Raw hydrocarbon hydroconversion method
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the hydroconversion method for raw hydrocarbons in the mix with the circulating part of the hydroconversion vacuum residue by a high-aromatic modifier, dispersion of a catalyst precursor and hydrogen-containing gas which is supplied in the amount of maximum 800 nm3 per 1 m3 of raw material in terms of hydrogen and of minimum the value of chemical hydrogen demand. The above is carried out in a reactor with an internal circular baffle plate which adjoins the reactor top in a pressure tight way and forms axial and circular cavities, and with separation space at the top of the circular cavity. Hydroconversion gas is removed from the separation space, liquid hydroconversion product is removed from the top of the axial cavity, circulating reaction mass is removed from the bottom of the reactor's circular cavity, cooled and delivered for mixing with heated raw liquid-vapour mixture, the temperature of the liquid hydroconversion product is kept close to the upper limit of the hydroconversion temperature range, the temperature of the heated raw mixture and the temperature of the circulating reaction mass are kept close to the lower limit of the hydroconversion temperature range. Hydroconversion products are separated and rectified to isolate light fractions, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue, part of the latter is recirculated, and the balance part is recovered to produce regenerated catalyst precursor.
EFFECT: reduction of power inputs and metal consumption of equipment along with the provision for high yield of light fractions.
1 dwg, 1 ex
The invention relates to a method of hydroperiod (hydroconversion) hydrocarbons, including processes with the removal of heteroatoms without changing the skeleton recycle hydrocarbons, including without cracking on nukiyama hydrocarbons (Hydrotreating), with cracking on nukiyama hydrocarbons (hydrocracking), processes with a change in the structural skeleton of some of the hydrocarbons present in the mixture, without cracking or cracking other hydrocarbons (hydrodeparafinisation) and similar processes carried out in the presence of dispersion of the catalyst is uniformly distributed in the reaction mass, and may find application in the oil industry.
For processes hydroperiod in which chemical transformations of the raw material components are accompanied, as a rule, a considerable amount of heat release, it is important to ensure the process conditions that are close to isothermal in the field of optimal temperatures. Overheating of the reaction mixture leads to increased gas and, as a rule, coxworthy, loss of catalyst activity and reduce the yield of the target products. Ensuring optimal temperature conditions when hydroperiod is a complex technical task.
Known control system, method and apparatus for continuous liquid-phase g is topiramate in U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2411285, C10G 47/00, C10G 45/02, publ. 10.02.2011, which describes a method comprising the use of a reactor with axial input of raw materials, which in steady state running at a given temperature and has an upper zone for gas and the lower zone is much larger for hydrogen dissolved in the mixture of the fluids surrounding the catalyst, these liquid minimize fluctuations mentioned predetermined temperature. The method includes the sequential mixing the liquid hydrocarbon with a liquid diluent and hydrogen to obtain a homogeneous liquid phase mixture, its interaction in the reactor on the surface of the solid catalyst with getting the reacted fluid, excess gaseous hydrogen and light gaseous hydrocarbons, regulation of the liquid level in the reactor by controlling the gas pressure due to changes in the number of added hydrogen and removal of excess gas from the reactor.
The disadvantage of this method is the low speed of hydroperiod due to diffusion limitations in supply of reactants to the surface of the solid catalyst and the removal of reaction products from the surface of a solid catalyst, which leads to the necessity of using low volumetric flow rates of the raw materials (from 0.4 to 1.0 h-1and reactors a large volume of the mA and the metal. High hydraulic resistance of the layer of the solid catalyst inherent reactors with axial input of raw materials, leads to the necessity of using granules of the catalyst is large, which further reduces the active surface of the catalyst, increases the diffusion resistance, reduces the activity of the catalyst and the rate of the process, further increasing the volume and intensity of the reactor.
