Washing liquid for fighting sediments and prolongation of service term of heating system pipelines (versions)
SUBSTANCE: claimed washing liquids for heating systems contain either solution of 1-3% citric acid, 0.03-0.05 wt % of hydrochloric acid and 0.05-0.5 wt % of chitosan, modified with isobutyric acid, containing methylpyrazole group (chitosan methyl pyrazolyl isobutyrate - CMPI), or 1-3 wt % of citric acid, 0.1-0.15 wt % of sulfuric acid and 0.05-0.05 wt % of chitosan, modified with isobutyric acid, containing methylpyrazole group (chitosan methyl pyrazolyl isobutyrate - CMPI), water - the remaining part.
EFFECT: effective purification of pipelines, prolongation of service term of heating systems and protection of steel pipelines against corrosion.
The invention relates to the problem of removal of corrosion products and all types of deposits in the piping and heat exchange equipment housing with the use of water recycling systems and can be used in petrochemical, chemical, metallurgical, and industrial power.
The main factor reducing the efficiency of heat supply systems are the deposits of corrosion products and insoluble salts formed on the heat exchanger and pipe surfaces heating systems that affect heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of the system. One of the reasons for deposits is the use of a coolant that does not conform to the rules of technical operation. As shown by sample analyses, sediments are mainly of two types: 1) a mixture of oxides and hydroxides of iron (the main component is magnetite) and 2) the carbonates of divalent metals. Dominated the first type of sediment, the formation of which is facilitated by the presence of dissolved oxygen in the water. Depending on conditions, the main corrosion products of iron are magnetite (Fe3O4or FeO.Fe2O3), hematite (α-Fe2O3), wustite (FeO), goethite (α-FeOOH or Fe2O3.H2O), ferrihydrite (FeOOH.0,4H2O). The second type pending the th most typical for companies, use in heating systems as coolant water with a higher degree of mineralization, mainly coming directly from natural water sources, for which technological feasibility or other reasons make it impossible or impractical the use of deep cleaning by traditional methods. The extended period of operation, and the heating system is calculated on the service life of 25-30 years, leads to a decrease in the efficiency of heat transfer, increase the hydraulic resistance of the system, which leads to additional costs for the transportation of fluid, increased early corrosion of the metal.
Known washing fluid to combat deposits and extend the service life of pipeline heating systems containing zinc complex oxyethylenenitrilo acid (HEDP), maleic acid, polyethylene glycol (PEG-300) and sodium nitrite at the following mass ratio of the components: OEDF - 15-65, Maleic acid - 2-15, PEG-300 - 1-9, NaNO2- 0,5-1 (RF patent No. 2152576, publ. 10.07.2000).
The processing pipeline heating systems this washing liquid is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the concentration of the composition in water ask 50-100 mg/l depending on the number of deposits. Treatment of this water is made within 40 days. Thus dostigaet the reduction of deposits on 85-98 Rel.%. In the second stage, the concentration of the composition in water is 5-7 mg/l and maintained for 1 year.
The disadvantage of this technical solution are of low efficiency and cycle time pipeline cleaning, inapplicability for open heating systems, in which the coolant is supplied to the hot water supply system, as well as corrosion of metal pipes.
Known composition of the drilling fluid containing 15-99 (preferably 75-95) wt.% methanesulfonate (MSA), 0.075-3 wt.% from anti-corrosion agent corresponding 4-[(2-ethyl)amino]-4-occaisionally acid; 0.1 to 5 wt%. chelating agent and/or (d) 0.1 to 10 wt.% non-ionic, anionic surfactants. The process of cleaning the pipes with the use of this drilling fluid provides the output of the pipeline is included acting within 1-2 days, the introduction of drilling fluid into the pipe, passage, repeatedly if necessary, scrape the inside of the pipe and the removal of traces of drilling fluid from the pipe (French Patent No. 2955332, publ. 2011.07.22).
The disadvantage of this technical solution are low cleaning efficiency of the pipelines, the need for mechanical cleaning.
