Determination of antioxidant content in aircraft kerosene
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in application of the dependence of kerosene compatibility with rubber upon content of antioxidant therein for determination of antioxidant amount in tested kerosene. Rubber seal ring is used as the rubber specimen in proposed method. Said ring is compressed to 20% of its thickness, placed in tested kerosene to fix compression force continuously during the entire test for determination of compatibility of kerosene with rubber. Compatibility index is calculated by the formula including maximum rubber ring compression force and ring compression force after 3 hours of holding said ring in kerosene at 150°C.
EFFECT: perfected method.
3 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to a method of evaluating performance characteristics of fuels for aircraft gas turbine engines (jet fuel), in particular, to determine the content of antioxidants and can be used in petrochemical, aviation and other industries.
Straight-run jet fuel, such as TS-1, contain natural antioxidants. In the formulation of thermostable jet fuel RT, T-6 and other straight-run component is subjected to hydrogenation and injected into him antioxidant Agidol(2,6-di-tertbutyl-4-METHYLPHENOL) in an amount of 0.003-0,004% wt. with the known effectiveness of inhibition. In mixed jet fuel TS-1 is the decrease in the content of natural antioxidants in the dilution straight unstabilized component of the hydrogenation product in an amount up to 70% (vol.).
Natural antioxidants in virgin jet fuel and Agidol introduced at the plant in the amount of 0.003-0,004% (wt.) in hydrogenated jet fuel (according to documentation) so as to prevent destruction of rubber products (rubber) fuel systems for gas turbine engines (hereinafter CCD), as well as to carry out long-term storage of jet fuel.
During long-term storage, the content of antioxidants in the jet fuel is reduced (as a result of their interaction with free radicals) meant to the th significantly lower than 0,003% (wt.), and the quality of jet fuel for some time can be satisfactory, so you can use them on purpose. This implies the necessity of control over the content of antioxidants in the jet fuel, which will increase the reliability of aircraft operation.
Known methods of chemical, spectral, poligraficheskogo determine the amount of antioxidants in jet fuel (JET Denisov, Kovalev GI. "Oxidation and stabilization of jet fuels), Izd-vo "Chemistry", 1983, p.137). Using these methods, you can determine the number of Agidol concentration should be below 0.01% (wt.), that is unacceptable for jet fuel, because the content of Agidol is 0,003-0,004% (wt.).
There is a method of quantitative determination of Agidol hydrogenated in the jet fuel with acceptable sensitivity of 0.0005% (wt.). The method consists in the oxidation of the sample hydrogenated kerosene without Agidol and samples with different content of Agidol oxygen at 120°C in the presence of initiator oxidation with subsequent measurement of the induction periods for the accumulation of hydroperoxides and applying the values of the induction period of the test jet fuel on the calibration graph constructed in the coordinates of the induction period, the concentration of antioxidants (AS the USSR is the 648905, G01 N 31/00). With acceptable sensitivity Agidol can also be defined in the hydrogenated jet fuel chrome-mass spectrometry.
The main disadvantage of these methods is the inability to determine the number of natural antioxidants in virgin jet fuel. As straight-run jet fuel contain antioxidants in the form of a variety of compounds of different composition, their overall effectiveness can only be assessed through indirect indicators, such as indicator of the compatibility of jet fuel with rubber, used in aircraft turbine engines.
The number of known ways of assessing the compatibility of jet fuel with rubber (A.A. Gureev and other "Qualification, test methods for petroleum fuels), Izd-vo "Chemistry", 1984, p.148).
Closest to the claimed method and used as a prototype is a method of assessing the compatibility of jet fuel with rubber, on which a sealing ring of rubber used in the fuel systems of gas-turbine engine from which previously removed antioxidants, placed in a device for compression of the sealing ring (20% of its thickness), which is then put in an airtight container with the test jet fuel, Then the container is placed in a thermostat heated to 150°C and stabilized at this temperature. The compressing force F1using the sensor measurement efforts to continuously contact aliroot throughout the test and get the dependence of Fj from time τ, then based on this finding the maximum compressing force F1and through τ=4 hours after fixation F1at the same dependencies define the compressing force F2and calculate the value of WI.compatibility tested with jet fuel rubber (Patent No. 2475738, G01 N 33/22).