Closest to the claimed invention to the technical nature of the way hydroconversion heavy hydrocarbons [C. Hajiyev, X. Kadiev. The future of deep processing of oil: made in Russia. The Chemical Journal. 2009, No. 9, p.35 (http://tcj.ru/2009/9/Inhs.pdf)], which includes heating to a temperature of hydroconversion in the interval 435-450°C raw material mixture obtained by serial dilution of the raw material with the circulating part of the vacuum residue of hydroconversion, reference to ha modifier, ultrafine emulsion of an aqueous solution of precursor of the catalyst in raw materials (dispersion of the catalyst precursor) and with part of the hydrogen-containing gas, 've got a hydro conversion of the raw mix in a capacitive reactor without the interface, the height of which serves parts of the remaining amount of the hydrogen-containing gas for cooling the reaction mass. Products hydroconversion withdrawn from the reactor, mixed with cold n the current light vacuum gas oil and subjected to separation and fractionation emitting circulating stream of hydrogen containing gas, light fractions, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue, part of which is recycled, and the carrying portion disposed to receive the regenerated catalyst precursor.
The main disadvantage of this method is the temperature in the reactor at an optimal temperature of hydroconversion, which in reactors industrial size cannot provide a predetermined depth of the conversion of raw materials and there is an increased gas and coke formation, which reduces the yield of light fractions.
In addition, to reduce the temperature in the reactor is required to apply 800-1500 nm3hydrogen for 1 m3raw materials that are 3-6 times greater than its chemical consumption. Circulation and cleaning of the large volume of circulating hydrogen gas requires high energy consumption and the use of bulky equipment.
The objective of the invention is the reduction of energy consumption and metal consumption of the equipment while ensuring a high yield of light fractions.
The technical result that can be obtained by carrying out the method:
- reducing energy consumption and metal consumption of the equipment by reducing the supply of hydrogen containing gas and reducing the amount of equipment
- ensuring a high yield of light fractions due to optimal temperature conditions in the reactor.
Specified technical is such a result is achieved by in a certain way through hydroconversion in capacitive reactor heated to a temperature of hydroconversion raw material mixture obtained by mixing the raw material with the circulating part of the vacuum residue of hydroconversion, reference to ha modifier dispersion of the catalyst precursor and a hydrogen-containing gas separation and fractionation products hydroconversion emitting light fractions, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue, part of which is recycled, and the carrying portion disposed to receive the regenerated catalyst precursor, a feature is that
the heated feed mixture is additionally mixed with pre-cooled circulating reaction mass,
the've got a hydro conversion is carried out in a reactor with an inner annular wall, hermetically attached to the top of the reactor and forming axial and annular cavity, and a separation space at the top of the ring cavity,
this separation of space derive gas hydroconversion, from the top of the axial cavity output liquid product hydroconversion, from the bottom of the annular cavity of the reactor output circulating reaction mass which is cooled and fed to the mixing with the heated raw material of the liquid-vapor mixture,
as the temperature of the liquid product hydroconversion support the side close to the upper limit of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, the temperature of the heated raw material mixture, and the temperature of the circulating reaction mass support close to the lower boundary of the temperature interval of hydroconversion,
in addition, the hydrogen-containing gas is fed in an amount of not more than 800 nm31 m3raw materials based on hydrogen and not less chemical consumption of hydrogen.
Additional mixing of the heated raw mix with pre-cooled circulating reaction mass can reduce the temperature of the raw mix to the lower limit of the interval of temperature hydroconversion, to dissolve a larger amount of hydrogen in the reaction mass, thereby reducing the diffusion resistance of the process of hydroconversion and increase its speed. The circulating cooling of the reaction mixture allows to obtain energy, high-pressure steam and use it, for example, to drive the dynamic of the equipment, thereby reducing energy costs.
The implementation of hydroconversion in the reactor with an inner annular wall, hermetically attached to the top of the reactor and forming axial and annular cavity, and a separation space at the top of the ring cavity, allows for the two reactor cavity, the annular cavity is the main part of the process of hydroconversion, and in the axial cavity of origin Taiwan is the CIO chemical transformation of residual hydrogen, dissolved in the liquid product hydroconversion output from the reactor, and thereby reduce the loss of hydrogen.
The presence in the reactor of the separation space allows the reactor to additionally perform the function of the hot separator, thereby to prevent its use and to reduce the metal content.
The temperature of the liquid product hydroconversion output from the reactor, close to the upper limit of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, allows to increase the output of gasoline, diesel fractions and reduce the formation of coke while maintaining the high speed of the process.