Closest to the proposed technical solution is the flush fluid to the domestic water supply, providing the surface is the increased solubility of iron oxides and zinc oxides and sterilization. The washing liquid inside the supply pipe contains 5-10 wt.% citric acid, 1-10 wt.% oxalic acid, 1-10 wt.% malic acid, 0.1-1 wt.% phosphoric acid, 5-15 wt.% hydrochloric acid, 1-2 wt.% hydrogen peroxide and 0.01 to 0.1 wt.% of ascorbic acid. The solution is prepared by mixing the components with water at room temperature to a total weight of 100 wt.% (see Korea patent No. 100808373, publ. 2008.02.27).
However, this solution represents a complex composition, unstable and destructive effect on the metal of the pipeline.
Common drawbacks of these solutions are increased requirements for disposal of waste reagent, frequent frequency of treatment, longer wash cycle, safety requirements when handling chemicals.
The technical problem solved by the invention is the creation of environmentally safe bactericidal washing liquid pipeline heating systems containing a small number of available components that provide effective cleaning of pipelines, extending the service life of heating systems and the corrosion protection of steel pipelines in operation and corrosion protection the wash liquid, creating a hydrophobic protective film on the inner surface of the pipe, with the expansion of the formation of new sediment and reducing the hydraulic resistance.
To solve this technical problem is offered circulating fluid for heating systems, or solution containing 1-3 wt.% citric acid, 0.03-0.05 wt.% hydrochloric acid and 0.05-0.5 wt.% chitosan, a modified somaclonal acid containing methylpyrazolo group (methylpropylsulfonic chitosan - HEI), or 1-3 wt.% citric acid, 0.1-0.15 wt.% a solution of sulfuric acid and 0.05-0.5 wt.% chitosan, a modified somaclonal acid containing methylpyrazolo group (methylpropylsulfonic chitosan - HMPY).
To obtain the ready to use wash fluid HMPI dissolved in appropriate acid mixtures and prepare a water solution at a concentration of 0.1 wt.%. Wash solution operates at a temperature of 60°C.
An example of using the proposed composition of drilling fluids for heating systems.
To obtain 100 ml of working wash liquid in 80 ml of water was dissolved 1 g of citric acid was added to 100 μl of 34% hydrochloric acid, and then 10 ml of 1% aqueous solution of chitosan methylpropanesulfonate (HMI) and brought the volume of solution to 100 ml with water.
Cut steel pipes, made of steel 3, from the inside of the heating system, Vorkuta, containing 90% iron oxide (calculated as Fe2O3), 2% of silicon oxide and less than 1% calcium carbonate filled made the Noah working the washing liquid and the inside of the tube was stirred solution of 2.5 hours at 60°C. Was filtered and the solution so obtained and determined the concentration of dissolved iron. More than 50% of the sediment was dissolved.
Identical section of pipe, fully cleaned, degreased and weighed to 0.1 mg and placed in a working washing liquid, after 2.5 hours of aging at 60°C pipe section is removed from the washing liquid, washed, dried and re-weighed. The corrosion rate was 0.3 μm/hour.
When placing the same length of pipe, fully cleaned and skimmed placed in a solution containing 80 ml of 1 g of citric acid and 100 µl of 34% hydrochloric acid and brought water to 100 ml (without adding chitosan methylpropanesulfonate (HMPI)), after 2.5 hours of aging at 60°C the corrosion rate was 2 μm/hour.
Use the other option of washing liquid containing sulfuric acid, yields similar results.
We offer options of washing fluid to combat deposits and extend the service life of pipeline heating systems have a bactericidal action, contain small amounts of available components, environmentally safe and provide effective cleaning of pipelines, create a hydrophobic protective film on the inner surface of the pipe, preventing obrazovaniyami deposits, reduce the hydraulic resistance, which prolongs the service life of heating systems and protects against corrosion of steel pipelines in operation from corrosion and the washing liquid in the washing process.
1. The flush fluid for heating systems containing citric and hydrochloric acid, characterized in that it contains a solution of 1-3 wt.% citric acid, 0.03-0.05 wt.% hydrochloric acid and 0.05-0.5 wt.% chitosan, a modified somaclonal acid containing methylpyrazolo group (methylpropylsulfonic chitosan - HEI), the rest is water.