The disadvantage of this method is the inability to determine the number of antioxidants in the test jet fuel.
The technical result of the invention: expanding the range of controllable parameters of jet fuel without reducing the accuracy requirements determine the compatibility of the test jet fuel with rubber, as well as the application to determine the amount of antioxidants found in jet fuel, the resulting work by the present invention according to the metric compatibility of jet fuel with rubber content of Agidol in kerosene.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the known method of determining the quantity of antioxidants in the jet fuel, including exposure of the test jet fuel at 150°C for at least 3 h in a sealed container in contact with the used in the fuel systems of aircraft GTE sealing rubber ring, from which previously removed is introduced into the rubber in the production of antioxidants and which is compressed by 20% it is olsina, fixation based change efforts Fj compression rings from the test duration T, which fixed the maximum compressing force F1after time τ from the time of fixation of a maximum compression force of F1fix this according to the value of the compression force of F2and taking into account the obtained values of F1and F2calculate the metric compatibility WI.the test jet fuel sample rubber, according to the invention the time interval between the fixing F1and F2take equal 3 h, and the compatibility of jet fuel with a rubber sample calculated by the formula:
where F1- the maximum force of compression of the sealing rubber rings at 150°C, N;
F2the force of the compression rubber sealing ring at 150°C after a period of time τ from the time of fixation of F1N;
τ=3 h time interval between F1and F2,
then determine the amount of antioxidants in the following is ormula:
where K1=0,007, K2=0 for jet fuel, which WI.from 0 to 10 h-1;
K1=0,002, K2=-0,013 for jet fuel, which WI.>10 h-1.
Figure 1 shows the calibration graph of metric compatibility WEreference samples of jet fuel with rubber on the number WithEAgidol in these samples;
figure 2 - dependence "and" compression force of the sealing rubber rings (at 20% deformation in thickness) from the test time and the dependence of the "b" temperature of jet fuel from the time of the test;
figure 3 - block diagram of the installation to determine the amount of antioxidants found in jet fuel.
For implementing the inventive method of determining the quantity of antioxidants in the jet fuel were used installation and a method for estimating the compatibility of jet fuel with rubber (Patent No. 2475738, 001 No. 33/22).
In the development of the claimed method was obtained a single for the various grades of jet fuel (TS-1, RT, etc.) calibration graph (figure 1) depending on the metric compatibility W jet fuel with rubber on the number of Agidol (the most common antioxidant) in these samples.
To obtain a calibration graph was prepared n reference samples (5-6) each jet fuel, cleansing them from antioxidant is by passing a certain amount of each of them (size n×25 cm 3through an adsorption column filled with alumosilicates, activated for 5 hours at 500°C. In each of n-1 samples have introduced a different number of Agidol in the concentration range of 0.001-0,012% (wt.). For each sample, a reference sample was determined indicator Wecompatibility of jet fuel with a rubber o ring.
The calculation of indicator compatibility W jet fuel with rubber applied the formula, as in the prototype, the maximum compressing force F1a rubber o ring and a compressing force F2(figure 2). However, for the calculation of the indicator compatibility W jet fuel with rubber compression force F2according to the proposed formula was determined after 3 hours of exposure rubber rings in jet fuel, and the formula of prototype - 4 hours.
The results of these determinations are given in table 1.
|The results of tests on the effect of the concentration of Agidol in the reference samples of jet fuel at the rate W are compatible with sealing ring|
|The concentration of Agidol in the reference sample Se % (wt.)||
according to the proposed formula
according to the formula prototype
From table 1 it follows that the values of WEcalculated by the proposed formula (column 6) in the concentration range above 0,002% (wt.) - 12,7 N; 12,6 N; 12,9 N differed significantly from the values of Wthe calculated by the formula prototype (column 10) - 5.25-inch H; 7,0 N; 9,0 N. When the concentration of the Agidol fuel 0,002% (wt.) and below this influence is not so great. The results of the tests are given in columns 2 and 10 in table 1, indicate that the formula of the prototype correlation between the concentration of Agidol in the fuel (S) and indicator compatibility WEfuel with sealing ring cannot be set.