The temperature of the heated raw material mixture, and the temperature of the circulating reaction mass close to the lower boundary of the temperature interval of hydroconversion allows you to maintain optimum temperature of hydroconversion throughout the reactor volume.
The flow of hydrogen containing gas in an amount of not more than 800 nm31 m3raw materials in the calculation of the hydrogen reduces the energy consumption for circulation and reduce the metal content.
When implementing hydroconversion heated feed mixture (I)containing raw materials, reference to ha modifier, part of the vacuum residue of hydroconversion, the aqueous dispersion of the catalyst and the hydrogen-containing gas is mixed with recirculating R the promotional weight of (II), pre-cooled, for example, in the heat exchanger 1, and at a temperature close to the lower limit of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, served in a capacitive reactor 2 below the separation space 3. Gas hydroconversion (III) is removed from the separation space 3 located in the annular cavity 4, and processed in a known manner. Liquid product hydroconversion (IV) is removed from the top of the axial cavity 5 at a temperature close to the upper limit of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, and processed in a known manner. Circulating reaction mass of (II) is removed from the bottom of the annular cavity 4 of the reactor 2 and serves for mixing with the raw material mixture (I) (1).
The invention is illustrated by the following example.
The heated feed mixture (100 wt.%), containing 62% by weight. (hereinafter,% wt. per raw mix) straight-run fuel oil Oreshkova NGM (density at 20°C 920 kg/m3the pour point of 0°C, the sulfur content of 0.68% wt.), 30% wt. heavy gas oil of hydroconversion as a reference to ha modifier, 8% of vacuum residue of hydroconversion, stabilized with surfactant dispersion of molybdenum containing catalyst (0.03% of the raw mixture per Mo), is mixed with a hydrogen-containing gas supplied in the amount of 400 nm3/m3MAZ is one mixed reaction mass hydroconversion supplied in the ratio of 4:1 to the raw material mixture, and a temperature of 435°C served in the capacitive reactor, which is at a pressure of 6.5 MPa and a feed rate of the raw material mixture, 2.5 h-1in the calculation of the oil perform've got a hydro conversion of the raw material mixture with the receipt of 6.9% wt. gas and 95.5% wt. liquid product from which emit 82,6% wt. distillate fractions, wikipaedia at temperatures below 560°C and 12.9% wt. vacuum residue >560°C, 8% wt. which recycle in the raw mixture. Of gas into the circulating hydrogen gas, sour gas and 5.7 wt.%. hydrocarbon gas. From distillate fractions allocate 30% wt. heavy gas oil of hydroconversion and 52.6% wt. the amount of light fractions.
The degree of conversion of fuel oil amounted to about 92%, the yield of light fractions to 85%.
From this example it follows that the proposed method allows to process heavy hydrocarbon feedstock with a high conversion and a high yield of light fractions at low supply hydrogen-containing gas.
The proposed method can find application in the oil industry.
How hydroconversion heavy hydrocarbons, comprising've got a hydro conversion in a capacitive reactor heated to a temperature of hydroconversion raw material mixture obtained by mixing the raw material with the circulating part of the vacuum residue guy is reconversion, reference to ha modifier dispersion of the catalyst precursor and a hydrogen-containing gas separation and fractionation products hydroconversion emitting light fractions, heavy gas oil and vacuum residue, part of which is recycled, and the carrying portion disposed to receive the regenerated catalyst precursor, wherein the heated feed mixture is additionally mixed with pre-cooled circulating reaction mass, 've got a hydro conversion is carried out in a reactor with an inner annular wall, hermetically attached to the top of the reactor and forming axial and annular cavity, and a separation space at the top of the annular cavity of the separation space of the output gas hydroconversion, from the top of the axial cavity output liquid product hydroconversion, from the bottom of the annular cavity of the reactor output circulating reaction mass which is cooled and fed to the mixing with the heated raw material of the liquid-vapor mixture, and the temperature of the liquid product hydroconversion support close to the upper limit of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, the temperature of the heated raw material mixture, and the temperature of the circulating reaction mass support close to the lower boundary of the temperature interval of hydroconversion, in addition, water is odatabase the gas is fed in an amount of not more than 800 nm 31 m3raw materials based on hydrogen and not less chemical consumption of hydrogen.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of fuel for jet engines from kerosene stock. Proposed method comprises hydrofining of kerosene stock with freezing point interval of 163-302°C (325-575°F) over hydrofining catalyst under conditions of hydrofining. This allows getting hydrofined kerosene stock. Besides, it includes dewaxing of, in fact, all hydrofined kerosene stock over catalyst including 1-D molecular sieve with ten rings under conditions of dewaxing to get water-dewaxed kerosene stock. Also, it includes fractionating of water-dewaxed kerosene stock to get fuel for jet engines.