2. The flush fluid for heating systems, containing citric acid, characterized in that it contains 1-3 wt.% citric acid, 0.1-0.15 wt.% a solution of sulfuric acid and 0.05-0.5 wt.% chitosan, a modified somaclonal acid containing methylpyrazolo group (methylpropylsulfonic chitosan - HEI), the rest water.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method is carried out with facilities of maintenance of metal temperature in heat-exchange pipes at the required level in the range of 150-550°C, and also by performance of the process into three stages as gaseous reagents are serially supplied into the gas flow in the following order: carbon dioxide, hydrogen and oxygen.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of treatment and passivation of internal surfaces of heat exchange pipes, increased efficiency of treatment and passivation of internal surfaces of heat exchange pipes, reduced corrosion impact at metal of treated surfaces, possibility to perform treatment and passivation in process of operation of heat exchange devices and devices without their shutdown and cooldown, maintaining the required level of temperature of coolant at the outer side of the surface of cleaned heat exchange pipes.
SUBSTANCE: cleaning method is realised using electric and structured magnetic fields, including: opposing magnetic modulated or non-modulated fields and radial electric modulated or non-modulated fields; closed magnetic fields with a periodic structure along a stream of aqueous medium; magnetic fields which cross at certain angles in the volume of an aqueous medium which is in both stationary and dynamic state, as well as formation of local zones with high concentration of impurities and colloids. This enables to measure physical and chemical properties of the aqueous medium by conducting chemical reactions therein, primarily in dissolved impurities and colloids through resonance electromagnetic-acoustic action aimed at modification of physical and chemical properties thereof, intended to stimulate self-cleaning processes of the aqueous medium. The method is realised using a medium modification system comprising: devices which generate opposing electromagnetic modulated or non-modulated fields along and opposite the flow of the medium and by electrodes lying on the axis of the tube, which generate radial electric modulated or non-modulated fields, a device which generates a closed magnetic field with a periodic structure along the stream of the medium.
EFFECT: invention enables to efficiently clean a heat-exchange surface and significantly cut expenses on use and repair of equipment in which heat exchange takes place.
2 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: at the first step of the method, the container is treated with an alkaline detergent solution containing a complexing agent which forms a soluble complex with iron ions, a reducing agent and a leaching agent, and at the second step, the detergent solution from the first step, which is in the container, is mixed with an additional complexing agent which forms a complex with iron (III) ions which is stable compared to the complexing agent used at the first step, and an oxidant.
EFFECT: method enables to remove deposits containing magnetite and copper from containers of industrial and electrical installations with negligible loss of the basic metal.
23 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of inner surfaces of a cooling system with chemical reagents in the following sequence: thermal imaging of inner surfaces of the cooling system is carried out, it is filled with a solution containing 4.0% of hydrochloric acid, 1.5% of urotropine, 0.5% of magnesium silicate, soaked in the solution for 1.0 hour, while the solution is repeatedly circulated, then the cooling system is washed with water, and the residual solution is neutralised, afterwards the cooling system is filled with a solution (pH - 2.0-3.0), containing 8.8% of orthophosphoric acid, soaked in the solution for 1.0 hour, while repeatedly circulating the solution, then the cooling system is washed, and the residual solution is neutralised, afterwards thermal imaging of cleaning quality is carried out.
EFFECT: reduced time of heat exchange equipment repair.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: system of drainage cleaning for usage with draining system of case consists of cleaning chamber formed with superstructure of cleaning chamber. Additionally the cleaning chamber consists of a drainage section of the cleaning chamber containing a drainage port. The superstructure of the cleaning chamber is connected with external surface of the case containing a drainage channel passing through it. The superstructure of the cleaning chamber envelops the draining channel and a source of cleaning fluid medium communicated downstream with the cleaning chamber and supplying flow of cleaning fluid medium to the cleaning chamber.
EFFECT: raised efficiency of draining channel cleaning, reduced cost, facilitation of continuous drainage of moisture and elimination of erosion defects of components of steam circuit.