On the obtained test results (columns 2 and 6 of table 1) build the calibration graph (figure 1) depending on the metric compatibility WEthe jet fuel with rubber content of AgidolEon the x-axis which caused the value of the metric compatibility WI.(point a) of the tested jet fuel with sealing ring, in which the linear dependence found the point B, then on y-axis was determined by the concentration of the antioxidants tested in the jet fuel. According to the results given in columns 2 and 6 (table 1), correlation (calibration) dependence (Fig 1) consists of two linear sections, which are summarized by the formula:
where K1=0,007, K2=0 for WI.from 0 to 10 h-1and
K1=0,002, K2=-0,013 - when values of WI.>10 h-1.
The formula for the coefficients were entered into a computer program.
An example implementation of the proposed method
Box 2 (figure 3) with the carriage 3 raise on the vertical rack 1A up over thermostat and include thermostat 4 to heat up to 150°C. the test sample of jet fuel RT grade of 25 cm3filtered through a filter of "white ribbon" in glass 8 Cup capacity 150 cm3, which is installed in the tank 7. Between the bottom 15 of the hollow cylinder 12 and the movable platform 19 install sealing rubber ring 20 (certain factory party), from which previously removed antioxidant (introduced in the rubber during manufacture), after which it was stored together with other rings in a fully submerged in stable antioxidant kerosene (for example, TS-1 or RT) no more than 35 days. The container 7 is sealed by a cover 10 with welded thereto a hollow cylinder 12, 15 (and a movable thrust 17 inside it), which connect the nuts 23, 24 to the frame 2 on the rack 1A. Through the window 2A connect the two parts of the split thrust 17 and 17A to transfer forces to the compression of the rubber rings 20 on site loading and measuring the force of compression 29-38, located in box 2. In the control unit 39 includes a system of loading a rubber o ring 20, which monitors the movement of the thrust 17, 17A (up), squeezing a rubber o-ring 20 by 20% tol the ins. The compression ring 20 is carried out before touching the bottom 15 of the cylinder 12 with the platform 19. Thus the electrical circuit between the plate 15 and the platform 19 is closed, which leads to the change of direction of thrust 17, 17A (down). At the time of rejection be fixed compression force of the rubber ring 20 (with the deformation of 20% of its thickness) and the change of the direction of movement of the platform 19 (up). This process is carried out automatically at specified intervals. On the computer screen 41 of the control unit 39 settings are displayed according to: a temperature of jet fuel from the test time and "b" is the compression force of the sealing rubber ring F from the time of the test (figure 2).
Within 10-15 minutes at room temperature (tank 7 is located above thermostat) control the initial value Fnthe compression force of the sealing rubber ring 20. If the initial force of the compression rubber sealing ring (Fn=36 N, point a in figure 2) above the critical values of Fn=20 N (for rings of rubber IRP-1078 d=16 mm, H=2 mm), which is indicative of satisfactory workmanship of this ring, the reaction chamber 7 by means of vertical uprights 1A and the carriage 3 is dipped into the nest thermostat 4, heated to 150°C. otherwise, the test stops and are replacing the ring 20 on the other.
P the least heating of the jet force of the compression rubber sealing ring 20 (with ongoing deformation at 20%) increases, and when the temperature reached 150°C and stabilize this temperature increase efforts compression stops and begins its decline. At this time, monitor the presence of excess pressure in the tank 7 by the pressure gauge 14. In his absence the test stop, eliminate leakage of the tank 7, and then repeat the test with another ring 20.
The time to reach maximum values of the compression force of F1=70 N rings (point C on the dependence of "a", figure 2) is fixed with the help of a special program, embedded in the system unit of the computer 40. 3 hours after reaching the maximum value of F1=70 H is automatically fixed the force of the compression ring F2=50 N (point D on the dependence of "a" of figure 2), then on the computer monitor displays the values of Fn=36 N, F1=70 N, F2=50 N, and WI.=9,51 h-1and C=0,00646% (wt.), disables system loading rubber sealing ring 20 and thermostat 4. With vertical racks 1A and the carriage 3, the reaction container 7 is removed from thermostat 4.