EFFECT: higher yield, better properties.
10 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: initial hydrocarbon raw material is initially separated and first part of initial raw material is introduced into first zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating, and obtained as a result output flow is introduced into second zone of dehydration reaction, which functions without oxidation re-heating. Obtained as a result output flow from second zone of dehydration reaction, together with second part of initial raw material is introduced into third zone of dehydration reaction, which functions with oxidation re-heating.
EFFECT: increased method productivity.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is referred to method of production of high-octane petrol and includes fractionation of hydrotreated naphtha into light and heave fractions; light naphtha isomerisation and heavy naphtha reforming in presence of platinum-containing catalyst with delivery of excessive hydrogen from reforming to isomerisation. Isomerisation is carried out with sulfate-zirconia catalyst with subsequent separation of isomerisate into three fractions: low-boiling fraction, medium fraction containing n-hexane and methylpenthanes and high-boiling fraction; medium fraction is recirculated to isomerisation raw material. By rectification from reformate light and heavy reforming fractions are obtained; heavy fraction is mixed with low- and high-boiling fractions of isomerisate with production of the target product while light fraction of reforming boiling away up to 85-95°C is subjected to hydroisomerisation at 250-300°C in presence of platinum-containing catalyst and obtained hydroisomerisate is delivered to be mixed with isomerisate.
EFFECT: reduction of benzole and aromatic hydrocarbons content in compliance with requirements to modern types of petrol with preservation of integration for reforming and isomerisation processes.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 7 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for hydrocracking a hydrocarbon stream involving the following operations: providing hydrocarbon starting material (12); feeding the hydrocarbon starting material (12) into a hydrofining zone (14) to obtain an output stream (30) of the hydrofining zone; feeding the output stream (30) of the hydrofining zone into a separation zone (16) in order to separate one or more streams of hydrocarbons with a lower boiling point (34, 58, 62, 66) from a stream of liquid hydrocarbons with a higher boiling point (68); inlet of at least a portion of the stream of liquid hydrocarbons with a higher boiling point as material (68) for hydrotreatment without using a considerable amount of hydrocarbons coming from the hydrotreatment zone with an essentially continuous liquid phase; adding hydrogen (70) to the material (68) for hydrotreatment in an amount which is sufficient to maintain essentially liquid-phase conditions; feeding the material (68), mixed with hydrogen, for hydrotreatment into the hydrocracking zone (24) with an essentially continuous liquid phase; and carrying out a reaction for hydrocracking the material (68) for hydrotreatment in the hydrocracking zone (24) with an essentially continuous liquid phase with a hyrocracking catalyst in hydrocracking conditions to obtain an output stream (72) of the hydrocracking zone having a lower boiling point compared to the stream (68) of liquid hydrocarbons with a higher boiling point. The invention also relates to another method for hydrocracking a hydrocarbon stream.
EFFECT: improved characteristics of products, higher conversion.
16 cl, 5 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is described to produce hydrocarbon fractions, which may be used as diesel fuel or as components of diesel fuel, based on a mixture of biological origin, containing ethers of fatty acids, possibly, with a certain amount of free fatty acids, which includes the following stages: 1) hydrodesoxygenation of a mixture of organic origin; 2) hydroisomerisation of a mixture produced at the stage (1), after possible treatment for cleaning; besides, the specified stage of hydroisomerisation is carried out in presence of a catalytic system, which contains the following: a) a carrier of acid nature, including a fully amorphous micro-mesoporous silicon-aluminium oxide, having a mole ratio SiO2/Al2O3 in the range from 30 to 500, the surface area of more than 500 m2/g, volume of pores in the range from 0.3 to 1.3 ml/g, the average diameter of pores below 40 Ǻ, b) a metal component containing one or more metals of group VIII, possibly mixed with one or more metals of the group VIII.
