism consists of the following main units and parts. Inside the crankcase 1 oil-filled (see figure 1), located master transmission (in hell. not marked), consisting of leading and driven gears 2 and 3, respectively. Thus the supply of power to the main transmission is performed from the transmission units (damn. not shown). Driven gear 3 and the main transmission is made in the form of a housing-led 4 installed with double-sided pillar on the left and right output shafts 5 of the differential mechanism. Inside-took 4 built a simple cylindrical differe the potential (to hell. not indicated), including satellites 6 and 7. The housing-led 4 is connected to each output shaft 5 to the left or right with planetary gearboxes (to hell. not labeled), each of which is composed of at least one sun gear 8, the satellite 9 and the friction clutch control in the form of a set of couplers, for example, of the dual clutch 10 and 11, each of which consists of interacting discs (to hell. not marked). The sun gear 8 mounted each on a respective left or right output shaft 5, and the friction disks of the clutch control 10 and 11 movably mounted on the inner and outer drums 12, 13 and 14, respectively. Each satellite 6 or 7 rigidly mounted on the shaft 75 in parallel to the other shaft 75 of the other satellites, as well as weekends left or right shaft 5 of the differential mechanism. In addition, on the shaft 15 of each of the satellites 6 or 7 out of the housing-led 4 is rigidly fixed to the other satellite 9 belonging to the respective planetary gearbox and communicate with the corresponding sun gear 8 to the left or right. Each of the planetary transmission is further provided with epicycles 16, which interacts with its satellite 9. One of the inner drum, namely the master drum 13 of the friction clutch 10, is rigidly connected with epic clam 16. Any other internal drum, in this case, is the leading drum 12 of the friction clutch 11 is connected with a toothed element, namely a sun gear 8 of the planetary range of its transmission through the hollow shaft 17. The shaft 17 is installed coaxially to the output shaft 5 of the differential mechanism. At the same time each outer drum 14 is in the form of unit, common to all gears 8 and 16 of each planetary gear box rigidly mounted on the left and right output shafts 5 of the differential mechanism. Described differential mechanism in the initial state is symmetric and contains the main transmission, which is performed as a particular case in the form of a pair of conical and provided with a planetary gear boxes, which are two-stage.

However, this design is technically sound case can contain planetary gearbox, consisting of several planetary alignments, that is, to be a multi-stage with more than two steps (see Fig 2).

Additional planetary alignments have the epitsiklov 18, 19 satellites and the sun gear 20. In addition to the satellites 6 and 7 belong to the actual mechanism is simple differential, as well as satellites 9 main planetary series on the shafts 15 is fixed satellites 19 additional planetary series. Rela is estwenno and the friction clutch 21 controls each of the planetary gears is connected with its leading inner reel 22 through a coaxial shafts 23 with the respective sun gears 20. Similarly the slip clutch 24 control connected with its leading inner reel 25 through a coaxial shafts 26 with epitsiklov 18. The main transmission, as a particular case, is cylindrical.

In another particular case of unbalanced differential mechanism, for example, with a significant difference of the axial load on the front and rear wheels (see figure 2) satellites 6 and 7 can be performed with a certain ratio of the diameters of the pitch circles, based on towing and other differences among different axles of the vehicle. Because of this, the torque is distributed by the differential mechanism at its output shafts will be unbalanced even before the vehicle is in motion.

The operation of the differential mechanism is as follows.

During operation of the differential mechanism torque from the transmission is transmitted through placed in the crankcase 1 driving and driven gears 2 and 3, resulting in a rotation of the housing-led 4 and the elements of a simple differential in it - satellites 6 and 7. Further, in the case of normal road conditions, when the wheels have good traction, satellites 6 and 7 differential, rigidly connected with 9 satellites (see figure 1) two-stage planetary gearboxes through epitsiklov 16, is passed through the clutch is s couplings 10 equal torque on the output shaft 5. When cornering or driving on bumpy terrain thanks to the degrees of freedom for satellites 6 and 7 of the differential and the wheels still movement with different length of the path.

When the lower one of the wheel hitch qualities or provide him the support surface resistance movement (for example, due to falling into a deep hole), the planetary transmission is connected with its output shaft 5, the switches using the friction clutch 11 on the branch associated with the sun gear 8. The torque is transmitted from satellites 9 of the planetary gearbox according to the following chain: through the sun gear 8, the hollow shaft 17, the friction clutch 11 management and further to the output shaft 5. As a result, the satellites 9 one of the output I receive torque through epicycle 16, and similar satellites 9 other option II - through the sun gear 8. Thus, the presence of planetary gearboxes (with the simultaneous inclusion of not more than one of the friction clutches 10 or 11 management programs on each of the outputs I and II) allow you to redistribute torque between the output shafts 5 outputs I and II without overlapping differential mechanism further kinematic relations.

For towing the vehicle, the control system must ensure that not more than one shall nd any friction clutches 10 or 11 of all available differential mechanism. This allows you to put the wheels in slave mode by eliminating the kinematic connection between the pinion 2 and the main transmission output shaft 5.

Partial redistribution of torque between outputs I and II differential mechanism is achieved through partial inclusion, in addition to the two previously included (one for each of the outputs I and II), another friction clutch control (10 or 11). This mechanism becomes in this case the properties of the differential with increased internal friction. This gives a total loss of the differential qualities of the mechanism of smooth torque distribution between outputs I and II in the intervals between fixed values determined by the kinematics of the planetary gears.