Table 2 shows the results of determination of the amount of natural antioxidants in virgin and mixed jet fuel claimed process, as well as Agidol hydrogenated in the jet fuel of the claimed method and chrome-mass spectrometer Varian.
From re is Ulatov, presented in table 2 (columns 7 and 8, lines 12, 14, 15, 17 and 20) shows that the antioxidant content in jet fuel, obtained by both methods are almost the same.
In table. 3 shows examples of the use of the proposed method to obtain the mixed jet fuel with specified quantities of antioxidants. This was mixed in different proportions of two samples of straight-run jet fuel TS-1 and hydrogenates of jet fuel RT with different concentrations of antioxidants in them. The amount of antioxidants in the samples was determined in advance of the proposed method.
From the results shown in table 3 (column 7, 8), it follows that the resulting mixtures measured concentrations of antioxidants practically coincided with the settlement.
In addition, from table 3 it follows that the introduction of straight-run jet fuel TS-1 70% (vol.) unstabilized hydrogenated component (as permitted by NTD) can lead to mixed jet fuel containing anti-oxidants below regulated NTD level, which increases the probability of failure RTI using them to their destination in the engines.
Thus, the application of the proposed method will help:
- to monitor the amount of antioxidants in the jet fuel in their production is ve, application and storage, which will increase the reliability of aircraft operation;
- optimization of the process of increasing the amount of antioxidants in hydrogenated and mixed jet fuel in their production, which will increase the economic efficiency of this process;
- assessing the effectiveness of promising antioxidants in their design.
The method for determining the number of antioxidants found in jet fuel, including exposure of the test jet fuel at 150°C for at least 3 h in a sealed container in contact with the used in the fuel systems of aircraft GTE sealing rubber ring, from which previously removed is introduced into the rubber in the production of antioxidants and which is compressed to 20% of its thickness, fixing dependencies change efforts Fj compression rings from the test duration, which fixed the maximum compressing force F1after a period of time τ from the time of fixation of a maximum compression force of F1fix this according to the value of the compression force of F2and taking into account the obtained values of F1and F2calculate the metric compatibility WI.the test jet fuel sample rubber, characterized in that the time interval between the fixing F1and F2take equal 3 h, and the compatibility of jet fuel with education the CMA rubber are calculated according to the formula
where F1- the maximum force of compression of the sealing rubber rings at 150°C, N;
F2the force of the compression rubber sealing ring at 150°C after a period of time τ from the time of fixation of F1N;
τ=3 h time interval between F1and F2,
then determine the amount of antioxidants according to the following dependence:
where K1=0,007, K2=0 for jet fuel, which WI.from 0 to 10, 0mm;
K1=0,002, K2=-0,013 for jet fuel, which WI.>and 10.0.
FIELD: blasting operations.
SUBSTANCE: method consists in calculation of a value of a criterion showing increase of volume of explosive gases in comparison to initial charge volume based on fixation of quantity of destructed material in a metal marker plate at end influence on it of a tightly adjacent cylindrical charge of a test liquid explosive with initiation of explosion from the charge end that is opposite in relation to that adjacent to the plate in order to assess k coefficient of polytrope of explosion products as per an equation solved relative to k with further assessment of destructive properties of exploded charge as per the value of the above criterion that is calculated from the specified ratio.
EFFECT: improving assessment informativity and reliability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: to predict disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition, a model is created, which imitates natural processes of hydrothermall and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds. Continuous flow filtration of air and water mix is carried out via a ground coal sample, placed into a quartz reactor with the specified heating mode to temperature not exceeding temperature of coal self-ignition. Then the quartz reactor is cooled down to room temperature, and continuous flow filtration is repeated. The start of sample thermal destruction is fixed by reaction of indicator gas with water-alkaline solution. By the angle of opening of curves corresponding to the first and repeated heating in the chart they determine speed of exothermic reaction behaviour. The time for incubation period of self-ignition is calculated, which is a predictive factor of disposition of mineral coals to self-ignition.
EFFECT: development of a model that imitates natural processes of low temperature hydrothermal and fluidogenic conversion of coals in foci of self-ignition of pit beds.