EFFECT: production of a hydrocarbon fraction, which may be applied as diesel fuel or as a component of diesel fuel.
55 cl, 4 tbl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing jet fuel for supersonic aircraft via hydrogenation and subsequent hydrodewaxing of secondary petroleum material in the presence of a hydrogen-containing gas and catalysts, at high temperature and pressure in two hydrogenation reactors and in a hydrodewaxing reactor. The secondary material used is a mixture of gas oils from catalytic cracking and delayed coking in ratio from 90%-10% to 70%-30% and straight-run gas oil is further added in amount of not more than 30 wt % based on the total load of the material, wherein the straight-run gas oil is fed into the top part of the first or second hydrogenation reactor or in different fractions into the top part of the first and second hydrogenation reactors, wherein the hydrogenation reactors are loaded with nickel sulphide - tungsten catalyst, and the hydrodewaxing reactor is 70% loaded with a molybdenum catalyst on a zeolite support, and 30% by a nickel sulphide - tungsten catalyst.
EFFECT: wider range of raw material resources for producing scarce jet fuel for supersonic aircraft, improved technological effectiveness of the process owing to a simple temperature control scheme in the reaction zone and high output of the end jet fuel.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for synthesis of branched olefins, said method involving dehydrogenation of an isoparaffin composition containing 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms on a suitable catalyst. Said isoparaffin composition is obtained via hydroisomerisation a paraffin composition and contains paraffin containing 7-18 carbon atoms. Said paraffins, at least some of their molecules, are branched, where content of branched paraffins in the isoparaffin composition is equal to at least 50% of the weight of the isoparaffin composition. The average number of branches per paraffin molecule is between 0.5 and 2.5 and the branches include methyl and optional ethyl branches. Said branched olefins contain 0.5% or less quaternary aliphatic carbon atoms. Said paraffin composition is obtained using Fischer-Tropsch method. The invention also relates to methods of producing a branched alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon and branched alkylaryl sulphonates including the method described above.
EFFECT: high versatility and cost effectiveness of the method.
7 cl, 19 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: procedure consists in following stages: (a) there is performed hydrocarbon raw stock hydraulic processing by means of gas enriched with hydrogen for production of hydraulically treated output flow containing mixture of fluid and vapour; mixture of fluid and vapour is separated into liquid phase and vapour phase; (b) liquid phase is separated to controlled liquid part and excessive liquid part; (c) vapour phase is connected with excessive liquid part for production of vapour-liquid part; (d) there is extracted fraction containing raw stock for FCC from controlled liquid part and simultaneously there is performed hydro-cracking of vapour-liquid part for production of diesel-containing fraction or there is performed hydro-cracking of controlled liquid part for production of diesel containing fraction and simultaneously there is extracted fraction containing raw stock for FCC from vapour-liquid part. The invention also refers to the device for implementation of the procedure of hydraulic cracking with partial conversion.
EFFECT: production of diesel fuel with ultra-low content of sulphur and substantially better combustibility.
9 cl, 3 ex, 4 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for isomerisation of light gasoline fractions containing C7-C8 paraffin hydrocarbons by extracting the C7-C8 fraction from wide gasoline fractions and bringing said C7-C8 fraction into contact with a catalyst containing a hydrogenating-dehydrogenating component on an oxide support in a hydrogen medium at high temperature and pressure in two reactors, fractionation to obtain a product fraction and a fraction of n-paraffins, monomethyl-substituted paraffins and methylcyclohexane which is recirculated into the gas-raw material mixture. The C7-C8 fraction (raw material) is extracted such that its content of C5-C6 hydrocarbons is equal to 0.1-15 wt %, while that of C8 hydrocarbons is equal to 0.1-20 wt %, by mixing the extracted C7-C8 fraction with hydrogen in molar ratio hydrogen: raw material equal to 0.5-4, with formation of a gas-raw material mixture and feeding said mixture into the first of two series-connected isomerisation reactors at temperature 160-250°C, pressure 1.0-4.0 MPa, and bulk speed for feeding material equal to 1-5 h-1. Quenched hydrogen at 40-60°C is fed into the second reactor, with molar ratio hydrogen: raw material equal to (0.1-1.0):1, and the oxide support is a composition of metal oxides: aAI2O3·bZrO2·cWO3·dTiO2·eMnO2, where weight ratios of the oxides are as follows: a=0.04-0.30; b=0.60-0.90; c=0.05-0.15; d=0.001-0.10; e=0.001-0.01.