2 dwg, 10 cl
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in service in process of routine operation and repair of industrial heat exchange equipment, heating systems of residential buildings and production areas, boilers and refrigerating equipment of various purpose and other thermal power equipment, where water is used as coolant. Device comprises one or two, depending on amount of detergent solutions, replaceable expansion tanks, connected to each other by means of supply, return, connected to equipment, and process pipelines with valves and circulating pumps to form circulating system, and tanks are equipped with exhaust ventilation and foam and sludge trap, as well as reservoir for spent solutions in the form of detachable accumulating reservoir. Device is equipped with heat exchanger with heating system provided with temperature controller, and also reverse system with manometres and is equipped with compressor to supply air into supply pipeline. Supply process pipeline is equipped with ball valve for full drain of aqueous solutions on completion of cleaning. The other version differs by availability of two to four expansion tanks, two heat exchangers with two reverse systems.
EFFECT: expansion of device application range, more efficient removal of silting, expansion of capabilities to use various modes of operation with reagents.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: cleaning plant of water heating systems includes movable device with four capacities installed on it and equipped with upper air valves and lower outlet valves for discharging fouling. The first capacity for preparation of washing liquid is connected via the pump having the electric motor drive powered from generator of means of transport to water heating system of the building and tank of portion supply of washing liquid. The second capacity for receiving dirty liquid from water heating system of the building is equipped with electrodes of physical-electrical water treatment device powered from generator of means of transport, connected to water heating system of the building and the third capacity. The third capacity of accelerated sedimentation of contaminants is connected to the pump inlet of the first capacity. The fourth capacity, as sludge collecting storage tank, through sludge pump with electric motor drive powered from generator of means of transport is connected to outlets of the first, the second and the third capacities. All the capacities are provided with transparent opening for visual inspection of cleaning process. Three of them have lower louvres for separation of clean water and sludge underflow.
EFFECT: increasing mobility and efficiency of cleaning process of water heating system.
SUBSTANCE: device includes water source through flexible delivery hose, return pipeline and tangential tapping connected to the tank intended for water making-up of the system and for preparation of chemical reagent, which includes access hole charging the chemical reagent, inverse cone with mesh, which is installed inside the tank, cone for protecting suction pipeline and pump against deposits. Tank has cone-shaped bottom for storage and discharge of deposits, which is connected to flexible delivery hose for accumulation of deposits, as well as level metre with level indicator, which is connected to the tank and intended for level control. Tank is connected to circulation system including main-line pump, circulation pump, suction, delivery and return pipelines, as well as flushing solution circulation bypass. Main-line pump is intended for filling the flushed system with source water and for supplying water chemical solution to flush the system, and circulation pump performs flushing as per the specified hydraulic mode; at that, the tank outlet through suction pipeline, mud trap, the branch pipe of which is connected to flexible delivery hose for accumulation of deposits, is connected at the suction pipeline to delivery pump whereto electric control panel is connected. Main-line pump through control valve, check valve and delivery pipeline is connected to pressure gauge and to the first reverse inlet intended for changing the flow direction and made in the form of a ring composed of tubes connected to each other with ball valves; at that, the first reverse outlet is connected to pressure gauge and control nut diopter, which is connected through bypass to vertical inlet of mud trap and suction branch pipe, which connected through circulation pump to electric control panel is connected to delivery branch pipe with control valve, connected through flexible delivery hose to heat source inlet, to which electric control panel is connected; at that, heat source outlet is connected to contact thermometre and through flexible delivery hose to the inlet of control valve and check valve, which together with delivery pipeline is connected though flexible delivery hose to pressure gauge and compressor outlet which is connected to electric panel. The second reverse outlet is connected through flexible delivery hose to return pipeline of heat supply system, and the third reverse outlet is connected through flexible delivery hose to supply pipeline of heat supply system; at that, all the pipelines and components of the device are connected to each other with ball valves. Device is made with possibility of being installed on transport facility.
EFFECT: device allows sufficient increasing the flushing efficiency.
FIELD: heat engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering, namely to the technique of chemical descaling of heating surfaces. The effect is obtained by chemical descaling method implying the introduction of the forced circulation of a chemical cleaning solution in the heat exchanging loop; the solution contains hydrochloric acid solution and corrosion inhibitor as well as chrysotile with the following ratio of components, wt %: hydrochloric acid (4-5), corrosion inhibitor (1-2), chrysotile (0.05-0.1), water (remaining part).