10 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fuel or air stream is passed at a constant rate through a water separator consisting of multiple cells arranged in series one after the other, formed by a coagulator and a separating grid, and water obtained from separation on a porous partition wall is removed into a settling tank. Pressure in front and behind the partition wall is constantly or periodically measured; information on the pressure measurements is transmitted to an analytical recording unit; hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall is calculated based on the pressure difference; the obtained data are then used to determine the amount of water retained by the porous polyvinyl formal of the coagulator; based on the obtained calibration data on change in hydraulic resistance of the porous partition wall depending on water content in the coagulator and in the fuel stream, and based on said data, the amount of water contained in the fuel is determined. An apparatus for realising the method is also described.
EFFECT: high accuracy and reliability, easy determination.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane (washed resins) is determined according to GOST 1567, and presence of a detergent additive in the motor petrol is determined from the difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. There are no detergent additives in the motor petrol if there is no difference between the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane. Conversely, if a detergent additive was added to the petrol, there is a considerable difference in the amount of resins before and after washing with n-heptane.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of inspecting explosive substances and forensic identification preparations. The method of labelling an explosive substance involves adding a labelling composition to the explosive substance, said composition containing identifiers, the number of which is equal to the number of properties to the labelled. The identifiers used are a mixture of polyorganosiloxanes with different molecular chain lengths, wherein each property matches an identifier in form of a polyorganosiloxane with a corresponding molecular chain length and corresponding "exit time" (retention) on a chromatogram. Thus a "chemical barcode" is formed in the explosive substance, which is read from the chromatrogram based on the principle of the presence or absence of a component at a certain time of its "exit" (retention). The method is suitable for labelling mixed and separate explosive substances, as well as components thereof, for example inorganic oxidants, particularly ammonia nitrate.
EFFECT: method provides high reliability of identifying an explosive substance with a simple process of determining its code.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining resins washed with n-heptane in gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive according to GOST 1567, wherein the gasoline used contains washed resins in amount of at least 5 mg per 100 ml gasoline (e.g. secondary gasoline - catalytic and thermal cracking, viscosity breaking, coking, polymerisation etc, usually with high content of olefin hydrocarbons). The analysed additive is added in amount of 0.03-0.1 wt %. Presence of detergent properties in the analysed additive is determined from the difference in the amount of washed resins in the gasoline before and after adding the analysed additive.
EFFECT: high reliability of determination.
SUBSTANCE: method involves measuring the reaction force of gasification products when burning a sample of solid fuel, armoured on the side surface, wherein the reaction force and time for complete combustion of the sample of solid fuel placed in a constant volume explosion apparatus are measured, at pressure in the range of (0.5-1.5)MPa, generated by an inert gas, e.g. nitrogen or argon, wherein the volume of the explosion apparatus and the mass of the sample are in a given ratio, and the value of the unit pulse of is determined using a calculation formula.
EFFECT: enabling determination of a unit pulse using small fuel samples in laboratory conditions without using large stand equipment and explosion-proof boxes.
SUBSTANCE: method, which is meant for establishing safe application and combat applicability of artillery munitions, involves sample collection by applying filter paper to liquid droplets on the surface of ballistit powder, followed by dissolving the collected sample in acetone or water heated to 80°C, with addition of 10% potassium hydroxide solution after dissolving in acetone or copper hydroxide after dissolving in water and with evaluation of the result from the colour of the solutions in red-violet colour in the first case or light-blue colour in the second case.
EFFECT: rapid confirmation of detection.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: in process of method realisation on the basis of quality parameters of field coal determined at the stage of exploration and process testing, the lower calorific value of this field coals is determined for any condition of fuel according to the specified formula, a curve of coal lower calorific value dependence on moisture and ash content is built, and efficient determination of coal lower calorific value is carried out by readings of operating moisture and ash content with the help of the curve.
EFFECT: simplification and increase of determination efficiency.
3 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: content of monomethyl aniline in motor gasoline is determined using an indicator test agent from colour transition thereof after coming into contact with a sample of the analysed gasoline. The indicator used is 4-methoxybenzenediazonium tetrafluoroborate which is deposited on a solid support. The indicator test agent used is either reagent test paper, the solid-phase support-base used being rapid test paper, wherein content of monomethyl aniline is determined from change in colour of the paper from white to pink, light-red, red or maroon, or an indicator tube, the solid-phase filler-base used being silicon dioxide, and content of monomethyl aniline is determined from the length of the dark-red coloured area of the tube.
EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy and simple analysis.
2 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: testing technology.
SUBSTANCE: centrifugal unit comprises a base, the first rotary drive with a shaft mounted on it, the first rotation platform fixed to the shaft of the first rotary drive, and the second rotary drive with a shaft, perpendicular to the shaft of the first rotary drive, mounted on the first platform, the third rotary drive with a shaft, perpendicular to the shaft of the second rotary drive, and a chamber for placing the sample, connected to the shaft of the third rotary drive. The centrifugal unit is additionally provided with a second rotation platform mounted on the shaft of the second rotary drive, at that the third rotary drive with a shaft is placed on the second platform.
EFFECT: increase in the amount of information in studies of the influence of mass forces on energy exchange during deformation and destruction of materials and products by providing tests while simultaneous loading the sample with three centrifugal loads with independent regulation of the values of these loads.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: centrifugal plant comprises a base, a platform installed on the base with a drive of rotation, a passive grip for the sample fixed on the platform, an active grip of the sample, a centrifugal weight, connected with the active grip, and electromagnets for interaction with the centrifugal weight by number of peaks in the cycle. The centrifugal plant is additionally equipped with the second platform installed on the base coaxially to the first platform, and a drive of rotation of the second platform. Electromagnets are fixed on the second platform, and their location on the second platform is defined by directions of sample bend in peaks.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities of centrifugal plants by provision of cyclic tests when the sample is loaded by both centrifugal and mechanical loads and simultaneously centrifugal and mechanical loads as values are regulated and loads are compared in process of testing.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: sample is stretched, deformation is recorded, as well as minimum diameter of the sample, longitudinal radius of the neck, using which they then define dependence of true stress on extent of true deformations by calculations, they determine true stresses corrected by impact of complex stressed condition by adding a correction coefficient of stress reduction and build a corrected true diagram of deformation. They detect maximum true deformation during rupture with account of impact of stiffness of stressed condition in the sample neck at the moment of rupture. They define the index of deformation strengthening by calculation-graphic method according to true diagram of deformation at the moment of sample rupture, and maximum true stresses are found with account of the produced value of the index of deformation strengthening, degree approximation of the true deformation diagram, maximum deformation, true stresses and deformations at the moment of sample rupture.
EFFECT: simplified method to define maximum true stresses and deformations due to exclusion of complicated procedures of multiple turning of a neck with preservation of validity of produced results.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of mechanics of structures and materials and may be used in testing of samples of thin-walled flat power elements of structures of aircrafts, machines, etc. Substance: a sample is fixed in grips, deformed by compression, the critical force is recorded. Deformation by compression is carried out as a one-axis compression of the plate with the specified permanent speed of movement of the active grip ("hard" loading). The form of the balance condition of the sample is recorded with the help of photography with the specified time interval, they build a diagram of deformation in coordinates "plate sag - time", which has two specific linear sections of flat and curved balance conditions, they find a point of variation of the form of balance condition of the sample, which determines the critical force.
EFFECT: possibility to test thin plates for stability during compression with use of standard rupture machines without use of additional unique equipment.
FIELD: testing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: concrete sample-cylinder is manufactured, and it is tested for compression by application of a damaging load to side surface of the sample at two diametrically arranged sides until breaking with subsequent strength calculation. When testing the sample, the damaging load is applied to the side surface of the sample in two diametrically arranged points by means of installation at two sides perpendicularly to the axis of the sample of cylindrical gaskets with diameter commensurate to the sample diameter.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness and higher accuracy of tests.
FIELD: physics, testing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to test engineering and robustness tests. The centrifugal apparatus for testing samples has a base, a platform mounted in said base, having a rotary drive, a shaft mounted on the platform perpendicular to its axis capable of rotating together with the platform, a mechanism for rotating the shaft around its axis and a chamber mounted at the end of the shaft. The chamber houses sample catchers, the pair of which is mounted coaxially with the shaft and one of which is mounted on the shaft, and the rest of the catchers, the number of which is equal to the number of load axes, are mounted in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the shaft. The apparatus has guides, the number of which is equal to the number of load axes. Each guide has loads, the number of which is equal to loading steps on the corresponding loading axis, and electromagnetic latching mechanisms for series connection of loads with each other and with the corresponding catchers.