EFFECT: obtaining isomerisate with high octane number.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 17 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a fixed layer hydrogen treatment system, as well as methods of improving the existing fixed layer hydrogen treatment systems, involving preconcentration of heavy oil material in one or more suspension-phase reactors using a colloidal or molecular catalyst and further hydrogen treatment of the concentrated material in one or more fixed layer reactors using a supported porous catalyst. The colloidal or molecular catalyst is formed in situ by directly mixing a catalyst precursor composition with heavy oil material and raising temperature of the material to temperature above decomposition point of the catalyst precursor composition. Asphaltene and other hydrocarbon molecules which are in any case are too large for diffusion into pores of the fixed bed catalyst may be impregnated by the colloidal or molecular catalyst. One or more suspension-phase reactors may be made and placed upstream from one or more fixed layer reactors of the existing fixed layer hydrogen treatment system and/or converted from one or more existing fixed layer reactors.
EFFECT: higher conversion level, higher catalyst activity.
78 cl, 6 ex, 5 tbl, 29 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a hydrocracking method of hydrocarbon raw material containing 200 ppm - wt 2% of asphaltenes and/or more than 10 ppm wt of metals. The method involves hydrodemetallisation at least in two reaction zones of periodic action, which contain a hydrodemetallisation catalyst and possibly hydrodenitration; then, hydraulic cleaning to reduce content of organic nitrogen with further hydrocracking in a fixed bed and by a distillation stage.
EFFECT: invention provides a possibility of direct treatment of raw material types containing the amounts considerably exceeding known specifications; those raw material types can be treated individually or in a mixture, thus maintaining durability of a traditional cycle.
18 cl, 4 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves hydrotreatment of material with the boiling point interval of diesel fuel containing at least 500 ppmv of sulphur under conditions which are effective for hydrotreatment and dewaxing of at least part of the hydrotreated material in the presence of a dewaxing catalyst under conditions which are effective for catalytic dewaxing. The dewaxing catalyst includes a molecular sieve having the ratio SiO2:Al2O3 equal to less than 100, and metal oxide binder, and the dewaxing catalyst has the ratio of surface area of zeolite to external surface area of 80:100.
EFFECT: method enables to obtain diesel fuel with improved properties, particularly low clouding point, using a catalyst with high catalytic activity.
15 cl, 6 dwg, 2 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of hydrocarbon stock. Proposed reactor consists of housing with cylindrical shell ring, upper and lower bottoms, axial stock feed pipe arranged at upper or lower bottom, separation zone at reactor upper part, housing lower zone with catalyst basket with stationary bed of pelletised catalyst, reaction product discharge pipe, level and pressure control system and gas discharge pipe atop reactor housing. Reactor accommodates at least one catalyst basket confined by two perforated walls shaped to truncated cone with taper angle of -45° to +45° and dead end walls. Note here that one perforated wall adjoins the shell ring in circle and at least one unit of heat exchange elements is arranged between said perforated walls. Pelletised catalyst is arranged between said heat exchange elements. Extra separation zone and at least one annular or cylindrical bypass to communicate extra and main separation zones are arranged at catalyst basket bottom. In case stock feed pipe is arranged upper bottom, it is provided with vertical pipe extending through catalyst baskets to reactor bottom.