EFFECT: invention allows for the creation of a protective film on the cleaned surface which prevents the repeated scale formation.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns hydrodynamic methods of cleaning overall impurities and solid scale layer from inner space of tubes in water-to-air or water-to-water sections or radiators applied in cooling systems of power plants. Method involves vibrodynamic action on the inner surfaces to be cleaned by solid material positioned loosely inside each tube. At the same time a mix of acidic washing solution and quartz sand as abrasive admixture in amount of 15-20% of the total volume is circulating over the heat exchanger tubes in vertical direction. Electromechanical vibrator generates vibration of roller bearing frame carrying heat exchanger, in direction perpendicular to tube axes at 20-40 Hz frequency and vibration amplitude exceeding diametre of width of cleaned tubes in 1.2-1.4 times.
EFFECT: improved cleaning quality.
SUBSTANCE: described is a detergent which contains: an alkali metal hydroxide, sodium metasilicate, dye and water, and additionally oxyethylene diphosphonic acid, a tetrasodium salt of oxyethylene diphosphonic acid, a salt of ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid, citric acid, sodium silicate, a sodium salt of a copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid, alkylated polyglycoside with length of the alkyl chain of C6-C12, a mixture of anionic surfactants, with the following ratio of components, wt %: alkali metal hydroxide 4-12%, oxyethylene diphosphonic acid 0-8%, tetrasodium salt of oxyethylene diphosphonic acid 0-8%, salt of ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid 1-3%, citric acid 2-10%, sodium silicate 0,5-3%, sodium salt of a copolymer of acrylic acid and maleic acid 0-1%, alkylated polyglycoside with length of the alkyl chain of C6-C12, with respect to pure substance 1-6%, mixture of anionic surfactants, which includes a compound of the type RO-(CHR'CHR'-O)nSO3Na, where R is a linear or branched saturated or unsaturated alkyl substitute with backbone chain length of C10-C18, R'=H, CH3, n ranges from 0 to 4 and a compound of the type R"C6H4SO3X, where R" is a linear or branched saturated or unsaturated alkyl substitute with backbone chain length of C6-C12, X-Na, K, H with respect to pure substance 2-10%, dye 0.05-0.5%, water - the balance.
EFFECT: improved quality of contactless washing due to higher foaming capacity.
6 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: industrial detergent contains the following in wt %: surfactant 1.5-1.8, antifoaming agent 0.1-0.2, demulsifying agent 0.4-4.0, corrosion inhibitor 0.001-0.002, alkali 7.0-7.5, active component - the balance. In the disclosed industrial detergent, the surfactant used is a mixture of nonionic surfactants - synthanol and OP-10; the corrosion inhibitor is sodium benzoate; the active component is a mixture of alkali metal salts - sodium carbonate, sodium phosphate and ammonium sulphate.
EFFECT: high detergent power, corrosion resistance and good quality of the zinc coating when cleaning rolled metal products in belts before zinc plating.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial detergents for cleaning and deoiling surfaces from organic contaminants, including petroleum products, lubricants, oils and other liquid hydrocarbons, and can be used in cleaning different metal and non-metal surfaces in petrochemical industry, mechanical engineering, instrument making, transportation, agricultural systems, as well as in inter-operation washing of assemblies and units in any industry. Said detergent composition contains the following, wt %: sodium tripolyphosphate 18-26, trisodium phosphate 19-23, calcined soda 16-21, oxalic acid 4-8, technical borax 4-6, sodium sulphate 9-11, diproxamine 157 8-9, carboxymethyl cellulose 2, synthanol 7-8, alkyl sulphate 1-2, allantoin 1-2, glycerine 0.1, pine rosin 0.01-2, ammonia spirit1-2, HydroChem 110 1-2, HydroChem 140 1-2, casein glue 0.01-2, edible aromatising additives 0.1-0.5.
EFFECT: higher detergent and emulsifying power, low toxicity, wider field of use, use of the universal detergent composition GENS in liquid, gel and powdered form.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an aqueous detergent composition containing the following components in wt %: a) 0.1-15% of at least an alkyl ester carboxylate of formula R-O-(CH2CH2O)m-CH2-COOX (I) b) 0.1-15% of at least one amine oxide of formula c) 0.1 -40% of at least one alkyl ester sulphate type anionic surfactant with a carbon chain containing 10-18 carbon atoms, d) water - up to 100%.