With the disengagement of the wheel from the road to the two already worked the hydraulic clutch control system full force connects additional friction clutch control. For example, if it was on a friction clutch 10, moreover, the output shaft 5 is connected, and a friction clutch 11. Thanks to that between the sun gear 8 and epicycles 16 excluded mutual angular offset, and thus stops the rotation of the satellites 9 planetary gearbox with respect to its own axis, in common with the shaft 15. In the driven gear 3 chapters of the first transmission rotates inside a housing-led 4 satellites 6 and 7 ordinary differential as a unit, passing the entire input torque only to the wheel that has kept contact with the road.

Operation also possible, in which all include at least two friction control wheel to one side and disconnected from the transmission all-wheel another. This will result in turning of the vehicle with uncertain radius (when the wheels parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine) due to the turning moment resulting from the tractive force on the connected transmission wheels runner Board and the forces of the resistance movement for the wheels backward. If disconnected from the transmission wheel backward side to completely put the brakes on used wheeled tractors separate scheme braking boards, when connected to the transmission wheels runner aboard the vehicle will rotate with an estimated radius that is close to gauge. When partial braking of the wheels backward side, and for a runner aboard in a partial (in addition to the main) the inclusion of the friction clutch control gears of the differential mechanism is provided by the rotation of abnormal radius.

So, with the help of control systems is possible by implementing the following schemes transmission: disconnected from the power plant output shaft and transfer to another output shaft always the moment input to the differential mechanism; with a given ratio of torque between the output shafts of the differential mechanism and maintaining necessary for the normal functioning of the differential mechanism of additional degrees of freedom; with increased internal friction in the mechanism; with full lock output shafts of the differential mechanism to each other.

The operation of the differential mechanism with adjustable redistribution of torque between the output shafts in the case of multistage gear boxes, consisting of several planetary alignments, i.e. with more than two stages, in a similar way (see figure 2).

Between are covered with ice and dry asphalt ratio of the coefficients of the clutch, as a rule, does not exceed 1:7. If the first planetary number number of teeth is equal to: 69 - for epicycle, 15 for the solar gear and 27 for the satellite, and the second planetary series, respectively - 57, 27 and 15, respectively, under the same Central satellites 6 and 7, the following options of redistribution of torque between the output shafts 5, namely 1:1; 1: 1,42; 1: 1,49; 1: 2,11; 1: 3,24; 1: 4,60; 1: 6,84. This allows traction wheel movers in almost any combination of road conditions, likely by coupling the output qualities, without imposing on the mechanism of additional kinematic relations.

A known design of cars with constructive overload one of the axes. To them, for example, are two-axle vehicles with a cab-over-engine (type UAZ car layout). In this case, it is rational to apply the asymmetric inter-axle differential mechanism, which, for example, transmitting torque to the front axle satellites 7 have a diameter of dividing circles, more than 6 satellites, designed to transfer torque to the rear axle. This allows the vehicle used for the same elements of the planetary gearboxes differential mechanism on the road surface with a stable coupling qualities to redistribute torque between the driving axles in the ratio required for normal loads on them. Then when you change coupling qualities under one of the elements of the thruster has the ability to redistribute torque to balance the load between the axles in the whole range, adjustable differential mechanism.

Thus, the invention allows the redistribution of torque on the output shafts of the differential mechanism in a ratio determined by the driving conditions of the vehicle b is C overlay on the mechanism of additional relationships with its major modes of operation.

Sources of information

1. II Artobolevsky I.I. Mechanisms in modern engineering: a reference guide in 7 volumes. So IV: Timing mechanisms. - 2nd ed., redesigned. - M.: Nauka, 1980, s, the schema mechanism No. 2748.

2. Volodin Century Active differentials for sports cars /Car.- 2011, No. 3, p.63, 3 (prototype).

1. Differential mechanism for driving the wheels or axles of the vehicle containing housed in the crankcase and the main transmission with leading and driven gears, the latter of which is made in the form of a housing-led, mounted with double-sided pillar on the left and right output shafts of the differential mechanism and containing embedded in it a simple differential, including satellites, and planetary gearbox, with which the housing-led is associated with each output shaft of the mechanism, each of the planetary transmission comprises at least one sun gear mounted on the respective output shaft of the mechanism with the satellite, slip clutch Assembly management, consisting of interacting discs fixed to the inner and outer drums, characterized in that each satellite differential fixed-supported housing-led on its shaft parallel to the shaft of the other satellites and output shafts of the differential is about mechanism, on the shaft of a satellite differential rigidly fixed another satellite, belonging to the respective planetary gearbox and interacting with the sun gear, each planetary gear is further provided with epicycles interacting with its satellite, each of the friction clutch control is executed in the form of a set of sleeves, the inner drum of one of the friction clutches is rigidly connected to epicycles, and any other internal drum is connected with a gear element of the planetary range of its transmission through the hollow shaft, a coaxial output shaft of the differential mechanism, while each outer drum is made in the form of unit, common to all the gears of each planetary transmission and rigidly attached to the left or right output shafts of the differential mechanism.

2. The mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the planetary gearbox is made of two stages.

3. The mechanism according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the planetary transmission is performed multistage with more than two degrees.

4. The mechanism according to any one of claims 1 to 3, characterized in that the satellites inside-carrier is made with a certain ratio of the diameters of the pitch circles according to the construction of transport is the means.



 

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