EFFECT: reduced hydraulic resistance, catalyst load and metal input.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hydrodeoxygenation method and catalyst for producing high-quality diesel and petroleum fuel from material which contains oxygen-containing components obtained from renewable organic materials. The method of producing hydrocarbon fuel from renewable biological organic material comprises the following steps: a) forming starting material by combining hydrocarbon fossil fuel with a renewable organic material, where content of the of the renewable organic material is 1-35 vol. %; b) mixing the starting material from step (a) with a hydrogen-rich gas and feeding the combined stream to the hydrodeoxygenation step by contacting said combined stream with a hydrodeoxygenation catalyst, where the hydrodeoxygenation catalyst is a supported Mo catalyst, having Mo content of 0.1-20 wt %, wherein the support is selected from aluminium oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide and combinations thereof, and said support has a bimodal porous structure with pores having diameter greater than 50 nm, which make up at least 2 vol. % of the total pore volume.
EFFECT: reduced coking susceptibility due to low local partial pressure of hydrogen.
14 cl, 4 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: oil raw materials after desalination and dehydration are supplied to a stripping tower, where in process of fractionating partially stripped oil is removed from the tower top and from the tower bottom, and oil is supplied to the main fractionating tower K-2, from where into stripping towers K-3/1, K-3/2, K-3/3 virgin distillates are removed, and then by mixing of a flow from a stripping tower K-3/1 with balance quantity of the flow from the stripping tower K-3/2 a winter diesel fuel is produced, characterised by temperature of boiling start of not below 159°C, with density of 800-815 kg/m3 and content of fractions in it, boiling up to 180°C, not more than 10 wt %, and by mixing of the flow from the stripping tower K-3/3 with the remaining part of the flow from the stripping tower K-3/2, a summer diesel fuel fraction is produced with flash point temperature of more than 55°C and cloud temperature not higher than minus 3°C. Separate hydraulic treatment is carried out on produced virgin fractions of diesel fuels with further additional removal at blocks of stabilisation of light hydrocarbon fractions hydraulic treatment plants, basic fuel is produced by compounding of hydraulically treated virgin fractions of winter diesel fuel and summer diesel fuel at the ratio of components 97-60:3-40 wt %, accordingly, and additionally a depressor-dispersing additive is added into the produced basis fuel in the amount of not more than 150 ppm.
EFFECT: production of winter diesel fuel corresponding in its quality characteristics to European quality standards with minimisation of costs for its production.
1 dwg, 6 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of obtaining winter diesel oil from sulphurous desalted crude oil with the use of oil refining, fractionation distillating within 180 to 300-310°C and 180 to 335-345°C, fraction compounding in certain ratio for obtaining 1 class fuel and 2 class fuel. The mixture is hydrotreated with obtainment of hydrogenation product with sulphur content less than 10 ppm, the depressor-dispersant additive "Dodiflow 5416" is added in quantity of 200-250 ppm.
EFFECT: obtaining of winter diesel oil that meets EURO standards requirements.
1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: gas and oil production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to procedure of de-mercaptanisation of kerosene fractions by contacting raw stock (kerosene fraction) and hydrogen in zone of preliminary treated catalyst of hydro-fining of activity not over 50% of guaranteed nominal activity at temperature 220-240°C, pressure 0.4-1.2 MPa, volume rate of gas-raw stock supply 3.5-7 h-1 and multiplicity hydrogen/raw stock not less, than 4:1 nm3/m3. Also, there is performed preliminary preparation of production of straight-run kerosene fraction by extraction of oil AT or AVT at installations of primary processing by means of rectification with calculated parametres of mode of operation of columns C-1 and C-2. Origin of oil raw stock, qualitative-quantitative fraction-by fraction distribution of mercaptans, straight-run benzene fractions containing maximal amount of mercaptans and a straight-run kerosene fraction are taken in consideration during calculation of the parametres. The kerosene fraction is subjected to process of de-mercaptanisation by contacting a descending flow of mixture of raw stock with hydrogen in a reactor of axial type equipped with a distributor of gas-raw stock mixture of catalyst of hydro-fining.
EFFECT: achieving content of mercaptans in kerosene fraction not over 10 ppm at maintaining initial level of total sulphur; simultaneous reduction of operational expenditures and increased flexibility of process of reactive fuel production.