EFFECT: detergent composition with improved foaming and cleaning efficiency.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: detergent for cleaning surfaces contains a nonionic surfactant based on propylene trimers with boiling point higher than 230°C at pressure 760 mm Hg and with pH of the water-alcohol emulsion with concentration of 10 g/dm3 less than 6.0-8.0, characterised by no bursts before the beginning of effervescence, and a petroleum solvent of the paraffin fraction C7-C18, with the following ratio of components in wt %: nonionic surfactant 0.02-0.5, petroleum solvent with a paraffin fraction - the rest. The nonionic surfactant used is Neonol 9-(4-12) or Neonol 9-6, and the petroleum solvent used is a liquid wide-fraction petroleum paraffin. 0.3-7.0 wt % anionic surfactant consisting of a mixture of sodium salts of alkylsulphonic acids is also added to the detergent.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a detergent which is compatible with a wide range of materials, which provides high degree of cleaning by using paraffin solvents of said surfactants, which have demulsifying properties and stabilising capacity and enable to use the use the detergent repeatedly.
5 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: composition contains: a) at least 30 wt % surfactant containing anionic surfactants, nonionic surfactants and soap; b) water, solvent without functional amino groups and mixture thereof in amount ranging from 3 wt % to 30 wt %; c) a functional additive in amount ranging from 5 wt % to 20 wt %, selected from chelates, dirt-repellant polymers, enzymes and mixtures thereof. The weight ratio of the anionic surfactant to the nonionic surfactant ranges from 1.5:1 to 5:1. The amount of the anionic surfactant ranges from 15 wt % to 40 wt %, and the amount of soap ranges from 5 wt % to 30 wt %. The laundry article contains the detergent composition described above and a water-insoluble container directly in contact with said detergent composition, and storing said composition with possibility of its extraction.
EFFECT: concentrated or compact fluid detergent with improved stability, cost effectiveness and distribution during use.
18 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a synthetic detergent for removing complex mineral and organic deposits from metal surfaces, as well as ceramics and glass in food and processing industries. Said detergent contains the following in wt %: hydrochloric acid 10-20, orthophosphoric acid 5-10, sodium salt of oxyethylene diphosphonic acid (Trilon B) 0.5-5, citric acid 0.5-7, urea (carbamide) 0.3-7, alkyldimethylamine oxide 1-5, alkyldimethylbenzyl ammonium chloride (catamin AB) 0.1-5, water - the rest.
EFFECT: low consumption of the detergent and corrosive activity thereof with respect to metals, and wider range of removed dirt.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: composition contains more than 5% anionic surfactant, less than 25% nonionic surfactant, a light-sensitive ingredient and an inorganic mother-of-pearl agent. The light-sensitive ingredient is selected from a group comprising enzymes, dyes, vitamins, aromatising agents and mixtures thereof.
EFFECT: inorganic mother-of-pearl agent improves stability of light-sensitive ingredients in the detergent composition.
20 cl, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: detergent for removing organic contaminants from surfaces contains the following, wt %: sodium metasilicate (Na2SiO3) 15-20, sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10) 10-15, caustic soda (NaOH) 10-15, calcined soda (Na2CO3) 25-30, Na-carboxymethylcellulose 2, neonol AF9-12 2-5, catamin 2, sodium sulphate (Na2SO4) up to 100.
EFFECT: detergent with a complex of physical and chemical properties with low content of phosphates and low risk of environmental pollution while preserving detergent power.
SUBSTANCE: water-based liquid detergent composition contains 0.05-0.4 wt % cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose polymer with degree of substitution of the cationic charge between 0.01 and 0.20; 5-30 wt % surfactant containing at least one anionic surfactant and at least nonionic surfactant; and 2-15 wt % fatty acid. Liquid detergent compositions are used for hand and machine washing of thin fabrics, wherein machine washing is carried out using "careful" washing mode.
EFFECT: improved fabric softening.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: applied is water solution of nitrous acid salt, which is applied on surface of concrete product, quantity of nitrous acid salt in water solution is taken in dose from one to ten moles of nitrous acid salt per one mole of carbamide, and water content in solution from 10 to 90%.
EFFECT: development of fundamentally new and effective method of processing concrete products for purification from carbamide, extension of assortment of means for processing concrete products.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 1 ex