EFFECT: conducting tests in new conditions with independent change of levels and modes of changing loads on different directions with a controlled number and mutual orientation of loading directions during tests.
FIELD: test equipment.
SUBSTANCE: test bench of energy interchange at destruction includes a housing, specimen grips installed on it, a loading mechanism including two flexible tie-rods connected on one of their ends to the grips, a rotary actuator, a load fluctuation exciter installed on the rotary actuator shaft and located between tie-rods, and a tension mechanism connected to the other end of flexible tie-rods. The bench is equipped with a platform and a platform movement actuator. The rotary actuator is arranged on the platform; the movement actuator is made so that it provides movement of the rotary actuator along the shaft axis. The load fluctuation exciter is made in the form of a triangle, the base of which is fixed on the rotary actuator shaft, and height is directed along the shaft axis. Flexible tie-rods have a displacement limit stop in the platform movement direction.
EFFECT: performance of tests under new conditions: at transitions from cyclic loadings with smooth control of cycle amplitude to constant long-acting or step-by-step changed loads, as well as to subsequently changing loads at arbitrary alternation of loading types during tests without any specimen unloading.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for mechanical testing of pipes includes flattening of a pipe sample between two flat rigid parallel planes with permanent speed, determination of extent of plasticity and deformation of the sample by compression until the first crack appears in it. At the same time the sample is deformed with registration of acoustic emission signals by the sensor of acoustic emission fixed on the sample. The moment of crack formation is determined by sharp increase of the acoustic emission signal, according to which the extent of plasticity is determined, as well as the sample plasticity stock as relative exceeding of sample plasticity of the previously established limits.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of measurements.
FIELD: fire-fighting facilities.
SUBSTANCE: in testing of stationary escape ladder the telescopic metric stand is used with dial test indicators located between the stair treads, the load on which is due to the pressure of dynamometric springs with creation of the necessary load, and the difference in readings on the metric scale of the stand determines the amount of residual deformation and suitability for further use of the ladder.
EFFECT: reduction of labour intensity during the test, increase in productivity and accuracy of measurements.
SUBSTANCE: device includes a loading device, comprising a metal body connected with a grounded base, a recording system comprising amplifiers, an analogue-to-digital transducer, a computer and screened cables. At the same time the loading device comprises a rock-breaking tool installed on a drilling machine, and a system of axial load supply comprising the following serially connected component: a pulley of axial load feed, a system of blocks and a system for suspension of weights installed on the frame. Also the device comprises a closed circulation system for bottomhole cleaning and cooling of the rock-breaking tool, a recording system comprising a pressure gauge, a phototach, a vibration sensor, a channel for registration of a permanent component of current and a channel for recording of an alternating component of current. The method includes installation of a sample in a clamp, deformation of a sample with the help of a loading device, registration of an arising electromagnet signal with a registration system. At the same time, setting experiment parameters, the initial and final positions of the axial load feed system are marked, accordingly at the start and end of the experiment, a boring pump motor is switched on, power is supplied to a three-phase transformer, from which power is then sent to a motor of a drilling machine, the rock-breaking tool is put in contact with the sample, and the required axial load is set, frequency of rock-breaking tool rotation is fixed by the phototach, pressure of the flushing liquid is recorded with the pressure gauge, plant oscillations are fixed by a vibration sensor, and along the channels for DC and AC the generated electromagnetic radiation is detected.
EFFECT: possibility to imitate loading of a sample with drilling, with variation of the experiment mode, under permanent registration of electromagnetic radiation parameters in process of sample damage, in the form of permanent and alternating components of current, and also the value applied to the load sample.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: testing engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has hydraulic drive which provides reciprocation of the output link, block for control the drive, meter of loading provided with signal converter whose input is connected with the meter, specimen to be tested, passive support, clamps, and rod of hydraulic cylinder.
EFFECT: simplified design.