1 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: oil and gas production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of continuous liquid phase hydraulic processing with implementation of reactor operating under stable mode at specified temperature. The reactor has an upper zone for gas and a considerably larger lower zone for hydrogen dissolved in mixture of liquids surrounding a catalyst. Also, said liquids minimise variations of specified temperature. Total hydrogen required for reactions of hydrofining can be utilised in form of solution due to mixing and/or instantaneous evaporation of hydrogen and refined oil at presence of solvent or thinner wherein solubility of hydrogen is high in comparison with oil crude. Further, solution of oil/thinner/hydrogen is loaded into the reactor of ideal displacement filled with catalyst wherein reaction of oil and hydrogen occurs. Hydrogen added into the reactor can be used for control of level of liquid or for control of pressure in the reactor. Also, the invention refers to the reactor of system for continuous liquid phase hydraulic processing.
EFFECT: big reactors with sprinkled layer can be replaced with considerably smaller reactors due to elimination of hydrogen replenishment; invention improves control temperature in reactor; carburisation of catalyst is practically excluded; formation of light hydrocarbons is decreased.
15 cl, 22 ex, 19 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a method of obtaining middle distillates from a paraffin fraction obtained through Fishcer-Tropsch synthesis using a hydrocracking/hydroisomerisation catalyst which contains at least one hydrogenating-dehydrogenating element selected from a group comprising group VIB and group VIII periodic table elements, 0.01-6% phosphorus as a dopant and a non-zeolite substrate based on aluminium silicate, wherein said aluminium silicate has the following characteristics: 5-95 wt % silicon oxide content, less than 0.03 wt % sodium, total pore volume of 0.45-1.2 ml/g measured using mercury porosimetry,porosity is such that ii) volume of mesopores with diametre of 40-150 Ǻ and average pore diametre of 80-140 Ǻ is 30-80% of the total pore volume measured with mercury porosimetry, ii) volume of macropores with diametre of over 500 Ǻ is 20-70% of the total pore volume measured with mercury porosimetry, specific BET surface area is 100-550 m2/g, the X-ray pattern contains at least main characteristic spectra of at least one of transition aluminium oxide included in the group of alpha, rho, chi, eta, gamma, kappa, theta and delta aluminium oxides.
EFFECT: improved method.
20 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of obtaining high-quality saturated base oil or a base oil component based on hydrocarbons. The method of obtaining a saturated hydrocarbon component for use as petrol, base oil, diesel components and/or solvent fractions involves oligomerisation of starting material which contains one or more components selected from a group comprising carboxylic acids having 4-38 carbon atoms, C4-C38 carboxylic acid esters and C1-C11 alcohols, C4-C38 carboxylic acid anhydrides and C4-C38 alcohols, in the presence of a cationic clay-based catalyst and deoxygenation. The starting material contains at least 50 wt % unsaturated and/or polyunsaturated compounds. The invention also relates to base oil obtained using the method given above, which is distinguished by that the base oil contains at least 90 wt % saturated hydrocarbons, 20-90 % mono-naphthenes, less than 3.0% polycyclic naphthenes, not more than 20 wt % linear parafins and at least 50 wt % saturated hydrocarbons have carbon number value interval not greater than 9 carbon atoms. The base oil is a biological product and has kinematic viscosity at 100°C ranging from 3 cS to 8 Cs.
EFFECT: obtaining saturated base oil which does not contain heteroatoms from biological starting material, which satisfies group III API requirements.
23 cl, 7 ex, 5 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petroleum processing.
SUBSTANCE: catalytic cracking gasoline is first subjected to hydrofining and then separated into light [boiling start -110(150)°C] and heavy [110(150)°C-dry point] fractions. The latter is divided into two streams, one being returned into hydrofining stage to be combined with raw gasoline and the other being compounded with light hydrofined fraction and withdrawn from system as motor gasoline component (sulfur level 0.04-0.1%). Process allows preferably of catalytic cracking gasoline with sulfur level below 0.1% (lack of mercaptan sulfur) with minimum loss in octane number in refined gasoline.
EFFECT: enhanced process efficiency.
3 cl, 3 ex